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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 161993 matches for " F. Al-Attar "
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Detection of Antibodies Against Avian Influenza Virus in Wild Pigeons and Starlings
M.Y. AL-Attar,F.A. Danial,S.Y. Al-Baroodi
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2012,
Abstract: Sixty wild birds for each of pigeons and starlings were captured in Mosul and examined clinically and serologically for avian influenza virus (AIV) infection. ELISA and haemagglutination inhibition (HI) tests were used for the detection of (AIV) antibodies in both types of examined birds. Clinically the pigeons appeared dull with loss of appetite. The percentage of positive serum antibodies titers against (AIV) was 81.8 and 50% with ELISA and HI tests, respectivly. The starlings did not show any abnormal clinical signs and all serum samples showed negative results by ELISA and HI tests. In conclusion, pigeons only showed ability to be infected with AIV subtype H9N2 and they may play an important role in spreading (AIV) as natural carriers.
Thermal, Mechanical and Rheological Properties of Low Density/Linear Low Density Polyethylene Blend for Packing Application  [PDF]
F. Al-Attar, M. Alsamhan, A. Al-Banna, J. Samuel
Journal of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering (MSCE) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/msce.2018.61005
Abstract:
Packaging is the subject of considerable commercial development by a variety of organizations around the world. In this study the mechanical, thermal and rheological properties were investigated for different blend ratios of low density polyethylene (LDPE) and linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE). The weight percent of the LDPEs used in the blends were 50, 60, 70, 80 and 90. The polymer blends were prepared in a twin screw extruder to produce a thin sheet (1-mm thickness) similar to the packaging grade. Tensile results showed that the 50/50 composition exhibited the highest stress at break, where the differential scanning calorimetry results indicated a co-crystalline phase in some blends. The results produced by the rheometer revealed the LLDPE effect over the complex viscosity and consequently blend easy processing. The present study conclusively demonstrates that at low weight percent of linear low density polyethylene in the blend displays better properties for packaging application.
Preparation and Evaluation of Veterinary 0.1% Injectable Solution of Atropine Sulphate
F K Mohammad,F T Abachi,A S Alias,M Y Al-Attar
Veterinary World , 2012,
Abstract: This study introduces the know-how of preparing a multiple injection form atropine sulphate solution. An injectable aqueous solution of atropine sulphate at a concentration of 0.1%. was prepared under aseptic conditions in dark glass bottles each containing 50 ml. The preparation was intended for animal use only. It contained 1g atropine sulphate, 9 g sodium chloride as a normal saline, benzyl alcohol 15 ml as a preservative and water for injection up to 1000 ml. The pH of the solution was adjusted to 4.2 (range 3.0-6.5). The preparation of 0.1% atropine sulphate solution was clear colorless solution free from undesired particles. It complied with the requirements for injectable solutions. Further, the preparation was safe when used under laboratory conditions in chicks, rats and donkeys. It was also effective in preventing dichlorvos (an organophosphate insecticide)-induced poisoning in chicks in a manner comparable to a commercial preparation of 0.1% atropine sulphate. In conclusion, the know-how of a preparation of 0.1% atropine sulphate solution is presented for veterinary use. [Vet. World 2012; 5(3.000): 145-149]
Attenuating Effect of Ginkgo biloba Leaves Extract on Liver Fibrosis Induced by Thioacetamide in Mice
Atef M. Al-Attar
Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/761450
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of Ginkgo biloba leaves extract on experimental liver fibrosis induced by thioacetamide (TAA) in male albino mice. The experimental mice were divided into four groups. The mice of the first group were served as control. The experimental animals of the second group were given 150 mg/kg body weight of TAA by intraperitoneal injection, twice weekly, for 9 weeks. The mice of the third group were exposed to TAA and supplemented with G. biloba leaves extract. The animals of the fourth group were supplemented with G. biloba leaves extract. The levels of plasma alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyl transferase, alkaline phosphatase, triglycerides, cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were statistically increased while the levels of plasma total protein, albumin, glucose, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were significantly decreased. The levels of liver superoxide dismutase, glutathione, glycogen and total protein were notably declined, whereas the level of total lipid was increased in mice of the second group. Furthermore, microscopic examination of liver sections from mice treated with TAA showed an abnormal morphology characterized by nodular transformations in liver parenchyma which surrounded by fibrous septa. Administration of G. biloba leaves extract reduced extent and development of fibrous septa, liver cells change, and biochemical alterations in mice exposed to TAA. This study showed that G. biloba leaves extract has a potential activity against TAA-induced liver fibrosis and suggested that the chemical constituents of G. biloba are effective in modulation of oxidative stress induced by TAA.
