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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 430402 matches for " F. S. Tsung "
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Long Term Evolution of Plasma Wakefields
Aakash A. Sahai,T. C. Katsouleas,F. S. Tsung,W. B. Mori
Physics , 2014,
Abstract: We study the long-term evolution (LTE) of plasma wakefields over multiple plasma-electron periods and few plasma-ion periods, much less than a recombination time. The evolution and relaxation of such a wakefield-perturbed plasma over these timescales has important implications for the upper limits of repetition-rates in plasma colliders. Intense fields in relativistic lasers (or intense beams) create plasma wakefields (modes around {\omega}pe) by transferring energy to the plasma electrons. Charged-particle beams in the right phase may be accelerated with acceleration/focusing gradients of tens of GeV/m. However, wakefields leave behind a plasma not in equilibrium, with a relaxation time of multiple plasma-electron periods. Ion motion over ion timescales, caused by energy transfer from the driven plasma-electrons to the plasma-ions can create interesting plasma states. Eventually during LTE, the dynamics of plasma de-coheres (multiple modes through instability driven mixing), thermalizing into random motion (second law of thermodynamics), dissipating energy away from the wakefields. Wakefield-drivers interacting with such a relativistically hot-plasma lead to plasma wakefields that differ from the wakefields in a cold-plasma.
Relativistically Induced Transparency Acceleration (RITA) of Protons and Light-ions with Ultrashort Laser Interaction with Heavy-ion Plasma Density Gradient
Aakash A. Sahai,F. S. Tsung,A. R. Tableman,W. B. Mori,T. C. Katsouleas
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevE.88.043105
Abstract: The relativistically induced transparency acceleration (RITA) scheme of proton and ion acceleration using laser-plasma interactions is introduced, modeled, and compared to the existing schemes. Protons are accelerated with femtosecond relativistic pulses to produce quasimonoenergetic bunches with controllable peak energy. The RITA scheme works by a relativistic laser inducing transparency to densities higher than the cold-electron critical density, while the background heavy ions are stationary. The rising laser pulse creates a traveling acceleration structure at the relativistic critical density by ponderomotively driving a local electron density inflation, creating an electron snowplow and a co-propagating electrostatic potential. The snowplow advances with a velocity determined by the rate of the rise of the laser's intensity envelope and the heavy-ion-plasma density gradient scale length. The rising laser is incrementally rendered transparent to higher densities such that the relativistic-electron plasma frequency is resonant with the laser frequency. In the snowplow frame, trace density protons reflect off the electrostatic potential and get snowplowed, while the heavier background ions are relatively unperturbed. Quasimonoenergetic bunches of velocity equal to twice the snowplow velocity can be obtained and tuned by controlling the snowplow velocity using laser-plasma parameters. An analytical model for the proton energy as a function of laser intensity, rise time, and plasma density gradient is developed and compared to 1D and 2D PIC OSIRIS simulations. We model the acceleration of protons to GeV energies with tens-of-femtoseconds laser pulses of a few petawatts. The scaling of proton energy with laser power compares favorably to other mechanisms for ultrashort pulses.
Estimation of direct laser acceleration in laser wakefield accelerators using particle-in-cell simulations
J. L. Shaw,N. Lemos,K. A. Marsh,F. S. Tsung,W. B. Mori,C. Joshi
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: Many current laser wakefield acceleration (LWFA) experiments are carried out in a regime where the laser pulse length is on the order of or longer than the wake wavelength and where ionization injection is employed to inject electrons into the wake. In these experiments, the trapped electrons will co-propagate with the longitudinal wakefield and the transverse laser field. In this scenario, the electrons can gain a significant amount of energy from both the direct laser acceleration (DLA) mechanism as well as the usual LWFA mechanism. Particle-in-cell (PIC) codes are frequently used to discern the relative contribution of these two mechanisms. However, if the longitudinal resolution used in the PIC simulations is inadequate, it can produce numerical heating that can overestimate the transverse motion, which is important in determining the energy gain due to DLA. We have therefore carried out a systematic study of this LWFA regime by varying the longitudinal resolution of PIC simulations from the standard, best-practice resolution of 30 points per laser wavelength to four times that value and then examining the energy gain characteristics of both the highest-energy electrons and the bulk electrons. By calculating the contribution of DLA to the final energies of the electrons produced from the LWFA, we find that although the transverse momentum and oscillation radii are over-estimated in the lower-resolution simulations, this over-estimation does not lead to artificial energy gain by DLA. Rather, the DLA contribution to the highest-energy electrons is larger in the higher-resolution cases because the DLA resonance is better maintained. Thus, even at the highest longitudinal resolutions, DLA contributes a significant portion of the energy gained by the highest-energy electrons and also contributes to accelerating the bulk of the charge in the electron beam produced by the LWFA.
