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Influence of Availability of Sanitary Facilities on the Participation of the Girl-Child in Public Primary Schools in Garissa County, Kenya  [PDF]
Eunice Kagendo Njue, George M. Muthaa
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2015.38018
Abstract: Every child has the right to quality education and good health care. The government of Kenya introduced Free Primary Education to ensure all school aged children acquire basic education. Despite this government investment, the participation of girls in primary school education has been low. This study aimed at assessing the influence of sanitation on participation of the girl-child in public primary schools in Garissa County, Kenya. The study adopted a descriptive survey research design. The targeted population was made up of girls and teachers in public primary schools. A sample size of 704 respondents comprising of 640 class seven girls, 32 head teachers and 32 class seven class teachers was sampled. Questionnaires, observation schedules and interview schedules were used for data collection. Validity of the research instrument was ascertained through experts in research of Chuka University. Descriptive statistics were used for data analysis aided by the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) Version 20. The results were presented in tables and figures. Most schools did not have adequate toilets and did not provide adequate sanitary pads. The schools did not have hand washing points and tissue papers. The study revealed that availability of sanitary pads, washing water points/soap and toilets influenced enrolment, concentration, self-confidence, attendance and performance of girls in education. The study recommends development of clear policies on provision of sanitation facilities and increases the number of sanitary pads supplied per girl. The government should set aside adequate budgetary allocation to provide school with sanitary facilities.
Effectiveness of Examination Handling and Distribution Procedures in Curbing Malpractices in Secondary Schools in Eastern Province, Kenya  [PDF]
Eunice Kagendo Njue, George M. Muthaa, Peter K. Muriungi
Creative Education (CE) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2014.58068

Examinations provide discriminatory criteria for individuals and evaluate whether educational goals are being achieved. To guarantee equity, fair evaluation must be devoid of all malpractices. The KNEC has put in place policies aimed at reducing cases of examination malpractices; however there has been a rise in reported cases of examination malpractices with the release of every examination results. The current study sought to determine the effectiveness of the examination handling and distribution procedures in addressing the examination malpractices. A sample size of 511 subjects was involved in the study. The study was conducted using descriptive survey research design. Reliability of instruments was determined using cronbach coefficient alpha method. The study established that the management of the examinations is dominated by the male gender. Handling and distribution of examinations was blamed for examinations malpractices. The researcher recommends training for all personnel involved in the management of the examinations.

Competence of Security Officers in the Management of National Examinations in Secondary Schools in Eastern Province, Kenya  [PDF]
George M. George M. Muthaa, Peter K. Muriungi, Eunice Kagendo Njue
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2014.212010
Abstract: Examinations provide discriminatory criteria for individuals and evaluate whether educational goals are being achieved. To guarantee equity, fair evaluation must be devoid of all malpractices. The study was motivated by the continued incidences of examination irregularities despite the policies put in place by KNEC. A sample size of 120 security officers was used for the study. The study was conducted using descriptive survey research design. Validity of the research instrument was ascertained by experts in research from Chuka University, while the reliability of instruments was determined using Cronbach’s coefficient alpha method. The study established that majority of the security officers were not oriented on examinations management. The researcher recommends that security officers should be training on examinations management and their role expectations.
A Mixed Convection Boundary Layer Flow over a Vertical Wall in a Porous Medium, with Exponentially Varying Fluid Viscosity  [PDF]
Eunice Mureithi
Journal of Applied Mathematics and Physics (JAMP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jamp.2014.28087

This study investigates a mixed convection boundary layer flow over a vertical wall embedded in a highly porous medium. The fluid viscosity is assumed to decrease exponentially with temperature. The boundary layer equations are transformed into a non-similar form using an appropriate non-similar variable ξ and a pseudo-similar variable η. The non-similar equations are solved using an efficient local non-similarity method. The effect of viscosity variation parameter on the heat transfer, skin friction and the velocity and temperature distribution within the boundary layer is investigated. The viscosity variation parameter, the viscous dissipation parameter and non-simi-larity variable are shown to have a significant effect on velocity and thermal boundary layer and also on the skin friction coefficient and heat transfer at the wall.

