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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 10513 matches for " Eun-Young Won "
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Bus Stops and Bus Users in the City of Detroit
Eun-Young Kim
Solstice : Electronic Journal of Geography and Mathematics , 2002,
Abstract: The link to the fulltext on a current website is given below. Should that link fail to work, please go to this persistent URL and download the associated file for this issue. http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/handle/2027.42/58219While you are there, take a look around and see if there are other issues and documents that are related to your interests!
Anti-malarial activity of 6-(8'Z-pentadecenyl)-salicylic acid from Viola websteri in mice
Ill-Min Chung, Su-Hyun Seo, Eun-Young Kang, Won-Hwan Park, Hyung-In Moon
Malaria Journal , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-8-151
Abstract: The schizontocidal activity of 6-SA on early Plasmodium berghei infections was evaluated in a four-day test. The possible 'repository' activity of 6-SA was assessed using the method described by Peters. The median lethal dose (LD50) of 6-SA, when given intraperitoneally, was also determined using uninfected ICR mice and the method of Lorke.In the present study, 6-SA was found to have anti-malarial activity in vivo, when tested against P. berghei in mice. 6-SA at 5, 10 and 25 mg/kg·day exhibited a significant blood schizontocidal activity in four-day early infections, repository evaluations and established infections with a significant mean survival time comparable to that of the standard drug, chloroquine (5 mg/kg·day).6-SA possesses a moderate anti-malarial activity that could be exploited for malaria therapy.Malaria is a major tropical disease caused by parasites and is responsible for significant morbidity and mortality worldwide [1]. There is currently a dramatic resurgence of the disease because of the increasing resistance of the vectors to insecticides and the progressive resistance of the causative parasites, particularly Plasmodium falciparum, to anti-malarial drugs [2]. Therefore, there is an urgent need to discover and develop new, effective and safe drugs for the treatment of this disease [3]. Malarial parasites and plant plastids have several common pathways and functions that are fundamentally different from the analogous pathways and functions in humans and may therefore make good targets for anti-malarial drugs [4]. In traditional medicine, Viola is used for the treatment of insect infections, cancer, virus infection, and skin diseases [5]. A previous study [6] revealed that the petroleum ether extracts from dried whole parts of the 15 Viola genera screened, Viola websteri had inhibition values of 31.7 as percentage of parasite inhibition at 25 μg/ml. Petroleum ether extracts from Viola websteri were found to have anti-plasmodial activity against P.
Intratumoral delivery of IL-18 naked DNA induces T-cell activation and Th1 response in a mouse hepatic cancer model
Chi-Young Chang, Jienny Lee, Eun-Young Kim, Hae-Jung Park, Choon-Hyuck Kwon, Jae-Won Joh, Sung-Joo Kim
BMC Cancer , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2407-7-87
Abstract: Plasmid vectors encoding IL-18 were transferred directly into the liver 7 days after tumor injection to restrict IL-18 expression within the tumor site. The IL-18 protein level was increased in the liver 4 days after plasmid injection, and a marked antitumoral effect was observed at day 7. Antitumor effects were evaluated by measuring tumor regression, immune cell population, and IFN-γ production.The IL-18 plasmid controlled the growth of hepatic tumors and proliferation of splenic immune cells. Moreover, treatment of CT26 tumors with the IL-18 plasmid significantly enhanced the population of the effector T and NK cells in the spleen and peripheral blood. In spleen, the population of CD4+CD62Low cells was augmented in response to IL-18 on day 7. These results are consistent with the increase in CD4+ T cells secreting IFN-γ, but not CD8+ T cells. The marked reduction of tumor growth in tumor-bearing mice was associated with the maintenance of IFN-γ production in spleen in response to IL-18. These antitumoral effects were maintained until 14 days after plasmid injection.Our results suggest that direct plasmid DNA transfer of IL-18 with no accompanying reagents to augment transfection efficiency may be useful in tumor immunotherapy.Effective eradication of established tumors and generation of a lasting systemic immune response with a simple gene delivery system are important goals for cancer gene immunotherapy [1]. Cytokines are the most extensively studied immunostimulatory agents in cancer gene therapy [2]. Interferon-γ-inducing factor (IL-18) is a recently characterized murine and human cytokine. The murine IL-18 gene encodes a precursor protein of 192 amino acids, which is processed to a mature protein containing 157 residues [3]. This cytokine, produced by Kupffer cells, is a potent inducer of IFN-γ production by T cells and a costimulatory factor for T cell activation [4,5]. Accumulating evidence that IL-18 is a multifunctional cytokine that shares several biolog
Styrene Epoxidation in Aqueous over Triazine-Based Microporous Polymeric Network as a Metal-Free Catalyst  [PDF]
Mohd Bismillah Ansari, Eun-Young Jeong, Sang-Eon Park
Green and Sustainable Chemistry (GSC) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/gsc.2012.21001
Abstract: Tirazine based microporous polymeric (TMP) network was found to be an efficient metal-free catalyst for the epoxidation of styrene. The reactions were performed in water as an environmentally benign medium using H2O2 as a green oxidant at ambient temperature. The reaction afforded higher yield with 90% conversion of styrene and 98% selectivity to styrene oxide in 6 h. The triazine based microporous polymeric network can be readily recovered and reused up to 4 cycles without significant loss in catalytic activity and selectivity.
