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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 198726 matches for " Eunice N. Musyoka "
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Types of Non-Equivalence in the Kikamba Bible Translation  [PDF]
Eunice N. Musyoka, Humphrey K. Ireri
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1105721
This paper examines types of non-equivalences in the Kikamba Bible translation. Translation involves the rendering of a source text message into the target text so as to ensure that the surface meaning of the two is ap-proximately similar and the structures of the source language are preserved as closely as possible in the target text. However, the process is hampered by non-equivalence, which occurs when a lexical item or an expression in the source language lacks an equivalent item to translate it into the target language. A descriptive research design was used to obtain information from a sampled population. The Bible is divided into two sections; the Old and the New Testament. It is further categorized into seven groups. Purposive sampling was used to select one book from each category and one chapter from each book to form the sample for the study. Data was collected through careful study of the English Revised Standard Version Bible to identify types of non-equivalences and the Kikamba Bible to analyze how non-equivalence is handled. The study established two types of non-equivalences; non-equivalence at lexica level and above word level. The study reveals that non-equivalence is difficult to handle at lexical level mostly due to culture-specific words. Above the word level, translation is hampered by the use of figurative language in the source text. The study recommends that the translator needs a good background on the culture of the two languages and the metaphorical language use in the Bible. It is hoped that the research will be a contribution to applied linguistics in the area of translation, specifically on non-equivalence.
American Sign Language, Peer Play, and the Deaf Child: A Case Study of Ann  [PDF]
Millicent Musyoka
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2015.614178
Abstract: Play provides signing deaf children with the opportunity to communicate and interact with peers while they use and develop conversation skills or extended discourse in American Sign Language (ASL) (Musyoka, 2015). The goal of this study is to examine how play supports thinking, imagination, social, language and literacy development. To analyze the effectiveness of play, the researcher investigated how one deaf child, Ann used her ASL with various play partners in different play centers set up by the teacher in a preschool classroom that followed the ASL/English bilingual philosophy.
Play and Preschool Children Who Are Deaf: A Review of the Literature  [PDF]
Millicent Musyoka
Creative Education (CE) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2018.912130
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to provide a narrative review of the literature of studies on deaf children play. Electronic searches of databases including EBSCOhost, ERIC, Deaf Education related journals, and Google Scholar were undertaken using terms such as deaf play, deaf play and literacy, deaf play and school and deaf play and language, deaf play and cognition. Relevant articles on the deaf children play extracted were synthesized narratively. The results of the analysis were interpreted using descriptive analysis, percentages, frequencies and emerging themes. The data showed most of the studies focused on comparing deaf children play behaviors to those of the hearing peers. Findings on deaf children social and cognitive play were inconsistent. Several issues in this analysis point to implications for future research, teacher preparation and teacher intentionality in the implementation of play in early childhood education (ECE) classrooms.
Understanding Indoor Play in Deaf Children: An Analysis of Play Behaviors  [PDF]
Millicent M. Musyoka
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2015.61002
Abstract: Play is an important element of cognitive, social and language development. Most preschool classrooms provide opportunity for indoor play and studies are needed to improve indoor play contexts for all children, including deaf children. The present study documented and described the play behaviors of Ann, a four-year-old native American Sign Language (ASL) deaf child in an ASL/ English bilingual classroom. Ann engaged in various play behaviors, in different play centers, and with different play partners. The sample consisted of 22 play episodes collected over a period of one year. A combination of social and cognitive play behavior categories based on Rubin’s (2001) Play Observation Scale were used for documenting and the coding of the play behaviors observed. The results revealed that Ann was capable of engaging in developmentally appropriate play behaviors that were similar to those reported for hearing children her age. In addition, her play behaviors varied in relation to the play context and play partners. Teacher’s decisions and control of play in the classroom appeared to have an impact on the play behaviors Ann demonstrated.
Examining the Effectiveness of Fingerspelling in Improving the Vocabulary and Literacy Skills of Deaf Students  [PDF]
Hadeel Alawad, Millicent Musyoka
Creative Education (CE) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2018.93032
Abstract: This article provides a narrativereview ofjournal articles on the use of fingerspelling to support the vocabulary and literacy development of deaf students. The role of fingerspelling in decoding written English and supporting vocabulary development has become an increasingly relevant topic in the bilingual education of deaf students. Search limiters included written English, full-text articles that were published in peer-reviewed journalsafter 2005. A total of eleven articles were reviewed. The findings from the review indicated that the use of fingerspelling could support vocabulary and literacy development among bilingual deaf students. The current review discusses the findings?and offers recommendations for future research.
A Mixed Convection Boundary Layer Flow over a Vertical Wall in a Porous Medium, with Exponentially Varying Fluid Viscosity  [PDF]
Eunice Mureithi
Journal of Applied Mathematics and Physics (JAMP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jamp.2014.28087

This study investigates a mixed convection boundary layer flow over a vertical wall embedded in a highly porous medium. The fluid viscosity is assumed to decrease exponentially with temperature. The boundary layer equations are transformed into a non-similar form using an appropriate non-similar variable ξ and a pseudo-similar variable η. The non-similar equations are solved using an efficient local non-similarity method. The effect of viscosity variation parameter on the heat transfer, skin friction and the velocity and temperature distribution within the boundary layer is investigated. The viscosity variation parameter, the viscous dissipation parameter and non-simi-larity variable are shown to have a significant effect on velocity and thermal boundary layer and also on the skin friction coefficient and heat transfer at the wall.