On the Norm of Elementary Operator  [PDF]
Denis Njue Kingangi, John Ogoji Agure, Fredrick Oluoch Nyamwala
Advances in Pure Mathematics (APM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/apm.2014.47041

The norm of an elementary operator has been studied by many mathematicians. Varied results have been established especially on the lower bound of this norm. Here, we attempt the same problem for finite dimensional operators.

Influence of Land Use Activities on Riparian Vegetation, Soil and Water Quality: An Indicator of Biodiversity Loss, South West Mau Forest, Kenya  [PDF]
Naomi Njue, Eric Koech, Joseph Hitimana, Peter Sirmah
Open Journal of Forestry (OJF) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojf.2016.65030
Abstract: Watershed and riparian areas of Mau Forest Complex in Kenya are experiencing increased threats due to unsustainable land use activities geared towards economic growth amidst growing population. This study was carried out to examine effects of land use activities on riparian vegetation, soil and water quality along two major rivers (Chemosit and Kipsonoi) of South West Mau Forest (SWMF). Land use activities adjacent to these rivers and biodiversity disturbance on the riparian zone were identified and underpinned to changes on Total Nitrogen, Total Phosphorous, Potassium, Sulphur, Cadmium, Copper, Lead, Total Suspended Solids and soil Organic Carbon. Three sampling sites designated(upstream, midstream and downstream) were identified and established along each river as guided by existing land use activities represented by forest, tea plantation and mixed agricultural farming respectively. At each sampling site, a 200 m × 50 m section was systematically marked on each side of the river bank; the longest side being parallel to the river flow and divided into three belts transects each 20 m × 50 m, spaced 70 m apart. Six distinct land use activities (indigenous forest, food crop, tree and tea farming, livestock keeping and urban settlement) were identified as the major land use activities in SWMF. Plant species richness decreased and overall riparian disturbance increased from upstream (intact canopy with native vegetation) to mid-stream and downstream as epitomized by the structure, biodiversity disturbance resulting from extensive and intensive farming, intrusion of exotic species to livestock grazing and urban settlement. Variation among sampling sites in Total Suspended Solids, pH, Total Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium were associated to different land use activities along the riparian zone. Total Nitrogen and water pH showed significant sensitivity to land use changes (p < 0.05). Put together these results indicate loss of biodiversity, riparian disturbance hence a need to adopt environmental-friendly land use planning and sustainable farming systems in SWMF.
Porn video shows, local brew, and transactional sex: HIV risk among youth in Kisumu, Kenya
Carolyne Njue, Helene ACM Voeten, Pieter Remes
BMC Public Health , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-635
Abstract: We conducted in-depth interviews with 150 adolescents aged 15 to 20, held 4 focus group discussions, and made 48 observations at places where youth spend their free time.Porn video shows and local brew dens were identified as popular events where unprotected multipartner, concurrent, coerced and transactional sex occurs between adolescents. Video halls - rooms with a TV and VCR - often show pornography at night for a very small fee, and minors are allowed. Forced sex, gang rape and multiple concurrent relationships characterised the sexual encounters of youth, frequently facilitated by the abuse of alcohol, which is available for minors at low cost in local brew dens. For many sexually active girls, their vulnerability to STI/HIV infection is enhanced due to financial inequality, gender-related power difference and cultural norms. The desire for love and sexual pleasure also contributed to their multiple concurrent partnerships. A substantial number of girls and young women engaged in transactional sex, often with much older working partners. These partners had a stronger socio-economic position than young women, enabling them to use money/gifts as leverage for sex. Condom use was irregular during all types of sexual encounters.In Kisumu, local brew dens and porn video halls facilitate risky sexual encounters between youth. These places should be regulated and monitored by the government. Our study strongly points to female vulnerabilities and the role of men in perpetuating the local epidemic. Young men should be targeted in prevention activities, to change their attitudes related to power and control in relationships. Girls should be empowered how to negotiate safe sex, and their poverty should be addressed through income-generating activities.Globally, the HIV epidemic is increasing faster amongst young women than young men and nowhere is this trend more apparent than in sub-Saharan Africa [1]. Statistics in sub-Saharan Africa remain disturbingly high, with 75% o
Opportunities and Challenges of Setting-Up an Articulate HACCP System in Export Slaughterhouses in Countries Emerging from Conflict: An Appraisal of North-Western Somalia  [PDF]
Castiello Massimo, Wamalwa Kinyanjui, Sophycate Njue, Gathuma Joseph, Ombui Jackson Nyorangi, Ogara William
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2013.42017

