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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 314977 matches for " F. P. Calaprice "
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Supernova Neutrino Detection in Borexino
L. Cadonati,F. P. Calaprice,M. C. Chen
Physics , 2000, DOI: 10.1016/S0927-6505(01)00129-3
Abstract: We calculated the expected neutrino signal in Borexino from a typical Type II supernova at a distance of 10 kpc. A burst of around 110 events would appear in Borexino within a time interval of about 10 s. Most of these events would come from the reaction channel $\bar{\nu}_e+p\to e^++n$, while about 30 events would be induced by the interaction of the supernova neutrino flux on $^{12}$C in the liquid scintillator. Borexino can clearly distinguish between the neutral-current excitations $^{12}{C}(\nu,\nu')^{12}{C}^*$(15.11 MeV) and the charged-current reactions $^{12}{C}(\nu_e,e^-)^{12}{N}$ and $^{12}{C}(\bar{\nu}_e,e^+)^{12}{B}$, via their distinctive event signatures. The ratio of the charged-current to neutral-current neutrino event rates and their time profiles with respect to each other can provide a handle on supernova and non-standard neutrino physics (mass and flavor oscillations).
Antineutrino Geophysics with Liquid Scintillator Detectors
Casey G. Rothschild,Mark C. Chen,Frank P. Calaprice
Physics , 1997, DOI: 10.1029/98GL50667
Abstract: Detecting the antineutrinos emitted by the decay of radioactive elements in the mantle and crust could provide a direct measurement of the total abundance of uranium and thorium in the Earth. In calculating the antineutrino flux at specific sites, the local geology of the crust and the background from the world's nuclear power reactors are important considerations. Employing a global crustal map, with type and thickness data, and using recent estimates of the uranium and thorium distribution in the Earth, we calculate the antineutrino event rate for two new neutrino detectors. We show that spectral features allow terrestrial antineutrino events to be identified above reactor antineutrino backgrounds and that the uranium and thorium contributions can be separately determined.
Measurement of the specific activity of Ar-39 in natural argon
P. Benetti,F. Calaprice,E. Calligarich,M. Cambiaghi,F. Carbonara,F. Cavanna,A. G. Cocco,F. Di Pompeo,N. Ferrari,G. Fiorillo,C. Galbiati,L. Grandi,G. Mangano,C. Montanari,L. Pandola,A. Rappoldi,G. L. Raselli,M. Roncadelli,M. Rossella,C. Rubbia,R. Santorelli,A. M. Szelc,C. Vignoli,Y. Zhao
Statistics , 2006, DOI: 10.1016/j.nima.2007.01.106
Abstract: We report on the measurement of the specific activity of Ar-39 in natural argon. The measurement was performed with a 2.3-liter two-phase (liquid and gas) argon drift chamber. The detector was developed by the WARP Collaboration as a prototype detector for WIMP Dark Matter searches with argon as a target. The detector was operated for more than two years at Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Italy, at a depth of 3,400 m w.e. The specific activity measured for Ar-39 is 1.01 +/- 0.02(stat) +/- 0.08(syst) Bq per kg of natural Ar.