Physiological and Histopathological Investigations on the Effects of -Lipoic Acid in Rats Exposed to Malathion
Atef M. Al-Attar
Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/203503
Abstract: The present study was designed to evaluate the influence of -lipoic acid treatment in rats exposed to malathion. Forty adult male rats were used in this study and distributed into four groups. Animals of group 1 were untreated and served as control. Rats of group 2 were orally given malathion at a dose level of 100 mg/kg body weight (BW) for a period of one month. Experimental animals of group 3 were orally given -lipoic acid at a dose level of 20 mg/kg BW and after 3 hours exposed to malathion at the same dose given to group 2. Rats of group 4 were supplemented with -lipoic acid at the same dose given to group 3. The activities of serum glutamic oxaloacetic acid transaminase (GOT), glutamic pyruvic acid transaminase (GPT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and acid phosphatase (ACP), and the values of creatinine, urea, and uric acid were statistically increased, while the values of total protein and total albumin were significantly decreased in rats exposed to malathion. Moreover, administration of malathion for one month resulted in damage of liver and kidney structures. Administration of -lipoic acid before malathion exposure to rat can prevent severe alterations of hematobiochemical parameters and disruptions of liver and kidney structures. In conclusion, this study obviously demonstrated that pretreatment with -lipoic acid significantly attenuated the physiological and histopathological alterations induced by malathion. Also, the present study identifies new areas of research for development of better therapeutic agents for liver, kidney, and other organs' dysfunctions and diseases.
Changes in Haematological Parameters of the Fish, Oreochromis niloticus Treated with Sublethal Concentration of Cadmium
Atef M. Al-Attar
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2005,
Abstract: The sub-chronic and chronic exposure of Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus to sublethal concentration of 5. 5 ppm cadmium (0. 3 of 96 h LC50) for 1, 3 and 5 weeks was studied. Exposure of Tilapia to cadmium resulted into a number of haematological alterations. Erythropenia, a marked decrease in values of haemoglobin content, haematocrit and mean corpuscular haemoglobin were observed at all experimental periods of cadmium exposure. The values of mean cell volume were decreased at the second and last periods. The levels of mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration decreased significantly at first period compared to the control value.
The Influence of Dietary Grapeseed Oil on DMBA-Induced Liver Enzymes Disturbance in the Frog, Rana ridibunda
Atef M. AL-Attar
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition , 2004,
Abstract: The current study was designed to determine whether dietary grapeseed oil inhibits liver cytotoxicity induced by 7,12- dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) in the frog, Rana ridibunda. The experimental animals were divided into five groups and treated for 2 weeks with 7,12- dimethylbenz(a)anthracene, DMBA plus grapeseed oil, grapeseed oil, olive oil and last group was untreated and used as control. Liver enzymes, lactate dehydrogenase, glutamic oxaloacetic acid transaminase, glutamic pyruvic acid transaminase and alkaline phosphatase were chosen to assess liver function. In comparison with control, the administration of DMBA alone significantly elevated the activity of liver lactate dehydrogenase, while the activities of glutamic oxaloacetic acid transaminase, glutamic pyruvic acid transaminase and alkaline phosphatase were declined. Similar results were noted in frogs treated with DMBA plus grapeseed oil. Moreover, it is found that the changes were more pronounced in frogs treated with DMBA plus grapeseed oil than those treated with DMBA. The activities of these enzymes in frogs exposed to grapeseed oil or olive oil were not significantly different from those of controls. These results indicate that grapeseed oil effectively increases DMBA-induced hepatotoxicity in the frogs. Also, the results suggested that grapeseed oil has enhancing effects of DMBA metabolic activation.