Anomalously Hot Electrons due to Rescatter of Stimulated Raman Scattering in the Kinetic Regime
B. J. Winjum,J. E. Fahlen,F. S. Tsung,W. B. Mori
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.165001
Abstract: Using particle-in-cell simulations, we examine hot electron generation from electron plasma waves excited by stimulated Raman scattering and rescattering in the kinetic regime where the wavenumber times the Debye length (k\lambda_D) is greater than 0.3 for backscatter. We find that for laser and plasma conditions of possible relevance to experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF), anomalously energetic electrons can be produced through the interaction of a discrete spectrum of plasma waves generated from SRS (back and forward scatter), rescatter, and the Langmuir decay of the rescatter-generated plasma waves. Electrons are bootstrapped in energy as they propagate into plasma waves with progressively higher phase velocities.
One-to-one direct modeling of experiments and astrophysical scenarios: pushing the envelope on kinetic plasma simulations
R. A. Fonseca,S. F. Martins,L. O. Silva,J. W. Tonge,F. S. Tsung,W. B. Mori
Physics , 2008, DOI: 10.1088/0741-3335/50/12/124034
Abstract: There are many astrophysical and laboratory scenarios where kinetic effects play an important role. These range from astrophysical shocks and plasma shell collisions, to high intensity laser-plasma interactions, with applications to fast ignition and particle acceleration. Further understanding of these scenarios requires detailed numerical modelling, but fully relativistic kinetic codes are computationally intensive, and the goal of one-to-one direct modelling of such scenarios and direct comparison with experimental results is still difficult to achieve. In this paper we discuss the issues involved in performing kinetic plasma simulations of experiments and astrophysical scenarios, focusing on what needs to be achieved for one-to-one direct modeling, and the computational requirements involved. We focus on code efficiency and new algorithms, specifically on parallel scalability issues, namely on dynamic load balancing, and on high-order interpolation and boosted frame simulations to optimize simulation performance. We also discuss the new visualization and data mining tools required for these numerical experiments and recent simulation work illustrating these techniques is also presented.
Generating multi-GeV electron bunches using single stage laser wakefield acceleration in a 3D nonlinear regime
W. Lu,M. Tzoufras,C. Joshi,F. S. Tsung,W. B. Mori,J. Vieira,R. A. Fonseca,L. O. Silva
Physics , 2006, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevSTAB.10.061301
Abstract: The extraordinary ability of space-charge waves in plasmas to accelerate charged particles at gradients that are orders of magnitude greater than in current accelerators has been well documented. We develop a phenomenological framework for Laser WakeField Acceleration (LWFA) in the 3D nonlinear regime, in which the plasma electrons are expelled by the radiation pressure of a short pulse laser, leading to nearly complete blowout. Our theory provides a recipe for designing a LWFA for given laser and plasma parameters and estimates the number and the energy of the accelerated electrons whether self-injected or externally injected. These formulas apply for self-guided as well as externally guided pulses (e.g. by plasma channels). We demonstrate our results by presenting a sample Particle-In-Cell (PIC) simulation of a 30f sec, 200T W laser interacting with a 0.75cm long plasma with density 1.5*10^18 cm^-3 to produce an ultra-short (10f s) mono-energetic bunch of self-injected electrons at 1.5 GeV with 0.3nC of charge. For future higher-energy accelerator applications we propose a parameter space, that is distinct from that described by Gordienko and Pukhov [Physics of Plasmas 12, 043109 (2005)] in that it involves lower densities and wider spot sizes while keeping the intensity relatively constant. We find that this helps increase the output electron beam energy while keeping the efficiency high.
