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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 144469 matches for " F. Calura "
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The Star Formation History of the GRB 050730 Host Galaxy
F. Calura
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1017/S174392130802485X
Abstract: The long GRB 050730 observed at redshift z ~ 4 allowed the determination of the elemental abundances for a set of different chemical elements. We use detailed chemical evolution models taking into account also dust production to constrain the star formation history of the host galaxy of this long GRB. For the host galaxy of GRB 050730, we derive also some dust-related quantities and the the specific star formation rate, namely the star formation rate per unit stellar mass. We copare the properties of the GRB host galaxy with the ones of Quasar Damped Lyman Alpha absorbers.
The cosmic evolution of the galaxy luminosity density
F. Calura,F. Matteucci
Physics , 2003, DOI: 10.1086/378195
Abstract: We reconstruct the history of the cosmic star formation in the universe by means of detailed chemical evolution models for galaxies of different morphological types. We consider a picture of coeval, non-interacting evolving galaxies where ellipticals experience intense and rapid starbursts within the first Gyr after their formation, and spirals and irregulars continue to form stars at lower rates up to the present time. Such models allow one to follow in detail the evolution of the metallicity of the gas out of which the stars are formed. We normalize the galaxy population to the B band luminosity function observed in the local Universe and study the redshift evolution of the luminosity densities in the B, U, I and K bands calculating galaxy colors and evolutionary corrections by means of a detailed synthetic stellar population model. Our predictions indicate that the decline of the galaxy luminosity density between redshift 1 and 0 observed in the U, B and I bands is caused mainly by star-forming spiral galaxies which slowly exhaust their gas reservoirs. Elliptical galaxies have dominated the total luminosity density in all optical bands at early epochs, when all their stars formed by means of rapid and very intense star-bursts. Irregular galaxies bring a negligible contribution to the total luminosity density in any band at any time. (abridged)
The evolution of cosmic star formation, metals and gas
F. Calura,F. Matteucci
Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1023/A:1024023320657
Abstract: We reconstruct the history of the cosmic star formation as well as the cosmic production of metals in the universe by means of detailed chemical evolution models for galaxies of different morphological types. We consider a picture of coeval, non-interacting evolving galaxies where ellipticals experience intense and rapid starbursts within the first Gyr after their formation, and spirals and irregulars continue to form stars at lower rates up to the present time. We show that spirals are the main contributors to the decline of the luminosity density in all bands between z=1 and z=0.
Chemical evolution and nature of Damped Lyman-Alpha systems
F. Calura,F. Matteucci,G. Vladilo
Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-8711.2003.06197.x
Abstract: We study the nature of Damped Lyman -Alpha systems (DLAs) by means of a comparison between observed abundances and models of chemical evolution of galaxies of different morphological type. In particular, we compare for the first time the abundance ratios as functions of metallicity and redshift with dust-corrected data. We have developed detailed models following the evolution of several chemical elements (H, D, He, C, N, O, Ne, Mg, Si, S, Fe, Ni and Zn) for elliptical, spiral and irregular galaxies. Each of the models is calibrated to reproduce the main features of a massive elliptical, the Milky Way and the LMC, respectively. In addition, we run some models also for dwarf irregular starburst galaxies. All the models share the same uptodate nucleosynthesis prescriptions but differ in their star formation histories. The role of SNe of different type (II, Ia) is studied in each galaxy model together with detailed and up to date nucleosynthesis prescriptions. Our main conclusions are: 1) when dust depletion is taken into account most of the claimed alpha/Fe overabundances disappear and DLAs show solar or subsolar abundance ratios. 2) The majority of DLAs can be explained either by disks of spirals observed at large galactocentric distances or by irregular galaxies like the LMC or by starburst dwarf irregulars observed at different times after the last burst of star formation. 3) Elliptical galaxies cannot be DLA systems since they reach a too high metallicity at early times and their abundance ratios show overabundances of $\alpha$-elements relative to Fe over a large range of [Fe/H]. 4) The observed neutral gas cosmic evolution is compared with our predictions but no firm conclusions can be drawn in the light of the available data.
