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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 144526 matches for " F. Noto "
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Ecohydrology in Mediterranean areas: a numerical model to describe growing seasons out of phase with precipitations
D. Pumo, F. Viola,L. V. Noto
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences (HESS) & Discussions (HESSD) , 2008,
Abstract: The probabilistic description of soil moisture dynamics is a relatively new topic in hydrology. The most common ecohydrological models start from a stochastic differential equation describing the soil water balance, where the unknown quantity, the soil moisture, depends both on spaces and time. Most of the solutions existing in literature are obtained in a probabilistic framework and under steady-state condition; even if this last condition allows the analytical handling of the problem, it has considerably simplified the same problem by subtracting generalities from it. The steady-state hypothesis, appears perfectly applicable in arid and semiarid climatic areas like those of African's or middle American's savannas, but it seems to be no more valid in areas with Mediterranean climate, where, notoriously, the wet season foregoes the growing season, recharging water into the soil. This moisture stored at the beginning of the growing season (known as soil moisture initial condition) has a great importance, especially for deep-rooted vegetation, by enabling survival in absence of rainfalls during the growing season and, however, keeping the water stress low during the first period of the same season. The aim of this paper is to analyze the soil moisture dynamics using a simple non-steady numerical ecohydrological model. The numerical model here proposed is able to reproduce soil moisture probability density function, obtained analytically in previous studies for different climates and soils in steady-state conditions; consequently it can be used to compute both the soil moisture time-profile and the vegetation static water stress time-profile in non-steady conditions. Here the differences between the steady-analytical and the non-steady numerical probability density functions are analyzed, showing how the proposed numerical model is able to capture the effects of winter recharge on the soil moisture. The dynamic water stress is also numerically evaluated, implicitly taking into account the soil moisture condition at the beginning of the growing season. It is also shown the role of different annual climatic parameterizations on the soil moisture probability density function and on the vegetation water stress evaluation. The proposed model is applied to a case study characteristic of Mediterranean climate: the watershed of Eleuterio in Sicily (Italy).
Ecohydrology in Mediterranean areas: a numerical model to describe growing seasons out of phase with precipitations
D. Pumo,F. Viola,L. V. Noto
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions , 2007,
Abstract: The probabilistic description of soil moisture dynamics is a relatively new topic in hydrology. The most common ecohydrological models start from the soil water balance, a stochastic differential equation where the unknown quantity is the function of the soil moisture, depending both on spaces and time. Most of existing solutions in literature are obtained in a probabilistic framework and under steady-state condition; even if this last condition allows the analytical handling of the problem, it has considerably simplified the problem by subtracting generalities from it. The steady-state hypothesis, used in many ecohydrological works, appears perfectly applicable in arid and semiarid climatic areas like those of African's or middle American's savannas, but it seems to be no more valid in areas with Mediterranean climate, where, notoriously, the wet season foregoes the growing season, thus recharging the soil moisture. This initial condition, especially for deep rooted vegetation, has a great importance by enabling survival in absence of rainfalls during the growing season and, however, keeping the water stress low during its first period. The aim of this paper is to investigate the soil moisture dynamics using a simple non-steady numerical ecohydrological model. The numerical model is able to reproduce soil moisture probability density function, obtained analytically in previous studies for different climate and soil conditions in steady state conditions. The proposed model gives both the soil moisture time-profile and the vegetation static water stress time-profile. From the former it is possible to extract the probability density function of soil-moisture during the whole growing season, while the latter allows the estimation of the vegetation response to the water stress. Here the differences between the analytical and the numerical probability density functions are presented, showing how the numerical model is able to capture the effects of winter recharge on the soil moisture. The dynamic water stress is numerically evaluated, implicitly taking into account the soil moisture condition at the beginning of the growing season. The model proposed here is applied in the forested river basin of the Eleuterio in Sicily (Italy).