The Influence of Classroom Seating Position on Student Learning Gains in Primary Schools in Kenya  [PDF]
Moses Waithanji Ngware, James Ciera, Peter K. Musyoka, Moses Oketch
Creative Education (CE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2013.411100
Abstract: This paper examines the contribution of classroom students’ seating positions to learning gains. Data were gathered from a sample of 1907 grade six students who sat for the same seat twice over an interval of about 10 months. They were drawn from a random selection of 72 low and high performing primary schools. Results of a multi-level regression show that seating in the front row in a classroom led to higher learning gains of between 5 percent and 27 percent compared to seating in other rows that are farther away from the chalkboard. The policy implication to education is that student’s seating position can be manipulated in a way that it optimizes learning gains for slow learners.
Application of SWAT Model to the Olifants Basin: Calibration, Validation and Uncertainty Analysis  [PDF]
Charles Gyamfi, Julius Musyoka Ndambuki, Ramadhan Wanjala Salim
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2016.83033
Abstract: The application of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to the Olifants Basin in South Africa was the focus of our study with emphasis on calibration, validation and uncertainty analysis. The Basin was discretized into 23 sub-basins and 226 Hydrologic Response Units (HRUs) using 3 arc second (90 m × 90 m) pixel resolution SRTM DEM with stream gauge B7H015 as the Basin outlet. Observed stream flow data at B7H015 were used for model calibration (1988-2001) and validation (2002-2013) using the split sample approach. Relative global sensitivity analysis using SUFI-2 algorithm was used to determine sensitive parameters to stream flow for calibration of the model. Performance efficiency of the Olifants SWAT model was assessed using Nash-Sutcliffe (NSE), coefficient of determination (R2), Percent Bias (PBIAS) and Root Mean Square Error-Observation Standard deviation Ratio (RSR). Sensitivity analysis revealed in decreasing order of significance, runoff curve number (CN2), alpha bank factor (ALPHA_BNK), soil evaporation compensation factor (ESCO), soil available water capacity (SOIL_AWC, mm H2O/mm soil), groundwater delay (GW_ DELAY, days) and groundwater “revap” coefficient (GW_REVAP) to be the most sensitive parameters to stream flow. Analysis of the model during the calibration period gave the following statistics; NSE = 0.88; R2 = 0.89; PBIAS = -11.49%; RSR = 0.34. On the other hand, statistics during the validation period were NSE = 0.67; R2 = 0.79; PBIAS = -20.69%; RSR = 0.57. The observed statistics indicate the applicability of the SWAT model in simulating the hydrology of the Olifants Basin and therefore can be used as a Decision Support Tool (DST) by water managers and other relevant decisions making bodies to influence policy directions on the management of watershed processes especially water resources.
5-year audit of the range and volume of diagnostic radiographic services at the University of Nairobi Dental Hospital  [PDF]
Eunice N. Kihara, Florence Opondo, Tom J. Ocholla, Mark L. Chindia, Evelyn Wagaiyu
Open Journal of Stomatology (OJST) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojst.2012.23041
Abstract: Background: Dental and cranio-maxillofacial diagnostic imaging constitutes an invaluable tool in the accurate diagnosis and management of a diverse range of conditions and diseases that afflict the oral and cranio-maxillofacial region. In order to improve on any existing facility, periodic audit evaluation is paramount. In this way proper and relevant service delivery can be achieved. Objective: To evaluate the range and volume of dental and cranio-maxillofacial diagnostic radiographic services offered at the University of Nairobi Dental Hospital (UNDH) in Kenya over a 5-year period (2006-2010). Methods: Retro-spective survey involving manual examination of patient records at the Division of Dental and cra-nio-maxillofacial Radiology registry of the UNDH. Results: Over the study period, the range of diagnostic radiographic services offered comprised of both intra- and extra- oral examinations. The total volume of radiographs taken was 48,874 among which 41,980 (86%) were intraoral and 6894 (14%) extraoral views. Among the intraoral views, 74% were bitewing, 25% periapical and only 1% were occlusal diagnostic views. The majority (95%) of the extraoral projections consisted of panoramic views and only 5% constituted other techniques. The volume of radiographs was high from January to September while November and December had the lowest number of examination requests. Conclusion: Intraoral radiography was the commonest examination with bitewings having been the majority while the panoramic tomography was the commonest extraoral examination performed.
Physico-chemical and bacteriological quality assessment of shallow wells in Kitui town, Kenya
Romulus Abila,Cecilia M. Musyoka
Journal of Environmental Science and Water Resources , 2012,
Abstract: Kitui town, a small but fast growing town in arid south-eastern Kenya faces unreliable water supply and residents are highly dependent on shallow wells as the main source of water for domestic use. A study was carried out to assess the physical-chemical and bacteriological quality of water from shallow wells within the town’s main residential areas. 96 water samples were collected from 8 main residential estates within the town between May and July 2011 and analysed for physical-chemical characteristics and bacterial quantity and species. Water analysis revealed presence of 9 pathogenic genera including Salmonella, Escherichia coli, Vibrio, Listeria, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Enterobacter, Klebsiella and Pseudomonas. Multiple-tube fermentation technique was used to enumerate coliform bacteria in water. Total aerobic bacterial load ranged from 3.70 x102 to 2.352 x103 CFU/ml. E. Coli was isolated from Majengo and Mjini estates only and the bacterial load estimated as 1.10 x102 CFU/ml and 0.20 x102 CFU/ml respectively while Salmonella sp. was isolated from water samples from Kunda Kindu, JICA and Mjini estates. Conductivity and pH levels were above World Health Organization acceptable levels for drinking water in all samples. All samples tested did not meet the WHO bacteriological standards for drinking water. The presence of Salmonella, Vibrio, Listeria and E. Coli should particularly raise serious public health concerns over the quality of the town’s shallow wells water. Intervention measures including creating awareness and educating residents on shallow well construction, citing and care, boiling of water and improving sanitation should be urgently instituted. There is also need to construct sewerage works for the rapidly expanding Kitui town to reduce incidences of contamination from septic tanks.
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