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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 327322 matches for " F. C. Nwinyi "
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Evaluation of Mallotus oppositifolius Methanol Leaf Extract on the Glycaemia and Lipid Peroxidation in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats: A Preliminary Study
C. O. Nwaehujor,I. I. Ezeigbo,F. C. Nwinyi
Biochemistry Research International , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/527205
Abstract: Objective. Mallotus oppositifolius (Geiseler) Müll. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae) is folklorically used to “treat” diabetic conditions in some parts of Nigeria therefore the study, to investigate the extract of the leaves for activities on hyperglycaemia, lipid peroxidation, and increased cholesterol levels in vivo in alloxan diabetic rats as well as its potential antioxidant activity in vitro. Methods. Albino rats (240–280?g) were given an injection of 120?mg/kg body weight, i.p. of alloxan monohydrate. After 8 days, diabetic animals with elevated fasting blood glucose levels (>9?mmol/L) were considered and selected for the study. Results. Oral treatment with the extract administered every 12?h by gavage at doses of 100, 200, and 400?mg/kg of the extract to the test rats, for 14 days, resulted in a significant dose-dependent decrease in blood glucose levels from 12.82 ± 1.02?mmol/dL to 4.92 ± 2.01?mmol/dL at the highest dose of 400?mg/kg compared to the control drug and glibenclamide as well as attendant significant decline in diabetic rats employed in the study. Conclusion. The extract also showed in vitro concentration-dependent antioxidant activity following the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing assays. Findings further suggest the presence of active antidiabetic and antioxidant principles in M. oppositifolius leaves. 1. Introduction Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a multifactorial syndrome resulting from a variable interaction of hereditary and environmental factors. It is characterized by inapt hyperglycaemia caused by damaged β-cells of the pancreas or resistance to the action of insulin at the cellular level, or possibly a combination of both factors [1, 2]. DM affects more than 200 million people worldwide and is projected to be one of the world’s major killers in the next 25 years [3], Nigeria with about 160 million people has the highest number of people with diabetes (approximately 1,338 × 103), thus, the highest diabetes prevalence in the African Region (19.1%), as well as the highest number of people with impaired glucose tolerance with an estimate of about 3.85 million people. With on-going researches in diabetes and oral hypoglycaemic agents (OHA), the management of DM is still a global problem. One important area in diabetes management receiving particular attention today is that of herbal hypoglycaemic agents. Several factors such as dyslipidemia or hyperlipidemia which are involved in the microvascular and macrovascular complications as well as hyperglycemia are associated with the diabetes disease which is the major cause of
Evaluation of aqueous methanolic extract of Sorghum bicolor leaf base for antinociceptive and antiinflammatory activities
F.C Nwinyi, H.O Kwanashie
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2009,
Abstract: No
Functional and Nutritional Properties of Spent Grain Enhanced Cookies
K.O. Ajanaku,F.A. Dawodu,C.O. Ajanaku,O.C. Nwinyi
American Journal of Food Technology , 2011,
Abstract: The generation of large tonnages of spent grains as byproduct has become major disposal problem in brewing industry. This necessitate sourcing utilization alternatives to complement present use as animal feeds. The incorporation of this brewery spent grain, BSG, into cookie formulations to 15% maximum levels and its effects on the nutritional and functional properties of cookies was investigated. About 6.14% dried and 610 m milled BSG were added to cookie formulation mix at 0, 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15% levels. Other recipes added include: wheat flour, salt, sodium carbonate, water, non-fatty milk and additives. The trace metal content of the blended products were also compared with local and imported cookies. The results obtained indicated free fatty acid, moisture content, extracted fat and sensory evaluation of the final cookies were limited to 6% optimum inclusion while the spread ratio analysis suggested 3% BSG usage. The undesirable flavor of BSG as additives influenced the taste of the cookies to a great extent and did not change the nutritional status of the samples from 6% BSG inclusion. The trace metals statistical analysis of the BSG supplemented cookies compared well with both locally baked and imported cookies (p=0.05). However, addition of brewery spent grains significantly increased the nutritional properties of the cookies up to 6% level of BSG addition.
Nutritive Value of Sorghum Ogi Fortified with Groundnut Seed (Arachis hypogaea L.)
K.O. Ajanaku,C.O. Ajanaku,A. Edobor-Osoh,O.C. Nwinyi
American Journal of Food Technology , 2012,
Abstract: The utilization of groundnut seed as a constituent of sorghum ogi was investigated by preparing mixtures of ogi with increasing level of groundnut in 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% addition. The product, sorghum groundnut-ogi was evaluated for proximate composition, titratable acidity and vitamins B. A taste panel evaluation was conducted to evaluate the acceptability of the products. The data obtained indicated an increase in protein, ash and fat content. There were no apparent effect of groundnut addition on pH and titratable acidity in the mixtures. The taste panel evaluation and the amylograph pasting characteristics of the groundnut-ogi blends concluded that blends with 50% groundnut addition and beyond were acceptable in improving the nutritive value of ogi for neonates.
