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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 144310 matches for " F. Ejobi "
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The sensitivities to first-line antibiotic therapy of the common urinary tract bacterial infections detected in urine samples at a hospital in metropolitan Kampala (Uganda)
D Kyabaggu, F Ejobi, D Olila
African Health Sciences , 2007,
Abstract: Background: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most common human infections. Many urinary tract bacteria are capable of expressing drug resistance. Resistant bacteria may be present from the commencement of the infection or may develop during treatment. This study focused on the problem of antibiotic resistance to the first-line drugs that were used to treat patients presenting with urinary tract infections at Rubaga hospital in Kampala, Uganda. Objectives: The objective of this study was to isolate and identify the major bacterial pathogens of symptomatic and asymptomatic UTIs among patients at Rubaga hospital. Furthermore, the study sought to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of the major bacterial isolates to the first-line drugs used to treat UTIs at Rubaga hospital. Methods: Urine samples were aseptically collected and examined microscopically and were microbiologically cultured on blood agar, nutrient agar and on MacConkey agar. The isolates obtained were then identified using standard tests and tested for antimicrobial sensitivity by the Kirby-Bauer technique. Results: The isolated pathogens included Escherichia coli (10.9%), Staphylococcus (31.9%), Streptococcus (9.2%), Klebsiella species (21.0%) and Proteus species (10.1%). 20 (16.8%) of the isolates were lactose fermenting gram-negative rods that were also indole-negative. These isolates were termed `unclassified coliforms\' in this study but were probably Enterobacter species. On antimicrobial susceptibility testing, all the gram-negative isolates were significantly resistant to amoxycillin, cotrimoxazole, erythromycin, and to nalidixic acid; but were susceptible to nitrofurantoin. Among the gram-negative isolates, only Klebsiella species were significantly resistant (p<0.05) to ciprofloxacin. The gram-positive cocci were susceptible to amoxycillin, ciprofloxacin, and to erythromycin but resistant to cotrimoxazole and nalidixic acid. Unlike the Staphylococcus species that were significantly resistant to nitrofurantoin, Streptococcus species were moderately susceptible to the drug. Conclusion: The common urinary tract bacteria detected in Rubaga hospital in Uganda were most sensitive to Ciprofloxacin and Nitrofurantoin. African Health Sciences Vol. 7 (4) 2007: pp. 214-222
Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Organochlorine Pesticide Residues in Nile Perch (Lates nilotica) from Lake Victoria, Uganda
F. Ejobi,P. Muller,J. Opuda-Asibo,J. Kruger
Journal of Fisheries International , 2012,
Abstract: Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides were determined in muscle and liver samples of Nile Perch (Lates nilotica) caught from the Ugandan part of Lake Victoria. Our overall objective was to assess human exposure risk to these chemicals through consumption of fish. Six organochlorine pesticide residues and 3 polychorinated biphenyl congeners were found in fillet samples in the following proportions: hexachlorobenzene (6.7%), dieldrin (3.3%), p,p`-DDE (83.3%), o,p`-DDD (6.7%), p,p`-DDD (3.3%), p,p`-DDT (20%), PCB-153 (13.3%), PCB-138 (13.3%) and PCB-180 (16.7%). The concentrations of these contaminants in muscle were generally low. The mean concentration of total DDT in muscle was 0.001 mg kg 1 fresh weight and the highest recorded level was 0.003 mg kg 1 fresh weight. DDE constituted on average 94% of total DDT in fillet. In liver samples, 9 organochlorine pesticide residues and 4 PCB congeners were found in the following proportions: Hexachlorobenzene (20%), -HCH (13.3%), -HCH (6.7%), lindane (10%), dieldrin (36.7%), p,p`-DDE (83.3%), o,p`-DDD (3.3%), p,p`-DDD (33.3%), p,p`-DDT (13.3%), PCB-52 (3.3%), PCB-101 (16.7%), PCB-153 (16.7%) and PCB-138 (13.3%). The mean total DDT was 0.003 mg kg 1 fresh weight, with the highest concentration of 0.01 mg kg 1 fresh weight. The mean residue levels of total DDT and dieldrin were 0.12 and 0.3% of the respective German maximum residue limits. The estimated average adult daily intakes of the total DDT residues through fillet consumption was only 0.0005% of FAO/WHO maximum acceptable daily intake.