O uso de drogas psicotrópicas e a preven??o no Brasil
Noto,Ana Regina; Galduróz,José Carlos F.;
Ciência & Saúde Coletiva , 1999, DOI: 10.1590/S1413-81231999000100012
Abstract: even though the context related to the use of psychotropic drugs in brazil is still somewhat unknown, available studies point to alcohol, tobacco and some psychotropic medications as the most used drugs and as responsible for the highest indexes of problems in our population. however, the increasing consumption of cocaine over the years is unquestionable, as well as the increase of a series of associated problems, including violence. as far as possible interventions in this scenario are concerned, the need for complementary preventive measures has been stressed. although the repressive approach has been highlighted in the last decades, studies have pointed out to the limitations of this kind of intervention. the different levels of psychotropic drugs use prevention are presented in this study, along with comments on the main approaches used and how they have been implemented in brazil.
Regional flow duration curves for ungauged sites in Sicily
F. Viola, L. V. Noto, M. Cannarozzo,G. La Loggia
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences (HESS) & Discussions (HESSD) , 2011,
Abstract: Flow duration curves are simple and powerful tools to deal with many hydrological and environmental problems related to water quality assessment, water-use assessment and water allocation. Unfortunately the scarcity of streamflow data enables the use of these instruments only for gauged basins. A regional model is developed here for estimating flow duration curves at ungauged basins in Sicily, Italy. Due to the complex ephemeral behavior of the examined region, this study distinguishes dry periods, when flows are zero, from wet periods using a three parameters power law to describe the frequency distribution of flows. A large dataset of streamflows has been analyzed and the parameters of flow duration curves have been derived for about fifty basins. Regional regression equations have been developed to derive flow duration curves starting from morphological basin characteristics.
Regional flow duration curves for ungauged sites in Sicily
F. Viola,L. V. Noto,M. Cannarozzo,G. La Loggia
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions , 2010, DOI: 10.5194/hessd-7-7059-2010
Abstract: Flow duration curves are simple and powerful tools to deal with many hydrological and environmental problems related to water quality assessment, water-use assessment and water allocation. Unfortunately the scarcity of streamflow data enables the use of these instruments only for gauged basins. A regional model is developed here for estimating flow duration curves at ungauged basins in Sicily, Italy. Due to the complex ephemeral behaviour of the examined region, this study distinguishes dry periods, when flows are zero, from wet periods using a three parameters power law to describe the frequency distribution of flows. A large dataset of streamflows has been analysed and the parameters of flow duration curves have been derived for about fifty basins. Regional regression equations have been developed to derive flow duration curves starting from morphological basin characteristics.
Rainfall statistics changes in Sicily
E. Arnone,D. Pumo,F. Viola,L. V. Noto
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions , 2013, DOI: 10.5194/hessd-10-2323-2013
Abstract: Changes in rainfall characteristics are one of the most relevant signs of current climate alterations. Many studies have demonstrated an increase in rainfall intensity and a reduction of frequency in several areas of the world, including Mediterranean areas. Rainfall characteristics may be crucial for vegetation patterns formation and evolution in Mediterranean ecosystems, with important implications, for example, in vegetation water stress or coexistence and competition dynamics. At the same time, characteristics of extreme rainfall events are fundamental for the estimation of flood peaks and quantiles which can be used in many hydrological applications, such as design of the most common hydraulic structures, or planning and management of flood prone areas. In the past, Sicily has been screened for several signals of possible climate change. Annual, seasonal and monthly rainfall data in the entire Sicilian region have been analyzed, showing a global reduction of total annual rainfall. Moreover, annual maximum rainfall series for different durations have been rarely analyzed in order to detect the presence of trends. Results indicated that for short durations, historical series generally exhibit increasing trends while for longer durations the trends are mainly negative. Starting from these premises, the aim of this study is to investigate and quantify changes in rainfall statistics in Sicily, during the second half of the last century. Time series of about 60 stations over the region have been processed and screened by using the non parametric Mann–Kendall test. Particularly, extreme events have been analyzed using annual maximum rainfall series at 1, 3, 6, 12 and 24 h duration while daily rainfall properties have been analyzed in term of frequency and intensity, also