An investigation in North-Western Somalia (Somaliland) to determine opportunities and challenges of setting up a Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) system to be adopted and complied with during operations in an export slaughterhouse was carried out for more than two years. A baseline and after intervention microbiological analysis was carried out on 500 wet and dry meat swab samples collected from carcasses from the slaughterhouse. The analysis was against total viable counts, E. coli counts and Salmonella species. It was established that after intervention through capacity building and supply of basic livestock slaughter equipments and tools, levels of carcass contamination reduced though not statistically significant. Slaughterhouse workers were trained on food safety quality assurance systems of good hygiene practices, standard operating procedures, sanitary standard operating procedures among others. Good opportunities of establishing HACCP system were high as the slaughterhouse had a ready supply of livestock for slaughter and high demand of Somalia small ruminant carcasses in the Middle East countries. However, the implementation faced severe challenges including lack of transport plane for carcasses to export market, frequent severe drought shocks, stiff competition from export of live livestock from Somalia, stiff competition from other countries exporting carcasses to Middle East countries; among others. These led to interruptions to operations and subsequent closure of the slaughterhouse impacting negatively on establishment of a vibrant operational HACCP system.

Sampling of An.gambiae s.s mosquitoes using Limburger cheese, heat and moisture as baits in a homemade trap
Eunice Owino
BMC Research Notes , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1756-0500-4-284
Abstract: Tests on the efficacy of the developed trap to sample An. gambiae s.s, mosquitoes using Limburger cheese, moisture and heat as baits were carried out in a screen house measuring 11.4 × 7.1 × 2.8 m. The studies were done in three phases. In the first phase the efficacy of the trap to sample An. gambiae s.s. using odour and moisture was tested. The second phase was to test the efficacy of the trap to sample An. gambiae s.s. using Limburger cheese and heat. In the third phase a combination of Limburger cheese, moisture and heat was tested. Tests were carried out for 27 consecutive nights.The designed trap collected a total of 59 An. gambiae s.s. in three trials. The trap baited with Limburger cheese and moisture collected 7 An. gambiae s.s in 7 days. The mean catch per day was 1. The trap baited with Limburger cheese and heat collected zero An. gambiae s.s in 11 days. The mean catch per day was therefore 0. The trap baited with Limburger cheese, moisture and heat collected 52 mosquitoes in 27 days and the mean catch was 1.93.This study indicates that a non-electric fan driven trap baited with a combination of Limburger cheese, heat and moisture has a potential as an effective sampling tool for the malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae s.s. However, further optimization studies would be necessary.Ample evidence has shown that odour baited traps are likely [1-3] to provide an objective monitoring tool for the host-seeking fraction of mosquito vectors of diseases like malaria and bancroftian filariasis. Such traps could eventually become part of primary healthcare systems used to study the vector biology and epidemiology of mosquito-borne diseases, knowledge of which is vital for planning and assessing outcome of intervention strategies. One might even foresee the development of odour baited mosquito traps [1,2] that might be used to reduce the vector population in a village or in an individual's bedroom to divert mosquitoes away from occupants. Such traps could then be used
Soberania e representa??o: Hobbes, parlamentaristas e levellers
Ostrensky, Eunice;
Lua Nova: Revista de Cultura e Política , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-64452010000200007
Abstract: the article intends to show that thomas hobbes (1588-1679) adopted the concept of political authorization as means to fight against the doctrine of the accountability of political actors ahead of the persons they represented. among these opponents, the levellers have a prominent place, by proposing, in the late 1640s, an innovative solution for the constitutional problem of the illegitimacy of the english parliament: extension of the franchise followed by a celebration of an agreement of the people.
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