Oxygen contamination in liquid Argon: combined effects on ionization electron charge and scintillation light
R. Acciarri,M. Antonello,B. Baibussinov,M. Baldo-Ceolin,P. Benetti,F. Calaprice,E. Calligarich,M. Cambiaghi,N. Canci,F. Carbonara,F. Cavanna,S. Centro,A. G. Cocco,F. Di Pompeo,G. Fiorillo,C. Galbiati,V. Gallo,L. Grandi,G. Meng,I. Modena,C. Montanari,O. Palamara,L. Pandola,F. Pietropaolo,G. L. Raselli,M. Roncadelli,M. Rossella,C. Rubbia,E. Segreto,A. M. Szelc,F. Tortorici,S. Ventura,C. Vignoli
Physics , 2008, DOI: 10.1088/1748-0221/5/05/P05003
Abstract: A dedicated test of the effects of Oxygen contamination in liquid Argon has been performed at the INFN-Gran Sasso Laboratory (LNGS, Italy) within the WArP R&D program. Two detectors have been used: the WArP 2.3 lt prototype and a small (0.7 lt) dedicated detector, coupled with a system for the injection of controlled amounts of gaseous Oxygen. Purpose of the test with the 0.7 lt detector is to detect the reduction of the long-lived component lifetime of the Argon scintillation light emission at increasing O2 concentration. Data from the WArP prototype are used for determining the behavior of both the ionization electron lifetime and the scintillation long-lived component lifetime during the O2-purification process activated in closed loop during the acquisition run. The electron lifetime measurements allow to infer the O2 content of the Argon and correlate it with the long-lived scintillation lifetime data. The effect of Oxygen contamination on the scintillation light has been thus measured over a wide range of O2 concentration, spanning from about 10^-3 ppm up to about 10 ppm. The rate constant of the light quenching process induced by Oxygen in LAr has been found to be k'(O2)=0.54+-0.03 micros^-1 ppm^-1.
Effects of Nitrogen contamination in liquid Argon
R. Acciarri,M. Antonello,B. Baibussinov,M. Baldo-Ceolin,P. Benetti,F. Calaprice,E. Calligarich,M. Cambiaghi,N. Canci,F. Carbonara,F. Cavanna,S. Centro,A. G. Cocco,F. Di Pompeo,G. Fiorillo,C. Galbiati,V. Gallo,L. Grandi,G. Meng,I. Modena,C. Montanari,O. Palamara,L. Pandola,F. Pietropaolo,G. L. Raselli,M. Roncadelli,M. Rossella,C. Rubbia,E. Segreto,A. M. Szelc,S. Ventura,C. Vignoli
Physics , 2008, DOI: 10.1088/1748-0221/5/06/P06003
Abstract: A dedicated test of the effects of Nitrogen contamination in liquid Argon has been performed at the INFN-Gran Sasso Laboratory (LNGS, Italy) within the WArP R&D program. A detector has been designed and assembled for this specific task and connected to a system for the injection of controlled amounts of gaseous Nitrogen into the liquid Argon. Purpose of the test is to detect the reduction of the Ar scintillation light emission as a function of the amount of the Nitrogen contaminant injected in the Argon volume. A wide concentration range, spanning from about 10^-1 ppm up to about 10^3 ppm, has been explored. Measurements have been done with electrons in the energy range of minimum ionizing particles (gamma-conversion from radioactive sources). Source spectra at different Nitrogen contaminations are analyzed, showing sensitive reduction of the scintillation yield at increasing concentrations. The rate constant of the light quenching process induced by Nitrogen in liquid Ar has been found to be k(N2)=0.11 micros^-1 ppm^-1. Direct PMT signals acquisition at high time resolution by fast Waveform recording allowed to extract with high precision the main characteristics of the scintillation light emission in pure and contaminated LAr. In particular, the decreasing behavior in lifetime and relative amplitude of the slow component is found to be appreciable from O(1 ppm) of Nitrogen concentrations.
Snowmass CF1 Summary: WIMP Dark Matter Direct Detection
P. Cushman,C. Galbiati,D. N. McKinsey,H. Robertson,T. M. P. Tait,D. Bauer,A. Borgland,B. Cabrera,F. Calaprice,J. Cooley,T. Empl,R. Essig,E. Figueroa-Feliciano,R. Gaitskell,S. Golwala,J. Hall,R. Hill,A. Hime,E. Hoppe,L. Hsu,E. Hungerford,R. Jacobsen,M. Kelsey,R. F. Lang,W. H. Lippincott,B. Loer,S. Luitz,V. Mandic,J. Mardon,J. Maricic,R. Maruyama,R. Mahapatra,H. Nelson,J. Orrell,K. Palladino,E. Pantic,R. Partridge,A. Ryd,T. Saab,B. Sadoulet,R. Schnee,W. Shepherd,A. Sonnenschein,P. Sorensen,M. Szydagis,T. Volansky,M. Witherell,D. Wright,K. Zurek
Physics , 2013,
Abstract: As part of the Snowmass process, the Cosmic Frontier WIMP Direct Detection subgroup (CF1) has drawn on input from the Cosmic Frontier and the broader Particle Physics community to produce this document. The charge to CF1 was (a) to summarize the current status and projected sensitivity of WIMP direct detection experiments worldwide, (b) motivate WIMP dark matter searches over a broad parameter space by examining a spectrum of WIMP models, (c) establish a community consensus on the type of experimental program required to explore that parameter space, and (d) identify the common infrastructure required to practically meet those goals.
