Abstract:
El grafeno, formado por una capa de átomos de carbono, es un nuevo material con interesantes propiedades, desde un punto de vista fundamental, y también por sus posibles aplicaciones. Se describen algunas de estas propiedades, y se discuten algunos avances recientes en la investigación en este material.

Abstract:
The main features of the conductivity of doped single layer graphene are analyzed, and models for different scattering mechanisms are presented.

Abstract:
The charge distribution induced by external fields in finite stacks of graphene planes, or in semiinfinite graphite is considered. The interlayer electronic hybridization is described by a nearest neighbor hopping term, and the charge induced by the self consistent electrostatic potential is calculated within linear response (RPA). The screening properties are determined by contributions from inter- and intraband electronic transitions. In neutral systems, only interband transitions contribute to the charge polarizability, leading to insulating-like screening properties, and to oscillations in the induced charge, with a period equal to the interlayer spacing. In doped systems, we find a screening length equivalent to 2-3 graphene layers, superimposed to significant charge oscillations.

Abstract:
The intrinsic spin-orbit interactions in bilayer graphene and in graphite are studied, using a tight binding model, and an intraatomic LS coupling. The spin-orbit interactions in bilayer graphene and graphite are larger, by about one order of magnitude, than the interactions in single layer graphene, due to the mixing of pi and sigma bands by interlayer hopping. Their value is in the range 0.1 - 1K. The spin-orbit coupling opens a gap in bilayer graphene, and it also gives rise to two edge modes. The spin-orbit couplings are largest, 1-4K, in orthorhombic graphite, which does not have a center of inversion.

Abstract:
We study the dynamics of a quantum particle coupled to dissipative (ohmic) environments, such as an electron liquid. For some choices of couplings, the properties of the particle can be described in terms of an effective mass. A particular case is the three dimensional dirty electron liquid. In other environments, like the one described by the Caldeira-Leggett model, the effective mass diverges at low temperatures, and quantum effects are strongly suppressed. For interactions within this class, arbitrarily weak potentials lead to localized solutions. Particles bound to external potentials, or moving in closed orbits, can show a first order transition, between strongly and weakly localized regimes.

Abstract:
Assisted hopping effects in magnetic impurities and quantum dots are analyzed. The magnitude of the assisted hopping term in a quantum dot in the limit of large level spacing is comparable to other corrections induced by the electron-electron interactions. Assisted hopping leads to differences between conductance peaks associated to the same level, and, when the effect is sufficiently strong, to local pairing correlations.

Abstract:
A simple tight binding model with repulsive interactions is studied. The inclusion of more than one orbital per site leads to assisted hopping effects, and, when the orbitals involved have different symmetries, to an anisotropic superconducting phase. Superconductivity exists for all fillings, and for all values of the on site repulsion.

Abstract:
Lattice distortions in which the axes are locally rotated provide an intrinsic source of frustration in anisotropic superconductors. A general framework to study this effect is presented. The influence of lattice defects and phonons in $d$ and $s+d$ layered superconductors is studied.

Abstract:
Processes which flip the spin of an electron tunneling in a junction made up of magnetic electrodes are studied. It is found that: i) Magnetic impurities give a contribution which increases the resistance and lowers the magnetoresistance, which saturates at low temperatures. The conductance increases at high fields. ii) Magnon assisted tunneling reduces the magnetoresistance as $T^{3/2}$, and leads to a non ohmic contribution to the resistance which goes as $V^{3/2}$, iii) Surface antiferromagnetic magnons, which may appear if the interface has different magnetic properties from the bulk, gives rise to $T^2$ and $V^2$ contributions to the magnetoresistance and resistance, respectively, and, iv) Coulomb blockade effects may enhance the magnetoresistance, when transport is dominated by cotunneling processes.

Abstract:
The dephasing effect of metallic gates on electrons moving in one quasi--one--dimensional diffusive wires is analyzed. The incomplete screening in this geometry implies that the effect of the gate can be described, at high energies or temperatures, as an electric field fluctuating in time. The resulting system can be considered a realization of the Caldeira-Leggett model of an environment coupled to many particles. Within the range of temperatures where this approximation is valid, a simple estimation of the inverse dephasing time gives $\tau_{\rm G}^{-1} \propto T^{1/2}$.