Evaluation of Sorghum bicolor leaf base extract for gastrointestinal effects
FC Nwinyi, HO Kwanashie
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2009,
Abstract: The leaf base of Sorghum bicolor (Family: Gramineae, Poaceae) was cold-macerated with 70% v/v methanol. The aqueous methanolic extract was further fractionated into non-polar, medium polar and very polar components using hexane, ethylacetate and water (aqueous), respectively. The gastrointestinal effects of these extracts were tested on intestinal motility (transit) in mice, castor oilinduced diarrhoeal model in rats, isolated rabbit jejunum, guinea pig ileum and rat stomach fundus strip. The oral and intraperitoneal LD50 values for the extracts were determined in mice and rats. The aqueous methanolic extract (100 – 400 mg/kg i.p) significantly (P < 0.05) and dose-dependently decreased the intestinal motility, inhibited castor oil-induced diarrhoea, produced concentrationdependent relaxation of rabbit jejunum with half maximal effective concentration (EC50) of 0.21 mg/ml. This extract also produced both non-myogenic and slight relaxation effects on guinea pig ileum and a contraction on rat stomach fundus strips. Both aqueous and ethylacetate fractions also reduced intestinal motility. However, ethylacetate fraction caused greater reduction than the aqueous fraction. The oral LD50 value for the aqueous methanolic extact in both rats and mice was found to be 2000 mg/kg while the intraperitoneal values are 1414.2 mg/kg in rats and 1341.6 mg/kg in mice. The intrapertoneal value for both aqueous and ethylacetate fractions is 2000 mg/kg in mice. The study provided scientific bases for the traditional use of S. bicolor for treatment of gastrointestinal related problems such as diarrhoea.
Evaluation of toxicity profile of leaf base extract of Sorghum bicolor in rat
FC Nwinyi, HO Kwanashie, AA Ahmad, LE Odama
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2009,
Abstract: The toxicity profile of 70% methanolic extract of Sorghum bicolor leaf base widely used in ethnomedicine was evaluated in male rats treated daily for 28 days using 100 – 400 mg/kg p. o. doses. No adverse clinical signs were observed. There was no significant change in the feed intake, body weight and relative organ weight except the significant (P < 0.05) reduction in weight of kidneys and increase in relative weight of the testes observed at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg respectively. No gross or histopathological changes were seen in the kidneys, heart, spleen, lungs, liver and testes. No significant effect was observed in the haematological indices (packed cell volume, heamoglobin, total and differential white blood cells), hepatic function indices (glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, glutamate pyruvate transaminase, direct bilirubin, total bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, albumin, total protein) as well as renal function indices (urea and creatinine). Uric acid was however reduced significantly (P < 0.05). Study of effect on serum lipid profile showed no significant effect on cholesterol but a significant reduction of triglyceride at 200 mg/kg p. o. dose. The results suggest that S. bicolor leaf extract is relatively safe.
Baryon wave functions and free neutron decay in the scalar strong interaction hadron theory (SSI)  [PDF]
F. C. Hoh
Natural Science (NS) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2010.29115
Abstract: From the equations of motion for baryons in the scalar strong interaction hadron theory (SSI), two coupled third order radial wave equations for baryon doublets have been derived and published in 1994. These equations are solved numerically here, using quark masses obtained from meson spectra and the masses of the neutron, ?0 and ?0 as input. Confined wave functions dependent upon the quark-diquark distance as well as the values of the four integration constants entering the quark-diquark interaction potential are found approximately. These approximative, zeroth order results are employed in a first order perturbational treatment of the equations of motion for baryons in SSI for free neutron decay. The predicted magnitude of neutron’s half life agrees with data. If the only free parameter is adjusted to produce the known A asymmetry coefficient, the predicted B asymmetry agrees well with data and vice versa. It is pointed out that angular momentum is not conserved in free neutron decay and that the weak coupling constant is detached from the much stronger fine structure constant of electromagnetic coupling.
Gauge boson mass generation–without Higgs–in the scalar strong interaction hadron theory  [PDF]
F. C. Hoh
Natural Science (NS) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2010.24048
Abstract: It is shown that the gauge boson mass is natu-rally generated–without Higgs–in the pion beta decay using the scalar strong interaction had-ron theory. This mass generation is made pos-sible by the presence of relative time between quarks in the pion in a fully Lorentz covariant formalism.
CP Violation in Kaon Decay in the Scalar Strong Interaction Hadron Theory  [PDF]
F. C. Hoh
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2012.310193
Abstract: CP conservation and violation in neutral kaon decay are considered from a first principles’ theory, recently published as “Scalar Strong Interaction Hadron Theory”. The arbitrary phase angle relating K0 and 0 in current phenomenology is identified to be related to the product of the relative energy to the relative time between the s and d quarks in these kaons. The argument of the CP violating parameter ? is predicted to be 45? without employing measured data. The K0S decay rate is twice the K0L -K0S masss difference, in near agreement with data, and both are proportional to the square of the relative energy 29.44 eV. Any pion from K0L decay will also have a mass shift of ≈1.28 × 10-5 eV. The present first principles’ theory is consistent with CP conservation. To achieve CP violation, the relative time cannot extend to both +∞ and -∞ but is bounded in at least one direction. The values of these bounds lie outside the present theory and it is unknown how they can be brought forth. -B0 mixing is also considered and the relative energy is 663.66 eV.
A Theoretical Foundation for Understanding Law Subjects and Rights in Igbo Philosophy of Law  [PDF]
F. O. C. Njoku
Open Journal of Philosophy (OJPP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2013.31A041

This paper attempts to respond to a call to find an ontological basis for establishing African legal theory. The African world of my choice is the Igbo world of South-east Nigeria. It is a world I want to examine to see how its material and theoretical structures help articulate a philosophy of law in terms of projecting a consistent understanding of law subjects and the foundations of their rights. The article builds on the contributions of F. U. Okafor and his many African critics.

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