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Attitudes and perceptions of Australian pharmacy students towards Complementary and Alternative Medicine – a pilot study
Evelin Tiralongo, Marianne Wallis
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-8-2
Abstract: The study aimed to describe the attitudes, perceptions and beliefs of second, third and fourth year pharmacy students towards complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) and to explore factors that might affect attitudes such as learning, preceptors and placements.Pharmacy students from a University in South East Queensland, Australia participated in the study. The study consisted of a cross-sectional survey (n = 110) and semi-structured interviews (n = 9).The overall response rate for the survey was 75%, namely 50% (36/72) for second year, 77.3% (34/44) for third year and 97.6% (40/41) for fourth year students. Overall, 95.5% of pharmacy students believe that pharmacists should be able to advise patients about CAM and most (93.7%) have used CAM prior to course enrolment. Students' attitudes to CAM are influenced by the use of CAM by family, friends and self, CAM training, lecturers and to a lesser degree by preceptors. The majority of pharmacy students (89.2%) perceive education about CAM as a core and integral part of their professional degree and favour it over an additional postgraduate degree. However, they see a greater need for education in complementary medicines (such as herbal medicines, vitamins and minerals) than for education in complementary therapies (such as acupuncture, meditation and bio-magnetism). Knowledge and educational input rationalised rather than marginalised students' attitudes towards CAM.Pharmacy students perceive education about CAM as a core and integral part of their professional degree. Students' attitudes towards CAM can be influenced by learning, lecturers, preceptors and practice experience. The content and focus of CAM education has to be further investigated and tailored to meet the professional needs of our future health professionals.Surveys of medical and pharmacy students report that the majority of students welcome the inclusion of CAM education in the medical [1-4] and pharmacy curricula [5,6]. However, most of the studi
Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine among People with Type 2 Diabetes in Taiwan: A Cross-Sectional Survey
Hsiao-yun Annie Chang,Marianne Wallis,Evelin Tiralongo
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/983792
Abstract: Research into CAM use by people with diabetes is limited. This study explored CAM use among patients who attend diabetic clinics for followup treatment. Special attention was paid to patients' changing patterns of CAM use before and after diagnosis with Type 2 diabetes, their experience of CAM use, and their management of CAM use with conventional medicines. A retrospective cross-sectional survey (=326) was undertaken in three census regions in Taiwan, including metropolitan, urban, and rural areas in 2006-7 (87.4% response rate). Participants reported extensive use of CAM with conventional medicines. The prevalence of CAM use was 22.7% before and 61.0% after diagnosis with Type 2 diabetes with nutritional supplements being the most commonly used CAM before and after diagnosis. However, the disclosure rate of CAM use to healthcare professionals remained low (24.6%), and lack of knowledge about CAM ingredients was common (63.4%). Awareness of the widespread use of CAM by people with Type 2 diabetes is crucial for healthcare professionals. The self-administration of both conventional medicines and CAM without disclosure of CAM use to healthcare professionals may result in ineffective diabetes management and adverse effects. CAM information needs to be incorporated into clinical practice and patient and professional education.
Cytotoxic Effects of Bangladeshi Medicinal Plant Extracts
Shaikh J. Uddin,I. Darren Grice,Evelin Tiralongo
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2011, DOI: 10.1093/ecam/nep111
Abstract: To investigate the cytotoxic effect of some Bangladeshi medicinal plant extracts, 16 Bangladeshi medicinal plants were successively extracted with n-hexane, dichloromethane, methanol and water. The methanolic and aqueous extracts were screened for cytotoxic activity against healthy mouse fibroblasts (NIH3T3) and three human cancer-cell lines (gastric: AGS; colon: HT-29; and breast: MDA-MB-435S) using the MTT assay. Two methanolic extracts (Hygrophila auriculata and Hibiscus tiliaceous) and one aqueous extract (Limnophila indica) showed no toxicity against healthy mouse fibroblasts, but selective cytotoxicity against breast cancer cells (IC50 1.1–1.6 mg mL−1). Seven methanolic extracts from L. indica, Clerodendron inerme, Cynometra ramiflora, Xylocarpus moluccensis, Argemone mexicana, Ammannia baccifera and Acrostichum aureum and four aqueous extracts from Hygrophila auriculata, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, X. moluccensis and Aegiceras corniculatum showed low toxicity (IC50 > 2.5 mg mL−1) against mouse fibroblasts but selective cytotoxicity (IC50 0.2–2.3 mg mL−1) against different cancer cell lines. The methanolic extract of Blumea lacera showed the highest cytotoxicity (IC50 0.01–0.08 mg mL−1) against all tested cell lines among all extracts tested in this study. For some of the plants their traditional use as anticancer treatments correlates with the cytotoxic results, whereas for others so far unknown cytotoxic activities were identified.