Interindividual differences in intraindividual change in categorical variables
Alexander von Eye,Eun-Young Mun
Psychological Test and Assessment Modeling , 2012,
Abstract: In this article, we proceed from the assumption that constancy and change in development are not necessarily universal. This deviation from the general assumption of universal developmental patterns is embedded in the theory of person-oriented research. In addition, we propose that constancy and change can reflect local associations instead of associations that cover the entire range of admissible scores. Models of Configural Frequency Analysis are proposed to explore and test hypotheses concerning person-specific local associations in repeated observation data. Three models are considered for lagged data. These models differ in the reasons that are assumed as causes for local associations. The first model reflects variable associations of any kind. The second model reflects case-specific variable associations. The third reflects differences between cases. In an example, data from a study on the development of alcoholics are used. The data in this example reflect case-specific associations in the development of drinking behavior over a span of two years. In the discussion, the person- and the variable-oriented elements of longitudinal research are addressed. In addition, assumptions concerning the independence of longitudinal data are made explicit.
Exploring rater agreement: configurations of agreement and disagreement
ALEXANDER VON EYE,EUN-YOUNG MUN
Psychology Science , 2006,
Abstract: At the level of manifest categorical variables, a large number of coefficients and models for the examination of rater agreement has been proposed and used for descriptive and explanatory purposes. This article focuses on exploring rater agreement. Configural Frequency Analysis (CFA) is proposed as a method of exploration of cross-classifications of raters’ judgements. CFA allows researchers to (1) examine individual cells and sets of cells in agreement tables; (2) examine cells that indicate disagreement; and (3) explore agreement and disagreement among three or more raters. Four CFA base models are discussed. The first is the model of rater agreement that is also used for Cohen’s (1960) (kappa). This model proposes independence of raters’ judgements. Deviations from this model suggest agreement or disagreement beyond chance. The second CFA model is based on a log-linear null model. This model is also used for Brennan and Prediger’s (1981) n. It proposes a uniform distribution of ratings. The third model is that of Tanner and Young (1985). This model proposes equal weights for agreement cases and independence otherwise. The fourth model is the quasi-independence model. This model allows one to blank out agreement cells and thus to focus solely on patterns of disagreement. Examples use data from applicant selection.
Effects of the Boron-Doped p+ Emitter on the Efficiency of the n-Type Silicon Solar Cell
Eun-Young Kim,Jeong Kim
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/974507
Abstract: The optimum structure of the p+ emitter for the n-type silicon solar cell was determined with the simulation of the boron doping concentration. The boron concentration ( ) in the p+ emitter was varied in the range of and ?atoms/cm3 while maintaining the base doping concentration at ?atoms/cm3. With the increase of the boron concentration, the open circuit voltage ( ) of the cell increased up to 0.525?V and then was nearly saturated at ?atoms/cm3. On the other hand, the short circuit current density ( ) began to decrease at ?atoms/cm3 due to the increase of the surface recombination loss, and without considering the variation of the contact resistance along the emitter doping level, the maximum efficiency of the cell was obtained at around ?atoms/cm3. While the contact resistance of the electrode decreases with the increase of the doping concentration in the p+ emitter, and with consideration of the variation of the contact resistance, the optimum value of for maximum efficiency shifted to the higher doping level. 1. Introduction Currently, the p-type silicon solar cell comprises a large portion of the industrial solar cells. On the other hand, the n-type silicon solar cell has been known to have many advantages and has subsequently received a great deal of attention and has become one of the main development topics in PV industries. Crystalline silicon solar cell using the n-type wafer showed the highest efficiency record among commercial silicon solar cells [1]. The n-type wafer has a longer diffusion length than the p-type wafer as a result of a higher tolerance to common transition metal impurities [2, 3]. Also, it does not contain any boron-oxide pairs, which are considered as the origin of light-induced degradation (LID) in the p-type Si wafer [4]. Thus, the performance of the n-type silicon solar cell can almost be maintained without degradation during the illumination of light. Furthermore, since the doping profile of boron is more similar to the theoretical model than that of phosphorous, the application of simulation to the real emitter diffusion process is more suitable for the n-type Si wafer. In spite of the definite advantages of n-type silicon, p-type silicon comprises 85% of industrial silicon solar cells. Historically, research and process infrastructure have been mainly developed for p-type silicon solar cells, which are essential to make economical and high-efficient commercial solar cells. In order to realize a p+ emitter on n-type silicon wafer, three kinds of methods are usually applied: (i) boron-diffused emitter, (ii) Al-alloyed
