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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 460 matches for " Eve Worrall "
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Large-scale use of mosquito larval source management for malaria control in Africa: a cost analysis
Eve Worrall, Ulrike Fillinger
Malaria Journal , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-10-338
Abstract: The 'ingredients approach' was used to estimate the economic and financial costs per person protected per year (pppy) for large-scale LSM using microbial larvicides in three ecologically diverse settings: (1) the coastal metropolitan area of Dar es Salaam in Tanzania, (2) a highly populated Kenyan highland area (Vihiga District), and (3) a lakeside setting in rural western Kenya (Mbita Division). Two scenarios were examined to investigate the cost implications of using alternative product formulations. Sensitivity analyses on product prices were carried out.The results show that for programmes using the same granular formulation larviciding costs the least pppy in Dar es Salaam (US$0.94), approximately 60% more in Vihiga District (US$1.50) and the most in Mbita Division (US$2.50). However, these costs are reduced substantially if an alternative water-dispensable formulation is used; in Vihiga, this would reduce costs to US$0.79 and, in Mbita Division, to US$1.94. Larvicide and staff salary costs each accounted for approximately a third of the total economic costs per year. The cost pppy depends mainly on: (1) the type of formulation required for treating different aquatic habitats, (2) the human population density relative to the density of aquatic habitats and (3) the potential to target the intervention in space and/or time.Costs for LSM compare favourably with costs for IRS and LLINs, especially in areas with moderate and focal malaria transmission where mosquito larval habitats are accessible and well defined. LSM presents an attractive tool to be integrated in ongoing malaria control effort in such settings. Further data on the epidemiological health impact of larviciding is required to establish cost effectiveness.Malaria research and control in Africa is seeing unprecedented funding support to scale up much needed interventions. The level of funding has increased six-fold from 2003 to 2009 [1]. Key donor sources are the President's Malaria Initiative (PMI), G
Improving the cost-effectiveness of IRS with climate informed health surveillance systems
Eve Worrall, Stephen J Connor, Madeleine C Thomson
Malaria Journal , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-7-263
Abstract: A climate driven model of malaria transmission was used to simulate cost-effectiveness of alternative IRS coverage levels over six epidemic and non-epidemic years. Decision rules for a potential MEWS system that triggers different IRS coverage are described. The average and marginal cost per case averted with baseline IRS coverage (24%) and under varying IRS coverage levels (50%, 75% and 100%) were calculated.Average cost-effectiveness of 24% coverage varies dramatically between years, from US$108 per case prevented in low transmission to US$0.42 in epidemic years. Similarly for higher coverage (24–100%) cost per case prevented is far higher in low than high transmission years ($108–$267 to $0.88–$2.26).Efficiency and health benefit gains could be achieved by implementing MEWS that provides timely, accurate information. Evidence from southern Africa, (especially Botswana) supports this.Advance knowledge of transmission severity can help managers make coverage decisions which optimise resource use and exploit efficiency gains if a fully integrated MEWS is in place alongside a health system with sufficient flexibility to modify control plans in response to information. More countries and programmes should be supported to use the best available evidence and science to integrate climate informed MEWS into decision making within malaria control programmes.Quantifying the burden of malaria remains a major challenge as many infections may be asymptomatic, inadequate diagnosis and reporting and the fact that a majority of febrile cases do not reach the formal health system make estimation imprecise. Recent estimates espouse the figures of 300–600 million infections and 1–3 million deaths per year [1]. Less contentious is the fact that Africa bears the brunt of the malaria burden, with estimates suggesting greater than 60% of the worlds clinical cases and more than 90% of the worlds malaria deaths [2].Africa's population is estimated to pass 1 billion people by 2010 [3]. The
Global Law Firms in Real-World Contexts: Practical Limitations and Ethical Implications  [PDF]
Eve Darian-Smith
Beijing Law Review (BLR) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/blr.2015.61010
Abstract: This article argues that despite the rise in the numbers of global law firms in recent years, the future of these firms should not be assumed given escalating levels of economic (and legal) uncertainty. These uncertainties are the result, in part, of growing global and regional conflicts, terrorism, environmental degradation, pandemics, forced migrations, trade embargoes and so on which are in turn linked to global inequalities and disparities of wealth between and within the global south and global north. It is argued that global law firms, as the “lubricators of global capitalism”, should pay attention to the localized real-world impacts of finance, development and trade that their legal work enables. This is important not only to ensure the future security and revenues of global law firms, but more importantly to ensure democratic aspirations and the stability of democratic institutions around the world.
Moderated PEF from Transitioning between the Micro and Macroscopic Usage of Coulomb’s Law  [PDF]
Eve G. Zoebisch
Computational Chemistry (CC) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/cc.2015.31002
Abstract: The dielectric constant in Coulomb’s Law, D, can quantify an empirical reduction of force. It can also quantify a reduction of electrostatic field as seen in classical electrostatic theory where the induced charge layer is assumed to be infinitely thin. The two approaches exemplify two traditions that have been used in parallel for decades. They produce Potential Energy Functions (PEFs) that differ by a factor of the permittivity, εr. The classical electrostatic theory result can be incorporated into force field models with an effective dielectric function, Deff, which spans the induced charge layer and accommodates both traditions. The Deff function increases the magnitude of local terms as compared with cumulative long distance terms. It is shown that the Deff function reduces distance dependence of the radial PEF within the induced charge layer and improves computational stability for some systems including substrate in dilute salt solution. End use applications include pharmaceutical development (e.g. protein calculations with docking), materials development, solvation energy calculations and QM/MM calculations.