Advanced Scintillator Detector Concept (ASDC): A Concept Paper on the Physics Potential of Water-Based Liquid Scintillator
J. R. Alonso,N. Barros,M. Bergevin,A. Bernstein,L. Bignell,E. Blucher,F. Calaprice,J. M. Conrad,F. B. Descamps,M. V. Diwan,D. A. Dwyer,S. T. Dye,A. Elagin,P. Feng,C. Grant,S. Grullon,S. Hans,D. E. Jaffe,S. H. Kettell,J. R. Klein,K. Lande,J. G. Learned,K. B. Luk,J. Maricic,P. Marleau,A. Mastbaum,W. F. McDonough,L. Oberauer,G. D. Orebi Gann,R. Rosero,S. D. Rountree,M. C. Sanchez,M. H. Shaevitz,T. M. Shokair,M. B. Smy,A. Stahl,M. Strait,R. Svoboda,N. Tolich,M. R. Vagins,K. A. van Bibber,B. Viren,R. B. Vogelaar,M. J. Wetstein,L. Winslow,B. Wonsak,E. T. Worcester,M. Wurm,M. Yeh,C. Zhang
Physics , 2014,
Abstract: The recent development of Water-based Liquid Scintillator (WbLS), and the concurrent development of high-efficiency and high-precision-timing light sensors, has opened up the possibility for a new kind of large-scale detector capable of a very broad program of physics. The program would include determination of the neutrino mass hierarchy and observation of CP violation with long-baseline neutrinos, searches for proton decay, ultra-precise solar neutrino measurements, geo- and supernova neutrinos including diffuse supernova antineutrinos, and neutrinoless double beta decay. We outline here the basic requirements of the Advanced Scintillation Detector Concept (ASDC), which combines the use of WbLS, doping with a number of potential isotopes for a range of physics goals, high efficiency and ultra-fast timing photosensors, and a deep underground location. We are considering such a detector at the Long Baseline Neutrino Facility (LBNF) far site, where the ASDC could operate in conjunction with the liquid argon tracking detector proposed by the LBNE collaboration. The goal is the deployment of a 30-100 kiloton-scale detector, the basic elements of which are being developed now in experiments such as WATCHMAN, ANNIE, SNO+, and EGADS.
First Large Scale Production of Low Radioactivity Argon From Underground Sources
H. O. Back,F. Calaprice,C. Condon,E. de Haas,R. Ford,C. Galbiati,A. Goretti,T. Hohman,An. Inanni,B. Loer,D. Montanari,A. Nelson,A. Pocar
Physics , 2012,
Abstract: We report on the first large-scale production of low radioactivity argon from underground gas wells. Low radioactivity argon is of general interest, in particular for the construction of large scale WIMP dark matter searches and detectors of reactor neutrinos for non-proliferation efforts. Atmospheric argon has an activity of about 1 Bq/kg from the decays of 39Ar; the concentration of 39Ar in the underground argon we are collecting is at least a factor of 100 lower than this value. The argon is collected from a stream of gas from a CO2 well in southwestern Colorado with a Vacuum Pressure Swing Adsorption (VPSA) plant. The gas from the well contains argon at a concentration of 400-600 ppm, and the VPSA plant produces an output stream with an argon concentration at the level of 30,000-50,000 ppm (3-5%) in a single pass. This gas is sent for further processing to Fermilab where it is purified by cryogenic distillation. The argon production rate is presently 0.5 kg/day.
