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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 70 matches for " Evolutionary Botany "
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Species diversity and distribution pattern of seed plants in China
中国种子植物物种多样性及其分布格局

YING Tsun Shen Laboratory of Systematic,Evolutionary Botany,Institute of Botany,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing,
应俊生

生物多样性 , 2001,
Abstract: 缤纷的中国植物区系包含着大量的特有种,这使中国成为北半球最富植物多样性的国家。其原因一是土地面积辽阔,植物演化历史时间悠久,气候相对稳定。二是中国具有连续完整的热带、亚热带、温带和寒带的植被类型。三是伴随地质构造上的活跃,中国广大陆地受到了强烈的深切和抬升,导致生境复杂多样,使中国成为一个重要的植物物种保存中心、形成中心和进化中心。中国植物多样性的分布是很不均匀的,主要集中分布于中南部,约在20°~35°N之间。在该范围内,我们确定了3个植物多样性热点地区:横断山脉地区、华中地区和岭南地区,它们的植物多样性和特有性程度都很高,其中横断山脉地区尤为突出。
Advances in plant conservation genetics
植物保护遗传学研究进展

LI Ang,GE Song Laboratory of Systematic,Evolutionary Botany,Institute of Botany,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing,
李昂
,葛颂

生物多样性 , 2002,
Abstract: Conservation genetics is a new field of research focusing on the studies and practices of biodiversity conservation based on the principles and techniques of population genetics. During the past decades, genetic studies have made increasingly great contributions to biodiversity conservation in theory and practice. In this paper, we briefly introduce the concept and history of conservation genetics, and highlight progress in plant conservation genetics. Four major aspects of conservation genetics in plants are addressed, including plant phylogenetic reconstruction and identification of conservation units, the relationship between genetic diversity and species fitness, population genetic structure and conservation strategies, as well as the identification and utilization of plant genetic resources. In addition, the great importance of genetic studies in plant conservation is discussed.
A novel molecular marker-SNPs and its aoolication
新一代分子标记--SNPs及其应用

ZOU Yu Ping,GE Song Laboratory of Systematic,Evolutionary Botany,
邹喻苹
,葛颂

生物多样性 , 2003,
Abstract: Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are an abundant form of DNA variation which have a frequency of 1% or more throughout the genomes. SNPs consist of a single nucleotide base alteration including transition and transversion. They are stable and reliable mutation and are frequently referred to as bi allelic makers. SNPs can be used conveniently for large scale and high throughput genome analysis, in particular combining DNA chips and microarrays techniques. Therefore, SNPs provide a novel molecular marker system potentially useful for a wide range of biological disciplines. Here we briefly introduce the history and developments of SNP techniques, including its basic concept, its discovery and screening. We also discuss its applications in different research areas such as genetic mapping in mode animals and plants, DNA fingerprinting and its application in variety identification, species origin and relationship, linkage disequilibrium and associate analysis, and its application in population genetics. We anticipate that SNP markers will contribute greatly to the studies on population genetics, molecular breeding as well as evolutionary biology.
A STUDY ON THE GENUS RIBES L.IN CHINA
中国茶藨子属的研究

