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Environmental Noise Pollution: Has Public Health Become too Utilitarian?  [PDF]
Alun Evans
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2017.55007
Abstract: Environmental noise pollution is an ever-increasing problem. The various sources: Aircraft, Road Traffic and Wind Farms are reviewed, but the latter source, because of the intrusive, impulsive and incessant nature of the sound emitted, is the major focus of this review. Wind turbines produce a range of sound but it is the Infrasound and low frequency noise which deserves special attention. Infrasound is considered to be below the range of human hearing so it is not measured in routine noise assessments in the wind farm planning process. There is, however, evidence that many can register it and a sizeable minority is sensitive, or becomes sensitised to it. The actual route of transmission still requires elucidation. The net effect of the entire range of noise produced is interference with sleep and sleep deprivation. Sleep, far from being a luxury is vitally important to health and insufficient sleep, in the long term, is associated with a spectrum of diseases, particularly Cardiovascular. The physiological benefits of sleep are reviewed, as is the range of diseases which the sleep-deprived are predisposed to. Governments, anxious to meet Green targets and often receiving most of their advice on health matters from the wind industry, must commission independent studies so that the Health and Human Rights of their rural citizens is not infringed. Public Health, in particular, must remember its roots in Utilitarianism which condoned the acceptance of some Collateral Damage provided that the greatest happiness of the greatest number was ensured. The degree of Collateral Damage caused by wind farms should be totally unacceptable to Public Health which must, like good government, fully exercise the Precautionary Principle. The types of study which should be considered are discussed. Indeed, the father of Utilitarian Philosophy, Jeremy Bentham, urged that government policy should be fully evaluated.
Progress of Modern Pyrolysis Furnace Technology  [PDF]
Guotai Zhang, Bruce Evans
Advances in Materials Physics and Chemistry (AMPC) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ampc.2012.24B044
Abstract: This paper presents the fundamentals of thermal pyrolysis and discusses the modern ethylene furnace technology and its design trends. Technip’s proprietary SPYRO? program is discussed for prediction of hydrocarbon cracking.
Perceptions of the Victimization of Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities  [PDF]
Douglas N. Evans
Advances in Applied Sociology (AASoci) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/aasoci.2013.32015
Abstract: Perceptions of the victimization of persons with intellectual disabilities were explored from the perspectives of adults with mild intellectual disabilities as well as service providers and supervisors who work with this population. Interviews were obtained for 10 adults with intellectual disabilities. Additionally, those who work with persons with intellectual disabilities were interviewed: 10 service providers and five supervisors (n = 25). Results indicate that perceptions of victimization were influenced by factors such as victimizer motivations, proximity to victimization, and situational pre-dictability. Offenses that cause harm are recognized as victimization by most, but non-harmful offenses are not always perceived as victimization, especially when respondents were involved in the offense. The implications of these findings related to recognition, reporting, and prevention of victimization are discussed.
Cyanobacteria Diversity in Blooms from the Greater Sudbury Area  [PDF]
Suzanne Evans, Mazen Saleh
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2015.711071
Abstract: The Greater Sudbury Area is approximately 400 km north of the city of Toronto and falls within a large number of temperate lakes of various sizes. This area has been mined for nickel and other metals for several decades. These activities have affected the watersheds of Northern Ontario and have influenced the chemistry of a number of lakes. Blooms of cyanobacteria occur yearly in several lakes, mainly in the early and late summer months. Much of the chemistry of these lakes is known but the nature of the cyanobacterial blooms and the factors that may contribute to their sudden appearance are not. We sampled blooms from five Greater Sudbury Area lakes and identified the species present by morphological and molecular methods. The dominant genera present as characterized by morphological examination were Synechocystis, Leptolyngbya, Anabaena, Cyl-indrospermum, Nostoc, Borzia, Phormidium, Pseudoanabaena, Oscillatoria, and Planktothrix. Three of these isolates, Leptolyngbya, Anabaena, and Planktothrix were confirmed by partial rRNA sequence analysis.
Short-Term Electricity Price Forecasting Using a Combination of Neural Networks and Fuzzy Inference  [PDF]
Evans Nyasha Chogumaira, Takashi Hiyama
Energy and Power Engineering (EPE) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/epe.2011.31002
Abstract: This paper presents an artificial neural network, ANN, based approach for estimating short-term wholesale electricity prices using past price and demand data. The objective is to utilize the piecewise continuous na-ture of electricity prices on the time domain by clustering the input data into time ranges where the variation trends are maintained. Due to the imprecise nature of cluster boundaries a fuzzy inference technique is em-ployed to handle data that lies at the intersections. As a necessary step in forecasting prices the anticipated electricity demand at the target time is estimated first using a separate ANN. The Australian New-South Wales electricity market data was used to test the system. The developed system shows considerable im-provement in performance compared with approaches that regard price data as a single continuous time se-ries, achieving MAPE of less than 2% for hours with steady prices and 8% for the clusters covering time pe-riods with price spikes.