Light Yield in DarkSide-10: a Prototype Two-phase Liquid Argon TPC for Dark Matter Searches
T. Alexander,D. Alton,K. Arisaka,H. O. Back,P. Beltrame,J. Benziger,G. Bonfini,A. Brigatti,J. Brodsky,L. Cadonati,F. Calaprice,A. Candela,H. Cao,P. Cavalcante,A. Chavarria,A. Chepurnov,D. Cline,A. G. Cocco,C. Condon,D. D'Angelo,S. Davini,E. De Haas,A. Derbin,G. Di Pietro,I. Dratchnev,D. Durben,A. Empl,A. Etenko,A. Fan,G. Fiorillo,K. Fomenko,F. Gabriele,C. Galbiati,S. Gazzana,C. Ghag,C. Ghiano,A. Goretti,L. Grandi,M. Gromov,M. Guan,C. Guo,G. Guray,E. V. Hungerford,Al. Ianni,An. Ianni,A. Kayunov,K. Keeter,C. Kendziora,S. Kidner,V. Kobychev,G. Koh,D. Korablev,G. Korga,E. Shields,P. Li,B. Loer,P. Lombardi,C. Love,L. Ludhova,L. Lukyanchenko,A. Lund,K. Lung,Y. Ma,I. Machulin,J. Maricic,C. J. Martoff,Y. Meng,E. Meroni,P. D. Meyers,T. Mohayai,D. Montanari,M. Montuschi,P. Mosteiro,B. Mount,V. Muratova,A. Nelson,A. Nemtzow,N. Nurakhov,M. Orsini,F. Ortica,M. Pallavicini,E. Pantic,S. Parmeggiano,R. Parsells,N. Pelliccia,L. Perasso,F. Perfetto,L. Pinsky,A. Pocar,S. Pordes,G. Ranucci,A. Razeto,A. Romani,N. Rossi,P. Saggese,R. Saldanha,C. Salvo,W. Sands,M. Seigar,D. Semenov,M. Skorokhvatov,O. Smirnov,A. Sotnikov,S. Sukhotin,Y. Suvorov,R. Tartaglia,J. Tatarowicz,G. Testera,A. Teymourian,J. Thompson,E. Unzhakov,R. B. Vogelaar,H. Wang,S. Westerdale,M. Wojcik,A. Wright,J. Xu,C. Yang,S. Zavatarelli,M. Zehfus,W. Zhong,G. Zuzel
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1016/j.astropartphys.2013.08.004
Abstract: As part of the DarkSide program of direct dark matter searches using liquid argon TPCs, a prototype detector with an active volume containing 10 kg of liquid argon, DarkSide-10, was built and operated underground in the Gran Sasso National Laboratory in Italy. A critically important parameter for such devices is the scintillation light yield, as photon statistics limits the rejection of electron-recoil backgrounds by pulse shape discrimination. We have measured the light yield of DarkSide-10 using the readily-identifiable full-absorption peaks from gamma ray sources combined with single-photoelectron calibrations using low-occupancy laser pulses. For gamma lines of energies in the range 122-1275 keV, we get consistent light yields averaging 8.887+-0.003(stat)+-0.444(sys) p.e./keVee. With additional purification, the light yield measured at 511 keV increased to 9.142+-0.006(stat) p.e./keVee.
A Prototype Neutron Veto for Dark Matter Detectors
Shawn Westerdale,Emily Shields,Frank Calaprice
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: Neutrons are a particularly dangerous background for direct WIMP dark matter searches; their nuclear recoils with the target nucleus are often indistinguishable from nuclear recoils produced by WIMP-nuclear collisions. In this study, we explore the concept of a liquid scintillator neutron veto detector that would allow direct dark matter detectors to potentially reject neutrons with greater than 99% efficiency. Here we outline the construction and testing of a small prototype detector and the potential implications of this technology for future dark matter detectors.
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