Ethno-Veterinary Medicinal Plants of the Lake Victoria Basin: A Bioprospection
F. Ejobi,R.D.Mosha,S. Ndege,D. Kamoga
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2012,
Abstract: The main objective of this study was to identify and document plants traditionally used for treating livestock diseases and conditions in Lake Victoria basin of Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda. In Kenya, the study sites were located in Kendu Bay, Kano Plains, Suri and Yala wetlands; in Tanzania in the districts of Missungi, Magu, Sengerma, Geita, Ukerewe and Ilemela, while in Uganda in the district of Rakai. The study utilised employed participatory rural appraisal tools, mainly focus group discussions and key informant interviews. A wide range of plants with veterinary medicinal uses were identified and documented. The highest number of plants was enlisted in Kenya (81), followed by Tanzania (50) and lastly Uganda (24). Examples of plants mentioned were Xylopia aethiopica for treating East Coast Fever, Phragmites mauritianus for treating retained placenta, Hoslundia opposita for treating snake bites and Cassia occidentalis for treating internal parasites. Some plants were common in all the three countries, while others were only mentioned in particular countries. Other livestock diseases and conditions traditionally treated included diarrhoea, pneumonia, eye infections, heart water, babesiosis, mastitis, snake bites and wounds. The study points out the need for validating and integrating the use of traditional medicinal plants in community-based animal health care delivery systems in the East African region.
Artemisia Annua L. Infusion Consumed Once a Week Reduces Risk of Multiple Episodes of Malaria: A Randomised Trial in a Ugandan Community
PE Ogwang, JO Ogwal, S Kasasa, D Olila, F Ejobi, D Kabasa, C Obua
Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research , 2012,
Abstract: Purpose: To evaluate the protective effect of Artemisia annua infusion against malaria in a community that uses it as herbal ‘tea’ for malaria prevention. Methods: 132 flower farm workers who met the study inclusion criteria and were not yet using A. annua infusion were randomized either to A. annua or placebo groups in the ratio of 1:1. Treatments were administered once a week under direct observation to participants. Malaria episodes were documented over a 9-month period while adverse effects were documented over 12 months. Results: A. annua herbal ‘tea’ significantly reduced the risk of suffering more than one episode of malaria in nine months by 55 % (12/67 vs 26/65, p = 0.005 No participant experienced any serious adverse effect although bitter taste was the most common side effect of the infusion. Conclusion: Artemisia annua infusion consumed once a week was effective in preventing multiple episodes of malaria in humans living in malaria endemic areas. However, its bitter taste and the risk of development of malaria parasite resistance to the artemisinin contained in it remain major challenges for its use in the mass control of malaria.
Methane Emissions from the Cattle Population in Uganda
F. Ejobi,J.D. Kabasa,J. Oloya,C. Ebong,J. Kabirizi,P. Isabirye,R. Livingston
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2012,
Abstract: We used the Livestock Analysis Model (LAM) to estimate the current and projected amount of methane, a greenhouse gas, produced by the cattle population in Uganda in the period from 2000 to 2030. The LAM is a data-intensive computer model developed by the United States Environment Protection Agency. The data required for the model were derived from official documents of the Government of Uganda. Secondary data on human and cattle population and production target of beef and milk were subjected to stepwise regression analysis and the outputs were used in the LAM. Primary data for the LAM were also generated through a national livestock survey. According to the LAM, the total methane emissions from cattle in Uganda in the year 2000 were estimated at 337,796 tons. This amount is projected to nearly triple by the year 2030 unless appropriate mitigation measures are put in place in the country. Among indigenous cattle breeds, the Zebu and Nganda had the highest methane emissions per unit of product, generating approximately 1 kilogram of methane per kilogram of milk produced, while the Ankole cattle emitted approximately 0.566 kg of methane per kilogram of milk produced. On the other hand, the improved breeds emitted only 0.123 kg of methane per kilogram of milk produced. The results of this study show that the cattle sector in Uganda has a potential for international investments for reduction of methane emissions in line with the Clean Development Mechanism under the Kyoto Protocol.