Gender-Specific Metabolomic Profiling of Obesity in Leptin-Deficient ob/ob Mice by 1H NMR Spectroscopy
Eun-Young Won, Mi-Kyung Yoon, Sang-Woo Kim, Youngae Jung, Hyun-Whee Bae, Daeyoup Lee, Sung Goo Park, Chul-Ho Lee, Geum-Sook Hwang, Seung-Wook Chi
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0075998
Abstract: Despite the numerous metabolic studies on obesity, gender bias in obesity has rarely been investigated. Here, we report the metabolomic analysis of obesity by using leptin-deficient ob/ob mice based on the gender. Metabolomic analyses of urine and serum from ob/ob mice compared with those from C57BL/6J lean mice, based on the 1H NMR spectroscopy in combination with multivariate statistical analysis, revealed clear metabolic differences between obese and lean mice. We also identified 48 urine and 22 serum metabolites that were statistically significantly altered in obese mice compared to lean controls. These metabolites are involved in amino acid metabolism (leucine, alanine, ariginine, lysine, and methionine), tricarbocylic acid cycle and glucose metabolism (pyruvate, citrate, glycolate, acetoacetate, and acetone), lipid metabolism (cholesterol and carnitine), creatine metabolism (creatine and creatinine), and gut-microbiome-derived metabolism (choline, TMAO, hippurate, p-cresol, isobutyrate, 2-hydroxyisobutyrate, methylamine, and trigonelline). Notably, our metabolomic studies showed distinct gender variations. The obese male mice metabolism was specifically associated with insulin signaling, whereas the obese female mice metabolism was associated with lipid metabolism. Taken together, our study identifies the biomarker signature for obesity in ob/ob mice and provides biochemical insights into the metabolic alteration in obesity based on gender.
Non-Muscle Myosin II Regulates Neuronal Actin Dynamics by Interacting with Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors
Eun-Young Shin, Chan-Soo Lee, Cheong-Yong Yun, So-Yoon Won, Hyong-Kyu Kim, Yong Hee Lee, Sahng-June Kwak, Eung-Gook Kim
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0095212
Abstract: Background Non-muscle myosin II (NM II) regulates a wide range of cellular functions, including neuronal differentiation, which requires precise spatio-temporal activation of Rho GTPases. The molecular mechanism underlying the NM II-mediated activation of Rho GTPases is poorly understood. The present study explored the possibility that NM II regulates neuronal differentiation, particularly morphological changes in growth cones and the distal axon, through guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) of the Dbl family. Principal Findings NM II colocalized with GEFs, such as βPIX, kalirin and intersectin, in growth cones. Inactivation of NM II by blebbistatin (BBS) led to the increased formation of short and thick filopodial actin structures at the periphery of growth cones. In line with these observations, FRET analysis revealed enhanced Cdc42 activity in BBS-treated growth cones. BBS treatment also induced aberrant targeting of various GEFs to the distal axon where GEFs were seldom observed under physiological conditions. As a result, numerous protrusions and branches were generated on the shaft of the distal axon. The disruption of the NM II–GEF interactions by overexpression of the DH domains of βPIX or Tiam1, or by βPIX depletion with specific siRNAs inhibited growth cone formation and induced slender axons concomitant with multiple branches in cultured hippocampal neurons. Finally, stimulation with nerve growth factor induced transient dissociation of the NM II–GEF complex, which was closely correlated with the kinetics of Cdc42 and Rac1 activation. Conclusion Our results suggest that NM II maintains proper morphology of neuronal growth cones and the distal axon by regulating actin dynamics through the GEF–Rho GTPase signaling pathway.
A Hierarchical Interface Design of a Puzzle Game for Elementary Education
Eun-Young Park,Young-Ho Park
International Journal of u- and e- Service, Science and Technology , 2010,
Abstract: A basic instinct of humans for perfect completion usually drives us happy. Basically, humans purchase a certain complete match for scattered facts. The satisfaction of completing the scattered pieces gives us great pleasure. Thus many people put in their time and effort in the puzzle, and they gain strong satisfaction. The paper solves the importance of the general effects of a puzzle in building the edu-game design. Legacy online education has following problems. First, educational effects became weaker than original text education since the physical guide for the study is absent. Second, students can lose interests in study since there are no interactions or dynamics like the real education atmosphere. An on-line game isgrowing up very fast through characters of the interactive computing and internet environment. In addition, an edu-game combining the advantages of the game and the education increase gradually. The paper proposes an edu-game system for providing knowledge through the hierarchical structure. The system differs from existing ones that combine a game and an on-line education. There are three different goals as follows. First, the paper proposes three levels of knowledge hierarchies. The method enables users to understand more easy and systematic and interesting education. Second, the graphic interface of a puzzle type is able to contact more conveniently and it provides beauties and functionalities. Third, among them, specifically the knowledge hierarchy is not forced to users and the method also can study in detail and users can enjoy systematically e-education by using the general type of a puzzle game.
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