Chemopreventive Effect of Cinnamon Extract on Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Physiological Changes in the Frog, Rana ridibunda
Atef M. Al-Attar
Journal of Applied Sciences , 2007,
Abstract: The present study examined the preventive influences of an aqueous extract of cinnamon on carbon tetrachloride-induced some physiological alterations in the frog, Rana ridibunda. The experimental animals were divided into five batches. The first batch was untreated and served as control. The other batches were treated for 6 weeks with carbon tetrachloride, cinnamon extract plus carbon tetrachloride, cinnamon and corn oil, respectively. Haematological, biochemical and hepatosomatic index indices were chosen as physiological indicators. These parameters were evaluated at 2, 4 and 6 weeks. In comparison with control and cinnamon plus CCl4 batches, significant decreases of red blood cell count, haemoglobin concentration, haematocrit, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration and increases of glutamic pyruvic acid transaminase values were noted in CCl4-exposed batch at all experimental periods. Also, glutamic oxaloacetic acid transaminase and hepatosomatic index levels were significantly elevated, while mean corpuscular haemoglobin values were decreased at second and last periods. Mean cell volume values were only increased at the first period. In comparison with control batch, significant decreases of red blood cell count, haemoglobin concentration, haematocrit, and increases of glutamic oxaloacetic acid transaminase, glutamic pyruvic acid transaminase and hepatosomatic index values were observed in frogs treated with cinnamon plus CCl4 at 2 and 6 weeks. Mean cell volume and mean corpuscular haemoglobin values were statistically elevated at second period. Mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration values were declined at last period. Moreover, the percentage changes of these parameters in cinnamon plus CCl4 batch tended to be lower than CCl4 treated the experimental animals. In addition, it is conceivable therefore, that the cinnamon aqueous extract exhibits a protective influence against carbon tetrachloride-induced some physiological changes, probably mediated through different pathways.
The Influences of Nickel Exposure on Selected Physiological Parameters and Gill Structure in the Teleost Fish, Oreochromis niloticus
Atef M. Al-Attar
Journal of Biological Sciences , 2007,
Abstract: The present study was focused for investigation the effects of sublethal concentration of nickel exposure after three weeks on some physiological and gill structure alterations in the freshwater fish, Oreochromis niloticus. Physiological parameters such as serum sodium, chloride, osmolality, glucose, cholesterol, total protein, albumin, amylase, lipase, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase were chosen to evaluate the response of experimental animal to nickel intoxication. In comparison with control, serum sodium, chloride and osmolality values were decreased in nickel-exposed fish, while the levels of serum glucose, cholesterol, total protein, albumin, amylase, lipase, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase were significantly elevated. Nickel exposure induced some histological changes in fish gill structure. These changes included hyperplasia, hypertrophy, shortening of secondary lamellae and fusion of adjacent lamellae. The physiological and histological changes indicate that nickel is very hazardous pollutant. Moreover, the above mentioned severe alterations indicate that the fish, Oreochromis niloticus is appropriate species to act as a biological indicator of water pollution level.
Biochemical Effects of Short-term Cadmium Exposure on the Freshwater Fish, Oreochromis niloticus
Atef M. Al-Attar
Journal of Biological Sciences , 2005,
Abstract: The influences of cadmium, a well known environmental pollutant, on different biochemical parameters in fresh water fish, Oreochromis niloticus exposed to sublethal concentration of 9.3 ppm, 0.5 of 96 h LC50, for 1, 4 and 7 days were investigated. Significant increases in the levels of blood glucose and the activities of glutamic pyruvic acid transaminase, glutamic oxaloacetic acid transaminase and alkaline phosphatase were observed in the fish treated with cadmium during all experimental periods. The levels of blood triglycerides and total protein were statistically elevated at second and last periods. Insignificant alterations in the levels of blood cholesterol were noted. The observed hyperglycaemia induced by cadmium might be explained in part by increasing rate of glycogenolysis or gluconeogenesis. The observed hypertriglyceridaemia and the elevations of glutamic pyruvic acid transaminase, glutamic oxaloacetic acid transaminase and alkaline phosphatase may be due to liver dysfunction. The observed hyperproteinaemia in the fish, Oreochromis niloticus following cadmium administration is possibly attribute to disorder of protein metabolism. However, the significance of the toxic effects of sublethal concentration of cadmium on the various biochemical parameters studied is discussed.
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