characterizing seasonal rainfall features. Results of extreme events analysis confirmed an increasing trend for rainfall of short durations, especially for one hour rainfall duration. Instead, precipitation of long durations have exhibited a decreased trend. With regard to the spatial distribution, increase in short duration precipitation has been observed especially in stations located along the coastline; however, no clear and well-defined spatial pattern have been outlined by the results. Outcomes of analysis for daily rainfall properties have showed that heavy-torrential precipitation tends to be more frequent at regional scale, while light rainfall events exhibited a negative trend at some sites. Values of total annual precipitations confirmed a significant negative trend, mainly due
Eye Exercises Enhance Accuracy and Letter Recognition, but Not Reaction Time, in a Modified Rapid Serial Visual Presentation Task
Paula Di Noto, Sorin Uta, Joseph F. X. DeSouza
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0059244
Abstract: Eye exercises have been prescribed to resolve a multitude of eye-related problems. However, studies on the efficacy of eye exercises are lacking, mainly due to the absence of simple assessment tools in the clinic. Because similar regions of the brain are responsible for eye movements and visual attention, we used a modified rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) to assess any measurable effect of short-term eye exercise in improvements within these domains. In the present study, twenty subjects were equally divided into control and experimental groups, each of which performed a pre-training RSVP assessment where target letters, to which subjects were asked to respond to by pressing a spacebar, were serially and rapidly presented. Response time to target letters, accuracy of correctly responding to target letters, and correct identification of target letters in each of 12 sessions was measured. The experimental group then performed active eye exercises, while the control group performed a task that minimized eye movements for 18.5 minutes. A final post-training RSVP assessment was performed by both groups and response time, accuracy, and letter identification were compared between and within subject groups both pre- and post-training. Subjects who performed eye exercises were more accurate in responding to target letters separated by one distractor and in letter identification in the post-training RSVP assessment, while latency of responses were unchanged between and within groups. This suggests that eye exercises may prove useful in enhancing cognitive performance on tasks related to attention and memory over a very brief course of training, and RSVP may be a useful measure of this efficacy. Further research is needed on eye exercises to determine whether they are an effective treatment for patients with cognitive and eye-related disorders.
Risorgimento e cinema italiano del dopoguerra / Risorgimento and post-war Italian Cinema
Noto, Paolo
Storicamente , 2011,
Abstract:
Raimon de las Salas (?) ~ Bertran Folco d’Avigno (?), “Bertran, si fossetz tant gignos” (BdT 406.16 = 83.1)
Giuseppe Noto
Lecturae Tropatorum , 2009,
Abstract: This paper will offer a new edition, with critical apparatus, commentary and translation, of the ‘tenso’ “Bertran, si fossetz tant gignos”, transmitted by chansonniers ADIK and perhaps ascribable to Raimon de las Salas and Bertran Folco d’Avigno. It is a debate (that takes place within the framework of the Albigensian Crusade and was most likely composed in northern Italy) aimed at establishing whether, as far as military prowess, hospitality and courtly values as a whole are concerned, the Lombards (where Lombardy obviously means northern Italy as a whole) are better than the Proven als (that is the exponents of the feudal culture of all the courts of southern France put together). Of particular interest is the contrast between Occitania and its typically courtly ethics and the exclusively economic (indeed economicistic) outlook of the Lombards.
Granet ~ Bertran d’Alamano, “De vos mi rancur, compaire” (BdT 189.2 = 76.6)
Giuseppe Noto
Lecturae Tropatorum , 2009,
Abstract: This paper will provide a new edition, with critical apparatus, commentary and translation, of the tenso between Granet and Bertran d’Alamano, “De vos mi rancur, compaire”. This text is only transmitted by chansonnier P and it is not only incomplete but also quite incorrect in parts: as far as this latter is concerned I will consider the suggestions by previous editors and, where necessary, put forward new solutions. The ‘tenso’ belongs to a well-attested typology in troubadour lyric: a debate between a jongleur and someone of a different social status (usually his lord and patron), but in this case the type has been altered in some quite interesting ways that hint at judicial contests and end up by overturning the viewpoint to reveal the true nature of the poem. This should not be read realistically, but as a ‘parlour game’, a ‘divertissement’ that is not necessarily linked to the biographies of the participants and whose aim is to amuse the group of ‘companhos’ who accompany Lord Bertran.
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