Lu Ling-ti,Laboratory of Systematic,Evolutionary Botany,
陆玲娣

植物分类学报 , 1995,
Abstract: The present paper deals with the morphology, classification, systematic arrangement and geographical distribution of the genus Ribes L. from China. Many botanists made some investigations on the systematic position of this genus, but their views have been controversial for a long time. It was recognized as a genus of Saxifragaceae by some tax-onomists, while others treated it as an independent family, i. e. Grossulariaceae or Ribesi-aceae, based on external morphological and pollen characteristics. The present paper supports the treatmemt of the genus Ribes L. as a member of the Saxifragaceae. Through detailed analysis of the characters of main organs, the evolutionary trends are suggested : the flower has evolved from large and bisexual to small and unisexual; the calyx from tubular or cylin-dric to campanulate, cupuliform, pelviform to discoidal, even to rotate; the inforescence ffrom a raceme to a corymb or a umbell, then reduced to several flowers or a single flower; the bract from small to large and its shape from ovate, nearly rounded to elliptic, oblong, lanceolate or linear. Based on the data from other authors, the evolutionary tendencies of the pollen morphology are as follows; the aperture type from zonocolporate to pantoporate; the shape of ectoaperture from colpate to porous and the number of endoapertures per ectoaperture reduced from 2 to 1. The analysis of morphological and pollen characteristics shows that the subdivision of Ribes into 4 subgenera in Rehder' s system is reasonable and is accepted by the present author, with some important revisions in the subdivisions of subgenera and sections, and systematic arrangements. In addition, the systematic arrangement of the subgenera and sections presented here in this, paper is rather different from that in Rehder' s system from the phylogenetic point of view. Fifty-nine species and 30 varieties are recognized from China, belonging to four subgenera, 10 sections and 15 series. Five series are described as new. Ribes L. is basically a genus of North Temperate area of the four subgenera, 14 sections and more than 160 species in the world, four subgenera, 10 sections and more than 80 species are recorded in Asia. Among them, four subgenera, 10 sections and 44 species, including primitive, intermediate and advanced taxa of phylogenetic importance are concentrated in Eastern Asiatic region. It is clearly shown that the Eastern Asiatic region is not only the frequency center, but also the diversity center of the genus Ribes L. at the present time. In this floristic region the greatest number of species and endemics exist in China, i. e. in Sichuan Province and the adjacent regions, including W. Sichuan, NW. Yunnan, SE. Gansu, S. Shaanxi, W. Hubei and W. Hunan, Guizhou, E. Xizang and E. Qinghai, where the genus also reaches its highest morphological diversity. According to the above fact, we tend to infer that the Hengduan Mountain region in the Sino-Himalayan Forest Subkingdom and the west
A NEW SPECIES OF THE GENUS ACONITUM L. FROM YUNNAN, WITH AN OBSERVATION ON ITS B CHROMOSOMES
云南乌头属一新种及其B染色体的初步观察

Yang Qin-er,Laboratory of Systematic,Evolutionary Botany,
杨亲二
,龚洵

植物分类学报 , 1995,
Abstract: In this paper, a species of the genus Aconitum L. from Yunnan, A. tuguancunense Q. E. Yang, was described as new. Its chromosome number and karyotype, particularly in-trapopulational variation of the number of B chromosomes, were reported. The number of B chromosomes was found variable not only among individuals but also among cells within the same root tip, ranging from 0 to 12.
A TAXONOMIC NOTE ON FRITILLARIA (LILIACEAE) IN THE MIDDLE AND LOWER REACHES OF THE YANGTZE RIVER, CHINA
中国长江中下游地区贝母属的修订

Luo Yi-bo Chen Sing-chi Laboratory of Systematic,Evolutionary Botany,Institute of Botany,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing,
罗毅波
,陈心启

植物分类学报 , 1995,
Abstract: A revision is made of the genus Fritillaria in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River on the basis of field and herbarium material. Three species and a variety are recognized in this area, and fourteen spceies and five varieties are reduced as synonyms.
Polymorphism of male cones in populations of Pinus yunnanensis Franch.
云南松居群内雄球花多态性

YU Hong,ZHENG Shu Song,HUANG Rui Fu,Laboratory of Evolutionary Ecology,Yunnan University,Kunming Laboratory of Systematic,Evolutionary Botany,Institute of Botany,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beiji,
虞泓
,郑树松

生物多样性 , 1998,
Abstract: This paper deals with the polymorphism of male cones in the populations of Pinus yunnanensis Franch. from the central region of Yunnan. The morphological characters of male cones were statistically analyzed in the sampled populations.Male cone characters were observed and their polymorphism was described in the populations. As a result, male cones were shown highly polymorphic in the populations and the polytypism between the populations was obvious in P.yunnanensis .In the populations, the fertility, colour, number and size of male cone are controlled by multigene,and the variation of these characters appear continuous.The polymorphism and polytypism of male cones are based upon the rich genetic diversity and high heterozygosity among individuals and populations of P. yunnanensis . The heterozygous advantage and environmental heterogeneity are both important factors which cause and maintain the balanced polymorphism and herozygosity within population. The reproducibility of male cones is correlated with the habitat and wood age,and closely correlated to the genetic structure of individual and population of P. yunnanensis. It is important to utilize the hybrid vigor and heterozygous advantage in forest breeding and platation.
The genetic diversity and conservation of Sinocalycanthus chinensis
夏腊梅的遗传多样性及其保护

