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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 431516 matches for " Esther M. John equal contributor "
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Fine-Mapping the HOXB Region Detects Common Variants Tagging a Rare Coding Allele: Evidence for Synthetic Association in Prostate Cancer
Edward J. Saunders,Tokhir Dadaev,Daniel A. Leongamornlert,Sarah Jugurnauth-Little,Malgorzata Tymrakiewicz,Fredrik Wiklund,Ali Amin Al Olama,Sara Benlloch,David E. Neal equal contributor,Freddie C. Hamdy equal contributor,Jenny L. Donovan equal contributor,Graham G. Giles equal contributor,Gianluca Severi equal contributor,Henrik Gronberg equal contributor,Markus Aly equal contributor,Christopher A. Haiman equal contributor,Fredrick Schumacher equal contributor,Brian E. Henderson equal contributor,Sara Lindstrom equal contributor,Peter Kraft equal contributor,David J. Hunter equal contributor,Susan Gapstur equal contributor,Stephen Chanock equal contributor,Sonja I. Berndt equal contributor,Demetrius Albanes equal contributor,Gerald Andriole equal contributor,Johanna Schleutker equal contributor,Maren Weischer equal contributor,B?rge G. Nordestgaard equal contributor,Federico Canzian equal contributor,Daniele Campa equal contributor,Elio Riboli equal contributor,Tim J. Key equal contributor,Ruth C. Travis equal contributor,Sue A. Ingles equal contributor,Esther M. John equal contributor,Richard B. Hayes equal contributor,Paul Pharoah equal contributor,Kay-Tee Khaw equal contributor,Janet L. Stanford equal contributor,Elaine A. Ostrander equal contributor,Lisa B. Signorello equal contributor,Stephen N. Thibodeau equal contributor,Daniel Schaid equal contributor,Christiane Maier equal contributor,Adam S. Kibel equal contributor,Cezary Cybulski equal contributor
PLOS Genetics , 2014, DOI: doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1004129
Abstract: The HOXB13 gene has been implicated in prostate cancer (PrCa) susceptibility. We performed a high resolution fine-mapping analysis to comprehensively evaluate the association between common genetic variation across the HOXB genetic locus at 17q21 and PrCa risk. This involved genotyping 700 SNPs using a custom Illumina iSelect array (iCOGS) followed by imputation of 3195 SNPs in 20,440 PrCa cases and 21,469 controls in The PRACTICAL consortium. We identified a cluster of highly correlated common variants situated within or closely upstream of HOXB13 that were significantly associated with PrCa risk, described by rs117576373 (OR 1.30, P = 2.62×10?14). Additional genotyping, conditional regression and haplotype analyses indicated that the newly identified common variants tag a rare, partially correlated coding variant in the HOXB13 gene (G84E, rs138213197), which has been identified recently as a moderate penetrance PrCa susceptibility allele. The potential for GWAS associations detected through common SNPs to be driven by rare causal variants with higher relative risks has long been proposed; however, to our knowledge this is the first experimental evidence for this phenomenon of synthetic association contributing to cancer susceptibility.
Functional Evolution of cis-Regulatory Modules at a Homeotic Gene in Drosophila
Margaret C. W. Ho equal contributor,Holly Johnsen equal contributor,Sara E. Goetz equal contributor,Benjamin J. Schiller,Esther Bae,Diana A. Tran,Andrey S. Shur,John M. Allen,Christoph Rau,Welcome Bender,William W. Fisher,Susan E. Celniker,Robert A. Drewell
PLOS Genetics , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1000709
Abstract: It is a long-held belief in evolutionary biology that the rate of molecular evolution for a given DNA sequence is inversely related to the level of functional constraint. This belief holds true for the protein-coding homeotic (Hox) genes originally discovered in Drosophila melanogaster. Expression of the Hox genes in Drosophila embryos is essential for body patterning and is controlled by an extensive array of cis-regulatory modules (CRMs). How the regulatory modules functionally evolve in different species is not clear. A comparison of the CRMs for the Abdominal-B gene from different Drosophila species reveals relatively low levels of overall sequence conservation. However, embryonic enhancer CRMs from other Drosophila species direct transgenic reporter gene expression in the same spatial and temporal patterns during development as their D. melanogaster orthologs. Bioinformatic analysis reveals the presence of short conserved sequences within defined CRMs, representing gap and pair-rule transcription factor binding sites. One predicted binding site for the gap transcription factor KRUPPEL in the IAB5 CRM was found to be altered in Superabdominal (Sab) mutations. In Sab mutant flies, the third abdominal segment is transformed into a copy of the fifth abdominal segment. A model for KRUPPEL-mediated repression at this binding site is presented. These findings challenge our current understanding of the relationship between sequence evolution at the molecular level and functional activity of a CRM. While the overall sequence conservation at Drosophila CRMs is not distinctive from neighboring genomic regions, functionally critical transcription factor binding sites within embryonic enhancer CRMs are highly conserved. These results have implications for understanding mechanisms of gene expression during embryonic development, enhancer function, and the molecular evolution of eukaryotic regulatory modules.