The prevalence and experience of Australian naturopaths and Western herbalists working within community pharmacies
Lesley A Braun, Ondine Spitzer, Evelin Tiralongo, Jenny M Wilkinson, Michael Bailey, Susan Poole, Michael Dooley
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-11-41
Abstract: Practising naturopaths and WHM practitioners were invited to participate in an anonymous, self-administered, on-line survey. Participants were recruited using the mailing lists and websites of CM manufacturers and professional associations.479 practitioners participated. 24% of respondents (n = 111) reported they had worked in community pharmacy, three-quarters for less than 5 years. Whilst in this role 74% conducted specialist CMs sales, 62% short customer consultations, 52% long consultations in a private room and 51% staff education. This was generally described as a positive learning experience and many appreciated the opportunity to utilise their specialist knowledge in the service of both customers and pharmacy staff. 14% (n = 15) did not enjoy the experience of working in pharmacy at all and suggested pharmacist attitude largely influenced whether the experience was positive or not. Few practitioners were satisfied with the remuneration received. 44% of the total sample provided comment on the issue of integration into pharmacy, with the main concern being the perceived incommensurate paradigms of practice between pharmacy and naturopathy. Of the total sample, 38% reported that they would consider working as a practitioner in retail pharmacy in future.The level of integration of CM into pharmacy is extending beyond the mere stocking of supplements. Naturopaths and Western Herbalists are becoming utilised in pharmaciesThe term 'integrative (or, sometimes, integrated) medicine' describes a relatively recent development in complementary medicine. It has been defined as practising medicine in a way that selectively incorporates elements of complementary and alternative medicine into comprehensive treatment plans alongside Western medical methods of diagnosis and treatment [1]. The term integrative medicine is not a synonym for complementary medicine but has a larger meaning and mission with a focus on preventative health and healing rather than disease and treatm
Perceptions, use and attitudes of pharmacy customers on complementary medicines and pharmacy practice
Lesley A Braun, Evelin Tiralongo, Jenny M Wilkinson, Ondine Spitzer, Michael Bailey, Susan Poole, Michael Dooley
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-10-38
Abstract: Pharmacy customers randomly selected from sixty large and small, metropolitan and rural pharmacies in three Australian states completed an anonymous, self administered questionnaire that had been pre-tested and validated.1,121 customers participated (response rate 62%). 72% had used CMs within the previous 12 months, 61% used prescription medicines daily and 43% had used both concomitantly. Multivitamins, fish oils, vitamin C, glucosamine and probiotics were the five most popular CMs. 72% of people using CMs rated their products as 'very effective' or 'effective enough'. CMs were as frequently used by customers aged 60 years or older as younger customers (69% vs. 72%) although the pattern of use shifted with older age.Most customers (92%) thought pharmacists should provide safety information about CMs, 90% thought they should routinely check for interactions, 87% thought they should recommend effective CMs, 78% thought CMs should be recorded in customer's medication profile and 58% thought pharmacies stocking CMs should also employ a complementary medicine practitioner. Of those using CMs, 93% thought it important for pharmacists to be knowledgeable about CMs and 48% felt their pharmacist provides useful information about CMs.CMs are widely used by pharmacy customers of all ages who want pharmacists to be more involved in providing advice about these products.Herbal medicines, nutritional and dietary supplements, also known as complementary medicines (CMs), have become increasingly popular in the United States, United Kingdom, Canada and Australia, with self-medication making up the majority of use [1-5].While it is difficult to provide exact data on the use of complementary medicine in Australia it is clear that a significant proportion (up to 75%) of the Australian public have used complementary medicine in a number of different forms [2,6,7]. Data from the Australian Bureau of Statistics shows an 80% increase in people employed as CM practitioners in the 10 years
Optimized Conditions for the Delivery of Small Membrane Impermeable Compounds into Human Cells Using Hypotonic Shift  [PDF]
Alexandre S. Stephens, Christopher J. Day, Joe Tiralongo
CellBio (CellBio) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/cellbio.2012.12005
Abstract: Cell-based assays represent a major end point of high throughput screening (HTS) but a key limitation of such assays is the potentially poor membrane permeability of test compounds. In this study, we optimized the conditions for the delivery of the membrane impermeable compound 8-hydroxypyrene-1,3,6-trisulfonic acid trisodium salt (HPTS) into human cells using hypotonic shift; a method that can promote the uptake of molecules from the extracellular fluid into cell cytoplasm via endocytosis. We showed that uptake of HPTS by cells was a function of hypotonic buffer osmolarity and that delivery was highly efficient with almost 100% of cells displaying uptake. Delivery of HPTS was equally effective at 25°C and 37°C, with delivery of compound proportional to incubation time and concentration of HPTS within the loading medium. The experimental conditions identified in this study could be applied to HTS drug discovery studies providing an effective method of delivering small membrane impermeable compounds into cells.