The two regimes of the cosmic sSFR evolution are due to spheroids and discs
A. Pipino,F. Calura,F. Matteucci
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stt613
Abstract: This paper aims at explaining the two phases in the observed specific star formation rate (sSFR), namely the high (>3/Gyr) values at z>2 and the smooth decrease since z=2. In order to do this, we compare to observations the specific star formation rate evolution predicted by well calibrated models of chemical evolution for elliptical and spiral galaxies, using the additional constraints on the mean stellar ages of these galaxies (at a given mass). We can conclude that the two phases of the sSFR evolution across cosmic time are due to different populations of galaxies. At z>2 the contribution comes from spheroids: the progenitors of present-day massive ellipticals (which feature the highest sSFR) as well as halos and bulges in spirals (which contribute with average and lower-than-average sSFR). In each single galaxy the sSFR decreases rapidly and the star formation stops in <1 Gyr. However the combination of different generations of ellipticals in formation might result in an apparent lack of strong evolution of the sSFR (averaged over a population) at high redshift. The z<2 decrease is due to the slow evolution of the gas fraction in discs, modulated by the gas accretion history and regulated by the Schmidt law. The Milky Way makes no exception to this behaviour.
A fast and accurate method to compute the mass return from multiple stellar populations
F. Calura,L. Ciotti,C. Nipoti
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stu391
Abstract: The mass returned to the ambient medium by aging stellar populations over cosmological times sums up to a significant fraction (20% - 30% or more) of their initial mass. This continuous mass injection plays a fundamental role in phenomena such as galaxy formation and evolution, fueling of supermassive black holes in galaxies and the consequent (negative and positive) feedback phenomena, and the origin of multiple stellar populations in globular clusters. In numerical simulations the calculation of the mass return can be time consuming, since it requires at each time step the evaluation of a convolution integral over the whole star formation history, so the computational time increases quadratically with the number of time-steps. The situation can be especially critical in hydrodynamical simulations, where different grid points are characterized by different star formation histories, and the gas cooling and heating times are shorter by orders of magnitude than the characteristic stellar lifetimes. In this paper we present a fast and accurate method to compute the mass return from stellar populations undergoing arbitrarily complicated star formation histories. At each time-step the mass return is calculated from its value at the previous time, and the star formation rate over the last time-step only. Therefore in the new scheme there is no need to store the whole star formation history, and the computational time increases linearly with the number of time-steps.
Effects of the integrated galactic IMF on the chemical evolution of the solar neighbourhood
F. Calura,S. Recchi,F. Matteucci,P. Kroupa
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2010.16803.x
Abstract: The initial mass function determines the fraction of stars of different intial mass born per stellar generation. In this paper, we test the effects of the integrated galactic initial mass function (IGIMF) on the chemical evolution of the solar neighbourhood. The IGIMF (Weidner & Kroupa 2005) is computed from the combination of the stellar intial mass function (IMF), i.e. the mass function of single star clusters, and the embedded cluster mass function, i.e. a power law with index beta. By taking into account also the fact that the maximum achievable stellar mass is a function of the total mass of the cluster, the IGIMF becomes a time-varying IMF which depends on the star formation rate. We applied this formalism to a chemical evolution model for the solar neighbourhood and compared the results obtained by assuming three possible values for beta with the results obtained by means of a standard, well-tested, constant IMF. In general, a lower absolute value of beta implies a flatter IGIMF, hence a larger number of massive stars and larger metal ejection rates. This translates into higher type Ia and II supernova rates, higher mass ejection rates from massive stars and a larger amount of gas available for star formation, coupled with lower present-day stellar mass densities. (abridged) We also discuss the importance of the present day stellar mass function (PDMF) in providing a way to disentangle among various assumptions for beta. Our results indicate that the model adopting the IGIMF computed with beta ~2 should be considered the best since it allows us to reproduce the observed PDMF and to account for most of the chemical evolution constraints considered in this work.