Rhododendron Uses and Distribution of this Knowledge within Ethnic Groups in Northwest Yunnan Province, China  [PDF]
Elizabeth Georgian, Eve Emshwiller
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2016.41018
Abstract: This research investigated the interplay between nature and culture by focusing on knowledge about the genus Rhododendron in seven ethnic minorities (Bai, Dulong, Lisu, Naxi, Nu, Tibetan, and Yi) and the majority (Han) in Yunnan Province, China. Ethnobotanical uses of rhododendron were determined by interviewing 252 individuals. Using these data, we investigated patterns of knowledge distribution within each ethnic group and the majority to gain an understanding of who holds specific types of ethnobotanical knowledge. We conducted additional interviews with a subset of the interviewees to discuss their perception of knowledge loss and possible solutions. We find that every ethnic minority and the Han had uses for Rhododendron and that this knowledge is distributed unevenly within each ethnic group. Rhododendron knowledge is distributed by age, gender, or distance from tourist areas for use categories such as knowledge of songs, handicrafts, religious uses, and tourism. Additionally, 67.5% of 84 interviewees believe that ethnobotanical knowledge is being lost.
The effect of time of onset on community preferences for health states: an exploratory study
Eve Wittenberg
Health and Quality of Life Outcomes , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1477-7525-9-6
Abstract: A survey of community-perspective preferences for hypothetical health states was conducted among a convenience sample of healthy adults recruited from a hospital consortium's research volunteer pool. Standard gambles for three hypothetical health states of varying severity were compared across three frames describing time of onset: six months prior onset, current onset, and no onset specified in the description. Results were compared within health state across times of onset, controlling for respondent characteristics known to affect utility scores. Sub-analyses were conducted to confirm results on values meeting inclusion criteria indicating a minimum level of understanding and compliance with the valuation task.Standard gamble scores from 368 completed surveys were not significantly different across times of onset described in the health state descriptions regardless of health condition severity and controlling for respondent characteristics. Similar results were found in the subset of 292 responses that excluded illogical and invariant responses.The inclusion of information on the time of onset of a health condition in community-perspective utility survey health state descriptions may not be salient to or may not induce expression of preferences related to disease onset among respondents. Further research is required to understand community preferences regarding condition onset, and how such information might be integrated into health state descriptions to optimize the validity of utility data. Improved understanding of how the design and presentation of health state descriptions affect responses will be useful to eliciting valid preferences for incorporation into decision making.As demands to improve efficiency of health care expenditures increase, valid and accurate measures of the effectiveness of health interventions are becoming increasingly important[1]. Primary among such measures are health utilities, the basis for quality adjusted life years (QALYs)[2].
Development of Children's Knowledge: The Sky, the Earth and the Sun in Children's Explanations
Eve Kikas
Folklore : Electronic Journal of Folklore , 2005,
Abstract: Our knowledge about the world is mediated by sense organs, material and mental mediators, which convey information that may appear conflicting.This is why both children and adults experience difficulties in integrating and conceptualising the information. The article examines the development of children’s knowledge from initial beliefs and knowledge to synthetic and scientific knowledge. Empirical studies investigating the knowledge of Estonian children about planet Earth, the possibility of living on earth and reasons for seasonal changes are described. Examples from interviews withchildren illustrate the complexity of constructing and conceptualising knowledge.
Children's Thinking. Clouds, Rain, and Rainbow in Children's Explanations
Eve Kikas
Folklore : Electronic Journal of Folklore , 2010,
Abstract: The article describes the learning process of children, and the associated difficulties in the transfer from everyday thinking to scientific. Everyday explanations (direct descriptions of phenomena, fragments heard from adults, analogy-based explanations) are prevalent in preschool children. In school, children begin to learn scientific (non-experiential) knowledge and develop the scientific level of thinking. This is a long and time-consuming process, in thecourse of which children continue to use everyday explanations, adding to them synthetic concepts and explanations. The relevant theory is illustrated by analysing the explanations of children with regard to clouds and rain as conventional meteorological phenomena, and the rainbow as an extraordinary and attractive object which deserves attention. Individual interviews were conducted with 116 primary school students. The results show that everyday and syntheticexplanations are predominant in primary school children, with the relevant reasons being pointed out.
Huomioita viron ja suomen paikallissijojen k yt n eroista
Eve Mikone
L?hiv?rdlusi. L?hivertailuja , 2010,
Abstract: Both Estonian and Finnish have six local cases, which divide into interior and exterior cases. From the historical point of view the interior cases are older than the exterior ones. The interior cases date back to the Proto-Uralic, whereas the exterior cases in Estonian and Finnish have a Baltic-Finnic background and are thus notably younger. From the semantic point of view there are no peculiarities in the basic function of the interior and exterior cases. Interior cases are used with three-dimensional entities and exterior cases with two-dimensional ones. However, the interior and exterior cases also diff er in the level of abstraction. Exterior cases are younger and hence at the time they developed there was no urgent need to express local meanings, which left them “free” to take on various kinds of abstract meanings as, for example, time, possession, animate vs. inanimate etc. Although Estonian and Finnish local cases have the same historical background and similar basic local meanings, there are also a lot of differences between the Estonian and Finnish local cases. Some of them involve an opposite use of the interior and exterior cases in the two languages, while some of them reveal completely diff erent meanings current in those languages. The aim of the article is to pinpoint the usage diff erences between the Estonian and Finnish local cases and to study some of them more closely.
Eli Hirsch: Quantifier Variance and Realism: Essays in Metaontology. Trees and Tables Crackpot Ontology: Jury Still Out
Eve Kitsik
Studia Philosophica Estonica , 2012,
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