Subsurface Facies Analysis of the Late Cambrian Mt. Simon Sandstone in Western Ohio (Midcontinent North America)  [PDF]
Aram Saeed, James E. Evans
Open Journal of Geology (OJG) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojg.2012.22004
Abstract: The Cambrian Mt. Simon Sandstone (MSS) is a possible unconventional gas reservoir in the Illinois, Michigan, and Appalachian Basins, but comparatively little is known about the unit. This study used core and well logs from two deep exploratory wells to interpret the depositional environment of the MSS under western Ohio, where the MSS is about 120 m thick and found 1060 m below ground surface. In western Ohio, the MSS unconformably overlies the Precambrian Middle Run Formation, is conformably overlain by the Cambrian Eau Claire Formation, and has a distinctive gamma-ray log-signature. In well DGS-2627, the MSS consists of tan, friable, moderately sorted, rounded, coarse- to very coarse-grained siliceous quartz arenite with minor heterolithic sandstone-mudstone couplets (rhythmites) and quartz granule conglomerate. Features indicative of tidally-influenced, shallow marine settings include tidal rhythmites, lenticular-, flaser-, and wavy-bedding, herringbone cross-bedding, mud-drapes, tidal bundles, reactivation surfaces, intraclasts, and bioturbation. The unit generally coarsens- and thickens-upward, and is interpreted as migration of a tidally-influenced transgressive barrier sequence. A subsurface facies model for the MSS is developed by interpreting geophysical logs and cores from DGS-2627l, and this model is semi-quantitatively tested by first interpreting well BP-4 using geophysical logs alone, then confirming the results using core.
Effects of a rumen protected B vitamin blend upon milk production and component yield in lactating dairy cows  [PDF]
Essi Evans, David T. Mair
Open Journal of Animal Sciences (OJAS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojas.2013.31011
Abstract:

Results from 12 switchback field trials involving 1216 cows were combined to assess the effects of a protected B vitamin blend (BVB) upon milk yield (kg), fat percentage (%), protein %, fat yield (kg) and protein yield (kg) in primiparous and multiparous cows. Trials consisted of 3 test periods executed in the order control-test-control. No diet changes other than the inclusion of 3 grams/cow/ day of the BVB during the test period occurred. Means from the two control periods were compared to results obtained during the test period using a paired T test. Cows include in the analysis were between 45 and 300 days in milk (DIM) at the start of the experiment and were continuously available for all periods. The provision of the BVB resulted in increased (P < 0.05) milk, fat %, protein %, fat yield and protein yield. Regression models showed that the amount of milk produced had no effect upon the magnitude of the increase in milk components. The increase in milk was greatest in early lactation and declined with DIM. Protein and fat % increased with DIM in mature cows, but not in first lactation cows. Differences in fat yields between test and control feeding periods did not change with DIM, but the improvement in protein yield in mature cows declined with DIM. These results indicate that the BVB provided economically important advantages throughout lactation, but expected results would vary with cow age and stage of lactation.

Effects of a rumen protected B vitamin blend substituted for biotin upon milk production and component yield in lactating dairy cows  [PDF]
Essi Evans, David T. Mair
Open Journal of Animal Sciences (OJAS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojas.2013.32014
Abstract:

Results from 4 switchback field trials involving 608 cows were combined to assess the effects of a protected B vitamin blend (BVB) vs 10 mg of unprotected biotin upon milk yield (kg), fat %, protein %, fat yield (kg) and protein yield (kg) in primiparous and multiparous cows. Trials consisted of 3 DHIA periods executed in the order control-test-control. Cows from 45 to 300 days in milk (DIM) at the start of the experiment that were available for all 3 periods were included in the analysis. No diet changes other than the substitution of 3 grams/cow/day of the BVB for 10 mg of biotin during the test period occurred. Results from the two control periods were compared to results obtained during the test period by individual cow using a paired T test. Results for all cows showed that the provision of the BVB resulted in increased (P < 0.05) milk, fat percentage (%), protein %, fat yield and protein yield. Analysis by age revealed that milk production and milk protein yield were only improved in mature cows. Milk production had a negative effect upon the magnitude of the increase in milk components. The change in milk yield was greatest in early lactation and declined with DIM. Protein % and fat % increased with DIM in mature cows, but not in first lactation cows. Differences in fat yields between test and control feeding periods did not change with DIM, but the improvement in protein yield in mature cows declined with DIM. These results indicate that the BVB provided economically important advantages throughout lactation beyond those witnessed with biotin, but expected results would vary with cow age and stage of lactation.

