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A Mixed Convection Boundary Layer Flow over a Vertical Wall in a Porous Medium, with Exponentially Varying Fluid Viscosity  [PDF]
Eunice Mureithi
Journal of Applied Mathematics and Physics (JAMP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jamp.2014.28087

This study investigates a mixed convection boundary layer flow over a vertical wall embedded in a highly porous medium. The fluid viscosity is assumed to decrease exponentially with temperature. The boundary layer equations are transformed into a non-similar form using an appropriate non-similar variable ξ and a pseudo-similar variable η. The non-similar equations are solved using an efficient local non-similarity method. The effect of viscosity variation parameter on the heat transfer, skin friction and the velocity and temperature distribution within the boundary layer is investigated. The viscosity variation parameter, the viscous dissipation parameter and non-simi-larity variable are shown to have a significant effect on velocity and thermal boundary layer and also on the skin friction coefficient and heat transfer at the wall.

Effects of Over-Harvesting and Drought on a Predator-Prey System with Optimal Control  [PDF]
Alanus Mapunda, Eunice Mureithi, Nyimvua Shaban, Thadei Sagamiko
Open Journal of Ecology (OJE) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oje.2018.88028
Abstract: In this paper, a two species predator-prey model is developed where prey is affected by over-harvesting and drought and predator is affected by drought. The intention is to investigate the impact of over-harvesting and drought on predator-prey system, and suggest control strategies to alleviate the problem of loss of prey and predator species due to over-harvesting and drought. The control strategies suggested are creation of reserve areas with restriction of harvesting for controlling over-harvesting and construction of dams for mitigating drought effects. The results obtained from theoretical and numerical simulation of the predator-prey model with harvesting and drought without control strategies showed that, both harvesting and drought affect the predator-prey population negatively. However, the results obtained from numerical simulations of the model with control measures showed that, the use of control strategies one at a time encourages the increase of the prey and predator species to the optimal population size. Furthermore, the best result is obtained when control strategies, creation of reserve areas with restriction of harvesting and construction of dams are applied simultaneously.
On the Boundary Layer Flow over a Moving Surface in a Fluid with Temperature-Dependent Viscosity  [PDF]
E. W. Mureithi, J. J. Mwaonanji, O. D. Makinde
Open Journal of Fluid Dynamics (OJFD) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojfd.2013.32017
Abstract:  This paper examines a boundary layer flow over a continuously moving heated flat surface with velocity\"\"  in a streaming flow with velocity\"\"  and with temperature dependent viscosity\"\". The momentum and the energy equations are coupled through the viscous dissipation term. The coupled boundary layer equations are transformed into a self-similar form using an appropriate similarity variable. An efficient numerical technique is used to solve the self-similar boundary layer equations. It is shown that at low enough values for the velocity ratio\"\" , an increase in viscous dissipation enhances greatly the local heat transfer leading to temperature overshoots adjacent to the wall. The viscosity variation parameter is shown to have significant effects on the temperature dependent viscosity and the velocity and temperature distribution within the boundary layer.