ZHOU Shi-Liang,YE Wen-Guo,Laboratory of Systematic,Evolutionary Botany,
周世良
,叶文国

生物多样性 , 2002,
Abstract: 夏腊梅(Sinocalycanthus chinensis)是国家二级保护的珍稀濒危植物,夏腊梅属(Sinocalycanthus)的唯一代表,仅间断分布于我国浙江省临安市天台县极狭小的范围内,本文采用等位酶淀粉凝胶电泳技术对采自上述两地的天然居群和天目山自然保护区引种的人工居群的553个样品进行了遗传多样性检测,并与浙江腊梅(Chimonan-thus zhejiangensis)作对比,检测结果表明夏腊梅的遗传多样性极低,从14个酶系统检测到的23个位点看,在物种水平上每位点的等位基因平均数(A)为1.2,多态位点(P)占21.7%,观察杂合度(Ho)为0.010。在居群水平上,A=1.0-1.1,P=0-13.0%,Ho=0-0.014。而对照种浙江腊梅杭州植物园人工居群的上述指标分别为A=1.5,P=39.1%,Ho=0.071。夏腊梅的2个自然居群之间在Mdh-4,Pgd-3和Sod-1发生显著的分化,但居群内亚居群间几乎没有分化,在天目山自然保护区引种的人工居群中没有检测到多态性,说明作为迁地保护的天目山自然保护区人工居群并没能有效地保护夏腊梅的遗传多样性,由于目前自然保护区基本上采用不加人为干预的经营方式,划人龙塘山自然保护区内的自然亚居群会因为森林的自然演替而灭绝,所以,自然保护区目前的这种经营方式不适合对夏腊梅的保护,夏腊梅的例子说明,当我们对保护对象的生物学特性缺乏认识时,我们既不知道应该保护什么,也不知道应该如何保护。
HAMAMELIDACEAE:GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION,FOSSIL HISTORY AND ORIGIN
金缕梅科:地理分布,化石历史和起源

Zhang Zhi-yun Lu An-ming,Laboratory of Systematic,Evolutionary Botany,
张志耘
,路安民

植物分类学报 , 1995,
Abstract: 本文利用系统发育与地理分布相结合的方法,探讨金缕梅科各属植物的系统位置和分布式样,并结合化石、古地理及古气候等证据,讨论该科的分布中心,可能的起源时间和地点以及现代分布式样形成的原因。研究结果表明:全世界金缕梅科植物共30属144种,间断分布于亚洲西部、东部、东南部,非洲东部、南部,大洋洲的澳大利亚东北部以及中美洲和北美洲的东南部,欧洲和南美洲尚无现代类群分布的记载。它基本上是一个热带和亚热带山地分布的科。通过对该科30个属的系统位置及其分布式样的分析,将金缕梅科属的分布归纳为:A.热带分布类型(18属),包括(1)热带亚洲分布(11属),(2)热带中美洲分布(2属),(3)热带非洲分布(2属),(4)热带大洋洲分布(3属),B.温带分布类型(12属),包括(5)东亚分布(7属),(6)西亚分布(2属),(7)西亚-东亚-北美间断分布(1属),(8)东亚-北美间断分布(1属),(9)北美分布(1属)。东亚区南部到印度支那区北部(即中国长江以南至中南半岛北部地区)是它的现代分布区中心;根据化石证据、原始类型分布和外类群分布分析,提出该科植物起源于劳亚古陆,并曾经有一个很长的白垩纪历史,至少在早白垩纪金缕梅科植物的先驱就已经出现。最后,从地质和气候的变迁等方面探讨了金缕梅科现代分布区形成的原因。
THE KARYOTYPE OF BEESIA DELTOPHYLLA AND ITS SYSTEMATIC SIGNIFICANCE
角叶铁破锣的核型及其系统学意义

Yang Qin-er Laboratory of Systematic,Evolutionary Botany Institute of Botany,Academia Sinica,Beijing Gu Zhi-jian Sun Hang Kunming Institute of Botany,Academia Sinica,Kunming,
杨亲二
,顾志建

植物分类学报 , 1995,
Abstract: Investigated in this work was karyomorphology of Beesia deltophylla. The resting nuclei and prophase chromosomes were categorized as complex chromocenter type and interstitial type respectively. The metaphase chromosomes were counted to be 2n-16. The kary-otype was formulated as 2n= 10m 4st 2t(2sat). Based on the results, the karyotypic difference between B. calthifolia and B, deltophylla was shown, and the systematic position of the genus Beesia was discussed. Beesia might be closely related to Cimicifuga and its allied genera, but only distantly related to Trollius and its allies, and thus it might be more reasonable to place Beesia in the tribe Cimicifugeae than in the tribe Trollieae.
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