Una polémica en torno al lenguaje de la crítica literaria: (A propósito de Crítica y Verdad de Roland Barthes)
Anclajes , 2008,
Abstract: the article investigates the controversy about the language of literary criticism originated in france in the sixties by the publication of the book sur racine by roland barthes. we specify the ways through which the author enters the polemic when writing crítica y verdad, taking the dispute beyond a mere exchange of opinions. this work emphasizes both, the distinction carried out by the critic between the significant word and the symbolic word in order to establish the specificity of literary language, and barthes's proposal of an uncertain literary science whose main purpose is the creation of an adequate language to speak about literature.
Programa para la preservación de la voz en docentes de educación básica
Salud de los Trabajadores , 2006,
Abstract: in the present work comes to fill the emptiness in the labour health field in venezuela, part of the results of an investigation made by the author, in the aragua state, on the alterations of the voice and working conditions in teachers of primary education. it displays the bases of a program for preservation of the voice in the educational ones. contains a set of objectives, directed strategies, actions to develop the formation of the educational ones for the voice preservation, elements to asses and criteria to improve the working conditions from the point of view of work organization, scholastic ergonomics, of hygiene and labour security. also elements for the organization of the workers in committees of security and labour health through delegates of prevention, to watch according to the law of prevention working and environment conditions. the program is conceived as a fundamental element for the labour health development in the teaching and will serve as reference for its instrumentation in all the national territory.
Prevalencia de síntomas de alteraciones de la voz y condiciones de trabajo en docentes de escuela primaria: Aragua-Venezuela
Salud de los Trabajadores , 2006,
Abstract: the objective of this cross-sectional study was to examine the relationship between self-reported voice disorders among primary schoolteachers and workplace risk factors (environmental and organiza-tional) in schools. methods: a random sample of 438 teachers was obtained, which assured a 95% level of confidence. an occupational history was obtained from study subjects. results: 438 teachers (43 male and 395 female) participated. length of employment was 14.7 ± 8.27 years, and the average number of students per teacher was 14.7 ± 8,27. average daily duration of speaking time was 3.74 ± 2.89 hours. the prevalence of dysphonia was 90.4%. in order of importance, symptoms were dryness, throat clearing, itching of the throat, odinophagia, tension of the neck, hoarseness at the end of the day, vocal fatigue, "crick in the throat", difficulty speaking, and sensation of lack of air. the average frequency of symptoms per participant was 5.47 ± 3.4. women were more affected and had greater voice overload. eighty-eight percent of schoolteachers had not received any training in proper voice use. adverse environmental conditions included exposure to chalk dust, noise, poor acoustics, dust in the recess yard and smoke. logistic regression analysis revealed an association between dysphonia and smoke, duration voice disorders are a common problem among school-teachers, and work conditions are negatively impacting these workers. it is necessary to implement short-term control measures.
Una polémica en torno al lenguaje de la crítica literaria: (A propósito de Crítica y Verdad de Roland Barthes) A Controversy About the Language of Literary Criticism: (On Roland Barthes's Crítica y Verdad)
Evelin Arro
Anclajes , 2008,
Abstract: El artículo indaga sobre la polémica en torno al lenguaje de la crítica literaria suscitada en Francia en la década del sesenta a partir de la publicación del libro Sur Racine de Roland Barthes. Especificamos los modos en los que Barthes participa en la polémica a través de la escritura de Crítica y verdad, llevando los términos de la disputa más allá de un mero cruce de opiniones. El trabajo hace hincapié por un lado, en la distinción realizada por el crítico entre la "palabra significante" y la "palabra simbólica" a fin de establecer la especificidad del lenguaje literario, y, por otro lado, en la propuesta de Barthes sobre una incierta ciencia literaria que tiene por objetivo proyectar la creación de un lenguaje adecuado para hablar sobre la literatura. The article investigates the controversy about the language of literary criticism originated in France in the sixties by the publication of the book Sur Racine by Roland Barthes. We specify the ways through which the author enters the polemic when writing Crítica y verdad, taking the dispute beyond a mere exchange of opinions. This work emphasizes both, the distinction carried out by the critic between the significant word and the symbolic word in order to establish the specificity of literary language, and Barthes's proposal of an uncertain literary science whose main purpose is the creation of an adequate language to speak about literature.
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