Proton acceleration by a relativistic laser frequency-chirp driven plasma snowplow
Aakash A. Sahai,T. C. Katsouleas,R. A. Bingham,F. S. Tsung,A. R. Tableman,M. Tzoufras,W. B. Mori
Physics , 2014,
Abstract: We analyze the use of a relativistic laser pulse with a controlled frequency chirp incident on a rising plasma density gradient to drive an acceleration structure for proton and light-ion acceleration. The Chirp Induced Transparency Acceleration (ChITA) scheme is described with an analytical model of the velocity of the snowplow at critical density on a pre-formed rising plasma density gradient that is driven by a positive-chirp in the frequency of a relativistic laser pulse. The velocity of the ChITA-snowplow is shown to depend upon rate of rise of the frequency of the relativistic laser pulse represented by $\frac{\epsilon_0}{\theta}$ where, $\epsilon_0 = \frac{\Delta\omega_0}{\omega_0}$ and chirping spatial scale-length, $\theta$, the normalized magnetic vector potential of the laser pulse $a_0$ and the plasma density gradient scale-length, $\alpha$. We observe using 1-D OSIRIS simulations the formation and forward propagation of ChITA-snowplow, being continuously pushed by the chirping laser at a velocity in accordance with the analytical results. The trace protons reflect off of this propagating snowplow structure and accelerate mono-energetically. The control over ChITA-snowplow velocity allows the tuning of accelerated proton energies.
Satisfying the Direct Laser Acceleration Resonance Condition in a Laser Wakefield Accelerator
J. L. Shaw,N. Vafaei-Najafabadi,K. A. Marsh,N. Lemos,F. S. Tsung,W. B Mori,C. Joshi
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: In this proceeding, we show that when the drive laser pulse overlaps the trapped electrons in a laser wakefield accelerator (LWFA), those electrons can gain energy from direct laser acceleration (DLA) over extended distances despite the evolution of both the laser and the wake. Through simulations, the evolution of the properties of both the laser and the electron beam is quantified, and then the resonance condition for DLA is examined in the context of this change. We find that although the electrons produced from the LWFA cannot continuously satisfy the DLA resonance condition, they nevertheless can gain a significant amount of energy from DLA.
Role of direct laser acceleration in energy gained by electrons in a laser wakefield accelerator with ionization injection
J L Shaw,F S Tsung,N Vafaei-Najafabadi,K A Marsh,N Lemos,W B Mori,C Joshi
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1088/0741-3335/56/8/084006
Abstract: We have investigated the role that the transverse electric field of the laser plays in the acceleration of electrons in a laser wakefield accelerator (LWFA) operating in the quasi-blowout regime through particle-in-cell code simulations. In order to ensure that longitudinal compression and/or transverse focusing of the laser pulse is not needed before the wake can self-trap the plasma electrons, we have employed the ionization injection technique. Furthermore, the plasma density is varied such that at the lowest densities, the laser pulse occupies only a fraction of the first wavelength of the wake oscillation (the accelerating bucket), whereas at the highest density, the same duration laser pulse fills the entire first bucket. Although the trapped electrons execute betatron oscillations due to the ion column in all cases, at the lowest plasma density they do not interact with the laser field and the energy gain is all due to the longitudinal wakefield. However, as the density is increased, there can be a significant contribution to the maximum energy due to direct laser acceleration (DLA) of those electrons that undergo betatron motion in the plane of the polarization of the laser pulse. Eventually, DLA can be the dominant energy gain mechanism over acceleration due to the longitudinal field at the highest densities.
Self-modulated laser wakefield accelerators as x-ray sources
N. Lemos,J. L. Martins,F. S. Tsung,J. L. Shaw,K. A. Marsh,F. Albert,B. B. Pollock,C. Joshi
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: The development of a directional, small-divergence, and short-duration picosecond x-ray probe beam with an energy greater than 50 keV is desirable for high energy density science experiments. We therefore explore through particle-in-cell (PIC) computer simulations the possibility of using x-rays radiated by betatron-like motion of electrons from a self-modulated laser wakefield accelerator as a possible candidate to meet this need. Two OSIRIS 2D PIC simulations with mobile ions are presented, one with a normalized vector potential a0 = 1.5 and the other with an a0 = 3. We find that in both cases direct laser acceleration (DLA) is an important additional acceleration mechanism in addition to the longitudinal electric field of the plasma wave. Together these mechanisms produce electrons with a continuous energy spectrum with a maximum energy of 300 MeV for a0 = 3 case and 180 MeV in the a0 = 1.5 case. Forward-directed x-ray radiation with a photon energy up to 100 keV was calculated for the a0 = 3 case and up to 12 keV for the a0 = 1.5 case. The x-ray spectrum can be fitted with a sum of two synchrotron spectra with critical photon energy of 13 and 45 keV for the a0 of 3 and critical photon energy of 0.3 and 1.4 keV for a0 of 1.5 in the plane of polarization of the laser. The full width at half maximum divergence angle of the x-rays was 62 x 1.9 mrad for a0 = 3 and 77 x 3.8 mrad for a0 = 1.5.
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