The quality of water from protected springs in Katwe and Kisenyi parishes, Kampala city, Uganda
Rukia Haruna, Francis Ejobi, Edmond K Kabagambe
African Health Sciences , 2005,
Abstract: Background: In the sub-urban areas of Kampala city, springs are a major source of water for domestic use. Though spring water is considered to be aesthetically acceptable for domestic use, presence of poorly designed pit latrines, poor solid waste management as well as poor and inadequate spring protection, may lead to contamination of spring water with pathogenic bacteria. Objectives: The objectives of the study were to examine the bacteriological quality of water from ten springs in Katwe and Kisenyi parishes of Kampala, and to identify and quantify risks for spring water contamination with faecal bacteria. Methods: A cross-sectional sanitary risk assessment using a standardised format was carried out in ten randomly selected springs in the parishes of Katwe and Kisenyi parishes in Kampala. A total of 80 samples of water from these springs were collected from December 2001 to March 2002. The samples were analysed for indicators of faecal contamination: total coliforms, faecal coliforms and faecal streptococci. Physico-chemical parameters were measured. Results: Aggregate qualitative sanitary risk scores ranged from medium to high. The total coliform counts in 90% of the samples exceeded the WHO guideline for drinking water. All the samples had faecal coliform counts above the WHO guideline. A strong correlation (r2= 887) was observed between the median faecal coliform counts and the sanitary risk score. Sixty percent of the samples had nitrate levels above the WHO recommended limit. There was no correlation between the levels of chlorides and nitrates and levels of indicators of faecal bacterial contamination. Conclusions: The sanitary risk assessment score is a reliable tool for predicting the likely levels of bacterial contamination of spring water. Water from the ten protected springs studied is unsuitable for drinking without treatment. African Journal of Health Sciences Vol.5(1) 2005: 14-20
Use of sulfonamides in layers in Kampala district, Uganda and sulfonamide residues in commercial eggs
James Jacob Sasanya, Jasper W Ogwal Ikeng, Frances Ejobi, Margaret Muganwa
African Health Sciences , 2005,
Abstract: Background: Use of antimicrobials like sulfonamides in production of layers is a public health risk since it inevitably results in sulfonamide residues in eggs. The presence of the residues may be influenced by knowledge, attitudes and practices of farmers regarding use of sulfonamides (and other antimicrobials) in poultry. Objective: The study aimed at assessing the possible contribution of the knowledge, attitudes and practices of poultry farmers to the presence/levels of sulfonamide residues in hen eggs. Methods: A descriptive cross sectional study was done in the 5 political divisions (and surroundings) of Kampala district. Sixty farmers were systematically sampled from a list of poultry farmers in Kampala and a semi-structured questionnaire administered. Each farmer provided sixty eggs for analysis of sulfadiazine and sulfamethazine residues. Whole eggs were homogenized in acetonitrile and centrifuged twice, extracts evaporated and residues dissolved in mobile phase (32:68, methanol: potassium di-hydrogen phosphate). Fats were removed using hexane while anhydrous sodium chloride was added to break emulsions. Extracts were analyzed by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detector. Results: Ninety-five percent of the farmers never observed withdrawal periods although 80% of them knew the importance of withdrawal periods. However, farmers noted that they play a great role in ensuring a safe food supply. Most farmers attributed the non-observance of withdrawal periods to poverty and fear to lose their investments. Ninety-eight percent of the samples had detectable levels of the sulfonamides. Meanwhile, 98.3% of the samples that had detectable sulfonamide residues came from farmers who applied antimicrobials in feeds/ water. Conclusion: Consumers of hen eggs in Kampala district are at high risk of sulfonamide residue exposure due to poor farming/ regulatory practices.
Evidence of Peste Des Petits Ruminants Virus Antibodies in Small Ruminants in Amuru and Gulu Districts, Uganda
Robert Sande, Chrisostom Ayebazibwe1*, Charles Waiswa2, Francis Ejobi2, Frank Norbert Mwiine2, William Olaho-Mukani1
Pakistan Veterinary Journal , 2011,
Abstract: The study investigated evidence of antibodies against Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) in apparently healthy sheep and goats in Amuru and Gulu districts in Uganda. A total of 474 blood samples were collected in thirty nine internally displaced persons (IDPs) camps in seventeen sub-counties, from goats and sheep with no record of previous vaccination. The prevalence of antibodies against PPRV in goats was 12.5 and 0% in Amuru and Gulu districts while in sheep the prevalence of antibodies against PPRV was 16.5 and 11.1% in the respective districts. This is the first report on PPR antibodies in small ruminants in Northern Uganda. There is need to determine the prevalence of antibodies against PPRV in other surrounding districts in Northern Uganda and an attempt should be made to characterize the circulating PPRV.
Evaluating the Relationship between the Banking System Stability and the Internal Capital Adequacy Assessment Process: Evidence from the Egyptian Banking Sector  [PDF]
Karim F. F. Mohamed
Journal of Financial Risk Management (JFRM) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jfrm.2018.74020
Abstract: In the repercussions of the latest financial crisis that have occurred on the years 2008-2009, to fortify the stability of the banking systems, policy makers, and the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision—BCBS, together with national regulators have built up a few safety measures, and structures to guarantee that banks establishments keep up adequate capital levels through using risk management tools, in specific the Internal Capital Adequacy Assessment Processes (ICAAP). They all have called for thorough evaluations and assessments for the structure and components of risk management frameworks, tools, and practices whether by banks, regulators, analysts and risk management experts consistently, to ascertain the adequacy of the banking systems, policies, arrangements and techniques for overseeing risks, and guaranteeing the sufficiency of holding appropriate capital levels for confronting normal, as well as adverse and unexpected situations or emergencies. The main objectives of this research study are to shed the light on the ICAAP as one of the main keys of risk management programs, a process by which banks can use to ensure that they operate with an appropriate level of capital, forward looking processes for capital planning covering a broad range of risks across banks, activities beyond simple capital management, and bring together risk and capital management activities in a form that can be used to support business decisions. The research study shall evaluate the significant relationship between the Banking System Stability (dependent variable) and the Internal Capital Adequacy Assessment Process (ICAAP—independent variable) with evidence from the Egyptian Banking Sector.
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Nieuwe West-Indische Gids , 1949,
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