Management of Business Challenges Among Small and Micro Enterprises in Nairobi-Kenya
M Bowen, M Morara, M Mureithi
KCA Journal of Business Management , 2009,
Abstract: Small and Micro Enterprises (SMEs) play an important economic role in many countries. In Kenya, for example the SME sector contributed over 50percent of new jobs created in 2005 but despite their significance, SMEs are faced with the threat of failure with past statistics indicating that three out five fail within the first few months. This study sought to understand how SMEs manage the challenges they face. These challenges seem to change (evolve) according to different macro and micro conditions. This study employed stratified random sampling to collect data from 198 businesses using interviews and questionnaires. The data was analysed descriptively and presented through figures, tables and percentages. The findings indicate that SMEs face the following challenges; competition among themselves and from large firms, lack of access to credit, cheap imports, insecurity and debt collection. Credit constraint seems to be easing up when compared to previous researches. Relevant training or education is positively related to business success. The SMEs have the following strategies to overcome the challenges; fair pricing, discounts and special offers, offering a variety of services and products, superior customer service and continuously improving quality of service delivery. The research concludes that business success is a consequence of embracing a mix of strategies.
Prevalence and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Profile of Metallo-β-Lactamase Producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolates at Kenyatta National Hospital  [PDF]
Jane Njeri Karuitha, Odera Susan Akinyi, Maina Anne Njeri, Mureithi Marianne
Advances in Microbiology (AiM) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/aim.2018.811059
Abstract: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a major cause of nosocomial infections with high mortality rates. The organism is highly resistant to most classes of drugs used and can develop resistance during treatment. One of the resistance mechanisms of P. aeruginosais is Metallo-β-Lactamase (MBL) production. MBL producing P. aeruginosa is a major health concern given it’s resistance to almost all available drugs. The prevalence of this resistant strain is unknown since there is no standardized method for testing MBL production. This was a laboratory based cross-sectional prospective study that was carried out from September 2015 to March 2016 at Kenyatta National Hospital. Ninety-nine isolates of P. aeruginosa were collected during the period and tested for antimicrobial susceptibility and isolates found to be resistant to imipenem tested for MBL production. The results indicated high resistance of P. aeruginosa to commonly used drugs. Of the isolates tested 69.7% were resistant to piperacillin, 63.6% were resistant to aztreonam, 58.6% were resistant to levofloxacin, 55.6% were resistant to cefipime, 65.7% were resistant to ceftazidime, 68.7% were resistant to ticarcillin-clavulanate, 72.2% were resistant to meropenem, 64.9% were resistance to imipenem while 86.4% of urine isolates were resistant to ofloxacin. Of the isolates resistant to imipenem 87.3% were found to be MBL producers. In conclusion, P. aeruginosais highly resistant to the drugs currently is used for treatment and resistance to carbapenems is largely due to MBL production.
Sampling of An.gambiae s.s mosquitoes using Limburger cheese, heat and moisture as baits in a homemade trap
Eunice Owino
BMC Research Notes , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1756-0500-4-284
Abstract: Tests on the efficacy of the developed trap to sample An. gambiae s.s, mosquitoes using Limburger cheese, moisture and heat as baits were carried out in a screen house measuring 11.4 × 7.1 × 2.8 m. The studies were done in three phases. In the first phase the efficacy of the trap to sample An. gambiae s.s. using odour and moisture was tested. The second phase was to test the efficacy of the trap to sample An. gambiae s.s. using Limburger cheese and heat. In the third phase a combination of Limburger cheese, moisture and heat was tested. Tests were carried out for 27 consecutive nights.The designed trap collected a total of 59 An. gambiae s.s. in three trials. The trap baited with Limburger cheese and moisture collected 7 An. gambiae s.s in 7 days. The mean catch per day was 1. The trap baited with Limburger cheese and heat collected zero An. gambiae s.s in 11 days. The mean catch per day was therefore 0. The trap baited with Limburger cheese, moisture and heat collected 52 mosquitoes in 27 days and the mean catch was 1.93.This study indicates that a non-electric fan driven trap baited with a combination of Limburger cheese, heat and moisture has a potential as an effective sampling tool for the malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae s.s. However, further optimization studies would be necessary.Ample evidence has shown that odour baited traps are likely [1-3] to provide an objective monitoring tool for the host-seeking fraction of mosquito vectors of diseases like malaria and bancroftian filariasis. Such traps could eventually become part of primary healthcare systems used to study the vector biology and epidemiology of mosquito-borne diseases, knowledge of which is vital for planning and assessing outcome of intervention strategies. One might even foresee the development of odour baited mosquito traps [1,2] that might be used to reduce the vector population in a village or in an individual's bedroom to divert mosquitoes away from occupants. Such traps could then be used
Soberania e representa??o: Hobbes, parlamentaristas e levellers
Ostrensky, Eunice;
Lua Nova: Revista de Cultura e Política , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-64452010000200007
Abstract: the article intends to show that thomas hobbes (1588-1679) adopted the concept of political authorization as means to fight against the doctrine of the accountability of political actors ahead of the persons they represented. among these opponents, the levellers have a prominent place, by proposing, in the late 1640s, an innovative solution for the constitutional problem of the illegitimacy of the english parliament: extension of the franchise followed by a celebration of an agreement of the people.
Dez anos de blairismo
Rela??es Internacionais (R:I) , 2008,
Abstract: tony blair transformed radically the united kingdom in different policy areas. however, the changes brought by blair between 1997 and 2007 represent a deviation from socialdemocratic values. this argument will be demonstrated with an analysis of new labour?s economic, social, constitutional foreign policies.
As várias faces de um ator político
Revista latinoamericana de filosof?-a , 2011,
Abstract: this article aims at showing that the political science of james harrington (1611-1677) was intended to create a complex republican model as a remedy to the constitutional crisis in england during the 1650's. but, before presenting his model of republic to his contemporaries, harrington thought it was necessary to investigate why sovereign power collapsed in 1640. his starting point was rather empirical than speculative or abstract. despite the decisive part played in harrington's political science by foundations or material relations based on freehold property, human agency was also considered altogether necessary to produce a perfect political order.
O método etnográfico em pesquisas na área da saúde: uma reflex?o antropológica
Nakamura, Eunice;
Saúde e Sociedade , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S0104-12902011000100012
Abstract: the article aims to reflect on the possible theoretical and methodological contributions of social science research in health, given the increasing incorporation of qualitative methodologies, particularly ethnography, this research. the starting point for this discussion are three theoretical and conceptual keys to the consolidation of the ethnographic method in its origin, in conjunction with the very assertion of anthropological science, assuming that by understanding what is the ethnographic practice, we also understand the importance of the anthropological explanation of the different socio-cultural phenomena, among them health, illness and strategies for treatment or cure. these assumptions - ethnocentrism, relativism and culture - marked so the research and production of anthropological knowledge, theory and method that have become inseparable. thinking of repetition and constant replenishment of inseparability in a dialectical movement of concrete experience with learned theories can be a major strength of the social sciences, particularly anthropology, for research in health. the absence of this reflection seems to risk the compromise that can interface with the theoretical and methodological rigor in the production and dissemination of scientific knowledge, the reduction and simplification of the technique. on the other hand, this same inseparability leads us to inquire about possible contributions of the incorporation of ethnographic method in research in the health of anthropological knowledge.
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