Channel Evolution of Sandy Reservoir Sediments Following Low-Head Dam Removal, Ottawa River, Northwestern Ohio, U.S.A.  [PDF]
Nathan Harris, James E. Evans
Open Journal of Modern Hydrology (OJMH) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojmh.2014.42004
Abstract:
Dozens of low-head dams are removed annually for reasons of obsolescence, financial liability, public safety, or as part of aquatic ecosystem restoration. Prior to removing a dam, hydrologic and sedimentologic studies are used to predict channel changes that would occur after the proposed dam removal. One commonly used predictive approach is a channel evolution model (CEM). However, most CEMs assume that the reservoir has trapped cohesive silts and muds. This study looks at the effects of low-head dam removal on a reservoir in filled with sand-rich sediment. The Secor Dam (2.5 m tall, 17 m wide) was constructed on the Ottawa River in northwestern Ohio (USA) during 1928 and was removed in 2007. High resolution channel cross-sections were measured at 17 locations prior to dam removal and re-measured every approximately 30 days for 6 months following the removal. Sediment sampling, sediment traps, substrate sampling, differential GPS tracking of channel bed forms and sediment coring were also used to characterize the channel sediment response to dam removal. Breaching of the dam produced a diffuse nickzone which was the width of the channel and about 10 m in length. One initial response was downstream migration of a sediment wave at rates up to 0.5 m/hr. The overall effect was erosion of the former reservoir to a distance of 150 m upstream of the former dam. Portions of the former reservoir were incised >1 m. Within the first 6 months after removal, approximately 800 m3 of sand had been mobilized from the former reservoir, transported downstream past the former dam, and had primarily in-filled pre-existing pools within a reach approximately 150 m downstream of the former dam. This behavior significantly differs from the predicted results of current CEMs which anticipate a first flush of suspended sediment and minor deposition of bed load materials in the channel downstream of the former dam.
Shallow-Water Origin of a Devonian Black Shale, Cleveland Shale Member (Ohio Shale), Northeastern Ohio, USA  [PDF]
Saeed Alshahrani, James E. Evans
Open Journal of Geology (OJG) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojg.2014.412048
Abstract: Black shales are usually interpreted to require anoxic bottom waters and deeper water sedimentation. There has long been a debate about whether the Devonian Cleveland Shale Member of the Ohio Shale (CSM) was deposited in shallow- or deep-water depositional environments. This study looked at the CSM at 3 stratigraphic sections and 5 well cores in northeastern Ohio. The CSM mostly consists of sapropelite (interbedded carbonaceous black mudstones and gray calcareous claystones). The black and gray “shales” are rhythmically bedded at micro- (<1 cm thick), meso- (<10 cm thick) and macro-scales (10s of cm thick) and represent changes in organic matter content (ranging from 7% - 20% TOC). Three types of event layers are interbedded with the mudrocks: 1) tempestites, 2) proximal turbidites, and 3) hyperpycnites. Individual tempestites and turbidites are laterally continuous ≥35 km, while hyperpycnites are too thin (<1 cm) to trace laterally. Tempestites consist of hummocky stratified sandstones with groove casts and escape burrows overlain by planar laminated sandstones with wave ripples at the top. Tempestites average 13 cm thick, but can be amalgamated up to 45 cm thick, and are more common in the lower half of the unit. Turbidites are incomplete Bouma sequences that average 6 cm thick, show evidence of combined flow (“wave-modified turbidites”), and are more common toward the top of the unit. Hyperpycnites (density underflows from river discharge) consist of inverse-to-normal graded sandy or silty microlaminae that have been studied primarily by using petrography and SEM. Condensed sections in the CSM are probable firmgrounds with carbonate concretions, and indicate intervals of low sedimentation rates. The evidence shows that the CSM depositional environment was receiving siliciclastics from the northeast (e.g., Catskill delta), and that the coarser-grained clastic sediment was primarily transported as density underflows (turbidites and hyperpycnites). However, significant storm deposits (tempestites) within the CSM indicate erosion and redeposition occurred on a muddy clastic marine shelf at paleo-water depths less than storm-weather wave base (probably ≤50 m depth).
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