The evolution of the mass-metallicity relation in galaxies of different morphological types
F. Calura,A. Pipino,C. Chiappini,F. Matteucci,R. Maiolino,-
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/200911756
Abstract: By means of chemical evolution models for ellipticals, spirals and irregular galaxies, we aim at investigating the physical meaning and the redshift evolution of the mass-metallicity relation as well as how this relation is connected with galaxy morphology. {abridged} We assume that galaxy morphologies do not change with cosmic time. We present a method to account for a spread in the epochs of galaxy formation and to refine the galactic mass grid. (abridged) We compare our predictions to observational results obtained for galaxies between redshifts 0.07 and 3.5. We reproduce the mass-metallicity (MZ) relation mainly by means of an increasing efficiency of star formation with mass in galaxies of all morphological types, without any need to invokegalactic outflows favoring the loss of metals in the less massive galaxies. Our predictions can help constraining the slope and the zero point of the observed local MZ relation, both affected by uncertainties related to the use of different metallicity calibrations. We show how, by considering the MZ, the O/H vs star formation rate (SFR), and the SFR vs galactic mass diagrams at various redshifts, it is possible to constrain the morphology of the galaxies producing these relations. Our results indicate that the galaxies observed at z=3.5 should be mainly proto-ellipticals, whereas at z=2.2 the observed galaxies consist of a morphological mix of proto-spirals and proto-ellipticals. At lower redshifts, the observed MZ relation is well reproduced by considering both spirals and irregulars. (abridged)
The Origin of the Mass-Metallicity relation: an analytical approach
E. Spitoni,F. Calura,F. Matteucci,S. Recchi
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/200913799
Abstract: The existence of a mass-metallicity (MZ) relation in star forming galaxies at all redshift has been recently established. We aim at studying some possible physical mechanisms contributing to the MZ relation by adopting analytical solutions of chemical evolution models including infall and outflow. We explore the hypotheses of a variable galactic wind rate, infall rate and yield per stellar generation (i.e. a variation in the IMF), as possible causes for the MZ relation. By means of analytical models we compute the expected O abundance for galaxies of a given total baryonic mass and gas mass.The stellar mass is derived observationally and the gas mass is derived by inverting the Kennicutt law of star formation, once the star formation rate is known. Then we test how the parameters describing the outflow, infall and IMF should vary to reproduce the MZ relation, and we exclude the cases where such a variation leads to unrealistic situations. We find that a galactic wind rate increasing with decreasing galactic mass or a variable IMF are both viable solutions for the MZ relation. A variable infall rate instead is not acceptable. It is difficult to disentangle among the outflow and IMF solutions only by considering the MZ relation, and other observational constraints should be taken into account to select a specific solution. For example, a variable efficiency of star formation increasing with galactic mass can also reproduce the MZ relation and explain the downsizing in star formation suggested for ellipticals. The best solution could be a variable efficiency of star formation coupled with galactic winds, which are indeed observed in low mass galaxies.
Cosmic star formation rate: a theoretical approach
L. Vincoletto,F. Matteucci,F. Calura,L. Silva,G. Granato
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2012.20535.x
Abstract: The cosmic star formation rate (CSFR), is an important clue to investigate the history of the assembly and evolution of galaxies. Here, we develop a method to study the CSFR from a purely theoretical point of view. Starting from detailed models of chemical evolution, we obtain the histories of star formation of galaxies of different morphological types. These histories are then used to determine the luminosity functions of the same galaxies by means of a spectro-photometric code. We obtain the CSFR under different hypothesis. First, we study the hypothesis of a pure luminosity evolution scenario, in which all galaxies are supposed to form at the same redshift and then evolve only in luminosity. Then we consider scenarios in which the number density or the slope of the LFs are assumed to vary with redshift. After comparison with available data we conclude that a pure luminosity evolution does not provide a good fit to the data, especially at very high redshift, although many uncertainties are still present in the data. On the other hand, a variation in the number density of ellipticals and spirals as a function of redshift can provide a better fit to the observed CSFR. We also explore cases of variable slope of the LFs with redshift and variations of number density and slope at the same time. We cannot find any of those cases which can improve the fit to the data respect to the solely number density variation. Finally, we compute the evolution of the average cosmic metallicity in galaxies with redshift.
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