Abstract:
We present a quantum-mechanical study of the exothermic 7LiH reaction with H. Accurate reactive probabilities and rate coefficients are obtained by solving the Schrodinger equation for the motion of the three nuclei on a single Born-Oppenheimer potential energy surface (PES) and using a coupled-channel hyperspherical coordinate method. Our new rates indeed confirm earlier, qualitative predictions and some previous theoretical calculations, as discussed in the main text. In the astrophysical domain we find that the depletion process largely dominates for redshift (z) between 400 and 100, a range significant for early Universe models. This new result from first-principle calculations leads us to definitively surmise that LiH should be already destroyed when the survival processes become important. Because of this very rapid depletion reaction, the fractional abundance of LiH is found to be drastically reduced, so that it should be very difficult to manage to observe it as an imprinted species in the cosmic background radiation (CBR). The present findings appear to settle the question of LiH observability in the early Universe. We further report several state-to-state computed reaction rates in the same range of temperatures of interest for the present problem.

Abstract:
Calculations have been carried out for the vibrational quenching of excited H$_2$ molecules which collide with Li$^+$ ions at ultralow energies. The dynamics has been treated exactly using the well known quantum coupled-channel expansions over different initial vibrational levels. The overall interaction potential has been obtained from the calculations carried out earlier in our group using highly correlated ab initio methods. The results indicate that specific features of the scattering observables, e.g. the appearance of Ramsauer-Townsend minima in elastic channel cross sections and the marked increase of the cooling rates from specific initial states, can be linked to potential properties at vanishing energies (sign and size of scattering lengths) and to the presence of either virtual states or bound states. The suggestion is made that by selecting the initial state preparation of the molecular partners, the ionic interactions would be amenable to controlling quenching efficiency at ultralow energies.

Abstract:
Violation of modified Wigner inequality by means binary bipartite quantum system allows the discrimination between the quantum world and the classical local-realistic one, and also ensures the security of Ekert-like quantum key distribution protocol. In this paper we study both theoretically and experimentally the bounds of quantum correlation associated to the modified Wigner's inequality finding the optimal experimental configuration for its maximal violation. We also extend this analysis to the implementation of Ekert's protocol.

Abstract:
The new process of quantum-injection into an optical parametric amplifier operating in entangled configuration is adopted to amplify into a large dimensionality spin 1/2 Hilbert space the quantum entanglement and superposition properties of the photon-couples generated by parametric down-conversion. The structure of the Wigner function and of the field's correlation functions shows a decoherence-free, multiphoton Schroedinger-cat behaviour of the emitted field which is largely detectable against the squeezed-vacuum noise. Furthermore, owing to its entanglement character, the system is found to exhibit multi-particle quantum nonseparability and Bell-type nonlocality properties. These relevant quantum features are analyzed for several travelling-wave optical configurations implying different input quantum-injection schemes

Abstract:
We implemented the experiment proposed by Cabello [arXiv:quant-ph/0309172] to test the bounds of quantum correlation. As expected from the theory we found that, for certain choices of local observables, Cirel'son's bound of the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality ($2\sqrt{2}$) is not reached by any quantum states.

Abstract:
A detailed quantum analysis of a ionic reaction with a crucial role in the ISM is carried out to generate ab initio reactive cross sections with a quantum method. From them we obtain the corresponding CH+ depletion rates over a broad range of temperatures. The new rates are further linked to a complex chemical network that shows the evolution in time of the CH+ abundance in photodissociation region (PDR) and molecular cloud (MC) environments. The evolutionary abundances of CH+ are given by numerical solutions of a large set of coupled, first-order kinetics equations by employing the new chemical package KROME. The differences found between all existing calculations from low-T experiments are explained via a simple numerical model that links the low-T cross section reductions to collinear approaches where nonadiabatic crossings dominate. The analysis of evolutionary abundance of CH+ reveals that the important region for the depletion reaction of this study is that above 100 K, hence showing that, at least for this reaction, the differences with the existing low-temperature experiments are of essentially no importance within the astrochemical environments. A detailed analysis of the chemical network involving CH+ also shows that a slight decrease in the initial oxygen abundance might lead to higher CH+ abundance since the main chemical carbon ion depletion channel is reduced in efficiency. This simplified observation might provide an alternative starting point to understand the problem of astrochemical models in matching the observed CH+ abundances.

Abstract:
Chemistry has a key role in the evolution of the interstellar medium (ISM), so it is highly desirable to follow its evolution in numerical simulations. However, it may easily dominate the computational cost when applied to large systems. In this paper we discuss two approaches to reduce these costs: (i) based on computational strategies, and (ii) based on the properties and on the topology of the chemical network. The first methods are more robust, while the second are meant to be giving important information on the structure of large, complex networks. To this aim we first discuss the numerical solvers for integrating the system of ordinary differential equations (ODE) associated with the chemical network. We then propose a buffer method that decreases the computational time spent in solving the ODE system. We further discuss a flux-based method that allows one to determine and then cut on the fly the less active reactions. In addition we also present a topological approach for selecting the most probable species that will be active during the chemical evolution, thus gaining information on the chemical network that otherwise would be difficult to retrieve. This topological technique can also be used as an a priori reduction method for any size network. We implemented these methods into a 1D Lagrangian hydrodynamical code to test their effects: both classes lead to large computational speed-ups, ranging from x2 to x5. We have also tested some hybrid approaches finding that coupling the flux method with a buffer strategy gives the best trade-off between robustness and speed-up of calculations.

Abstract:
We implemented the protocol of entanglement assisted orientation in the space proposed by Brukner et al (quant-ph/0603167). We used min-max principle to evaluate the optimal entangled state and the optimal direction of polarization measurements which violate the classical bound.

Abstract:
We report on theoretical and experimental demonstration of high-efficiency coupling of two-photon entangled states produced in the nonlinear process of spontaneous parametric down conversion into a single-mode fiber. We determine constraints for the optimal coupling parameters. This result is crucial for practical implementation of quantum key distribution protocols with entangled states.

Abstract:
We analyze the relationship between the bound and the free waves in the noncollinear SHG scheme, along with the vectorial conservation law for the different components arising when there are two pump beams impinging on the sample with two different incidence angles. The generated power is systematically investigated, by varying the polarization state of both fundamental beams, while absorption is included via the Herman and Hayden correction terms. The theoretical simulations, obtained for samples which are some coherence length thick show that the resulting polarization mapping is an useful tool to put in evidence the interference between bound and free waves, as well as the effect of absorption on the interference pattern