Abstract:
The energy spectrum of recoil electrons from solar neutrino scattering, as observed by Superkamiokande, is deformed with respect to that expected from SSM calculations. We considered \nu-e scattering from neutrinos produced by the electron-capture on ^{8}B nuclei, e^{-}+^{8}B --> ^{8}Be^{*}+\nu_{e}, as a possible explanation of the spectral deformation. A flux \Phi_{eB}\simeq 10^{4} cm^{-2} s^{-1} could account for Superkamiokande solar neutrino data. However this explanation is untenable, since the theoretical prediction, \Phi_{eB}=(1.3+-0.2) cm^{-2} s^{-1}, is smaller by four orders of magnitude.

Abstract:
We describe a simple method to study the dependence of the solar properties on a generic (small) modification the physical inputs adopted in standard solar models calculations.

Abstract:
Neutrinos produced in the Sun by electron capture reactions on $^{13}{\rm N}$, $^{15}{\rm O}$ and $^{17}{\rm F}$, to which we refer as ecCNO neutrinos, are not usually considered in solar neutrino analysis since the expected fluxes are extremely low. The experimental determination of this sub-dominant component of the solar neutrino flux is very difficult but could be rewarding since it provides a determination of the metallic content of the solar core and, moreover, probes the solar neutrino survival probability in the transition region at $E_\nu\sim 2.5\,{\rm MeV}$. In this letter, we suggest that this difficult measure could be at reach for future gigantic ultra-pure liquid scintillator detectors, such as LENA.

Abstract:
Motivated by the solar composition problem and by using the recently developed Linear Solar Model approach, we analyze the role of opacity and metals in the sun. After a brief discussion of the relation between the effects produced by a variation of composition and those produced by a modification of the radiative opacity, we calculate numerically the opacity kernels that, in a linear approximation, relate an arbitrary opacity variation to the corresponding modification of the solar observable properties. We use these opacity kernels to discuss the present constraints on opacity (and composition) provided by helioseismic and solar neutrino data.

Abstract:
We present a new approach to study the properties of the sun. We consider small variations of the physical and chemical properties of the sun with respect to Standard Solar Model predictions and we linearize the structure equations to relate them to the properties of the solar plasma. By assuming that the (variation of) the present solar composition can be estimated from the (variation of) the nuclear reaction rates and elemental diffusion efficiency in the present sun, we obtain a linear system of ordinary differential equations which can be used to calculate the response of the sun to an arbitrary modification of the input parameters (opacity, cross sections, etc.). This new approach is intended to be a complement to the traditional methods for solar model calculation and allows to investigate in a more efficient and transparent way the role of parameters and assumptions in solar model construction. We verify that these Linear Solar Models recover the predictions of the traditional solar models with an high level of accuracy.

Abstract:
Several properties of the solar interior are determined with a very high accuracy, which in some cases is comparable to that achieved in the determination of the Newton constant $G_N$. We find that the present uncertainty $\Delta G_N/G_N=\pm 1.5\cdot 10^{-3}$ has significant effects on the profile of density and pressure, however it has negligible influence on the solar properties which can be measured by means of helioseismology and $^8{\rm B}$ neutrinos. Our result do not support recent claims that observational solar data can be used to determine the value of $G_N$ with an accuracy of few part in $10^{-4}$. Present data cannot constrain $G_N$ to much better than $10^{-2}$.

Abstract:
We provide a determination of the Beryllium neutrino luminosity directly by means of helioseismology, without using additional assumptions. We have constructed solar models where Beryllium neutrino, ($\nu_{Be}$) production is artificially changed by varying in an arbitrary way the zero energy astrophysical S-factor $S_{34}$ for the reaction $^3{\rm He}+^4{\rm He}\to ^7{\rm Be}+ \gamma$. Next we have compared the properties of such models with helioseismic determinations of photospheric helium abundance, depth of the convective zone and sound speed profile. We find that helioseismology directly confirms the production rate of $\nu_{Be}$ as predicted by SSMs to within $\pm 25%$ ($1\sigma$ error). This constraint is somehow weaker than that estimated from uncertainties of the SSM ($\pm 10%$), however it relies on direct observational data.

Abstract:
We provide a method for extracting information on the energy spectrum of solar neutrinos directly from the spectrum of scattered electrons. As an example, we apply it to the published Super-Kamiokande data. When combined with data from SNO on charged current interactions this method allows to derive separately the spectra of nu_e and of nu_mu plus nu_tau.

Abstract:
Recently we presented a simple method for determining the correlated uncertainties of the light element abundances expected from big bang nucleosynthesis, which avoids the need for lengthy Monte Carlo simulations. We now extend this approach to consider departures from the Standard Model, in particular to constrain any new light degrees of freedom present in the thermal plasma during nucleosynthesis. Since the observational situation regarding the inferred primordial abundances has not yet stabilized, we present illustrative bounds on the equivalent number of neutrino species N_nu for various combinations of individual abundance determinations. Our 95% C.L. bounds on N_nu range between 2 and 4, and can easily be reevaluated using the technique provided when the abundances are known more accurately.

Abstract:
We derive a lower limit on the Beryllium neutrino flux on earth, $\Phi(Be)_{min} = 1\cdot 10^9 cm^{-2} s^{-1}$, in the absence of oscillations, by using helioseismic data, the B-neutrino flux measured by Superkamiokande and the hydrogen abundance at the solar center predicted by Standard Solar Model (SSM) calculations. We emphasize that this abundance is the only result of SSMs needed for getting $\Phi(Be)_{min}$. We also derive lower bounds for the Gallium signal, $G_{min}=(91 \pm 3) $ SNU, and for the Chlorine signal, $C_{min}=(3.24\pm 0.14)$ SNU, which are about $3\sigma$ above their corresponding experimental values, $G_{exp}= (72\pm 6)$ SNU and $C_{exp}= (2.56\pm 0.22) $ SNU.