Developmental Profiles of Eczema, Wheeze, and Rhinitis: Two Population-Based Birth Cohort Studies
Danielle C. M. Belgrave equal contributor ,Raquel Granell equal contributor,Angela Simpson equal contributor,John Guiver equal contributor,Christopher Bishop equal contributor,Iain Buchan equal contributor,A. John Henderson equal contributor,Adnan Custovic equal contributor
PLOS Medicine , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1001748
Abstract: Background The term “atopic march” has been used to imply a natural progression of a cascade of symptoms from eczema to asthma and rhinitis through childhood. We hypothesize that this expression does not adequately describe the natural history of eczema, wheeze, and rhinitis during childhood. We propose that this paradigm arose from cross-sectional analyses of longitudinal studies, and may reflect a population pattern that may not predominate at the individual level. Methods and Findings Data from 9,801 children in two population-based birth cohorts were used to determine individual profiles of eczema, wheeze, and rhinitis and whether the manifestations of these symptoms followed an atopic march pattern. Children were assessed at ages 1, 3, 5, 8, and 11 y. We used Bayesian machine learning methods to identify distinct latent classes based on individual profiles of eczema, wheeze, and rhinitis. This approach allowed us to identify groups of children with similar patterns of eczema, wheeze, and rhinitis over time. Using a latent disease profile model, the data were best described by eight latent classes: no disease (51.3%), atopic march (3.1%), persistent eczema and wheeze (2.7%), persistent eczema with later-onset rhinitis (4.7%), persistent wheeze with later-onset rhinitis (5.7%), transient wheeze (7.7%), eczema only (15.3%), and rhinitis only (9.6%). When latent variable modelling was carried out separately for the two cohorts, similar results were obtained. Highly concordant patterns of sensitisation were associated with different profiles of eczema, rhinitis, and wheeze. The main limitation of this study was the difference in wording of the questions used to ascertain the presence of eczema, wheeze, and rhinitis in the two cohorts. Conclusions The developmental profiles of eczema, wheeze, and rhinitis are heterogeneous; only a small proportion of children (~7% of those with symptoms) follow trajectory profiles resembling the atopic march. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary
Common Genetic Variants and Modification of Penetrance of BRCA2-Associated Breast Cancer
Mia M. Gaudet equal contributor,Tomas Kirchhoff equal contributor,Todd Green equal contributor,Joseph Vijai equal contributor,Joshua M. Korn equal contributor,Candace Guiducci,Ayellet V. Segrè,Kate McGee,Lesley McGuffog,Christiana Kartsonaki,Jonathan Morrison,Sue Healey,Olga M. Sinilnikova,Dominique Stoppa-Lyonnet,Sylvie Mazoyer,Marion Gauthier-Villars,Hagay Sobol,Michel Longy,Marc Frenay,GEMO Study Collaborators ?,Frans B. L. Hogervorst,Matti A. Rookus,J. Margriet Collée,Nicoline Hoogerbrugge,Kees E. P. van Roozendaal,HEBON Study Collaborators ?,Marion Piedmonte,Wendy Rubinstein,Stacy Nerenstone,Linda Van Le,Stephanie V. Blank,Trinidad Caldés,Miguel de la Hoya,Heli Nevanlinna,Kristiina Aittom?ki,Conxi Lazaro,Ignacio Blanco,Adalgeir Arason,Oskar T. Johannsson,Rosa B. Barkardottir,Peter Devilee,Olofunmilayo I. Olopade,Susan L. Neuhausen,Xianshu Wang,Zachary S. Fredericksen,Paolo Peterlongo,Siranoush Manoukian,Monica Barile,Alessandra Viel,Paolo Radice,Catherine M. Phelan,Steven Narod,Gad Rennert,Flavio Lejbkowicz,Anath Flugelman,Irene L. Andrulis,Gord Glendon,Hilmi Ozcelik,OCGN ?,Amanda E. Toland,Marco Montagna,Emma D'Andrea,Eitan Friedman,Yael Laitman,Ake Borg,Mary Beattie,Susan J. Ramus,Susan M. Domchek,Katherine L. Nathanson,Tim Rebbeck,Amanda B. Spurdle,Xiaoqing Chen,Helene Holland,kConFab,Esther M. John,John L. Hopper,Saundra S. Buys,Mary B. Daly,Melissa C. Southey,Mary Beth Terry,Nadine Tung,Thomas V. Overeem Hansen,Finn C. Nielsen,Mark I. Greene,Phuong L. Mai
PLOS Genetics , 2010, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1001183
Abstract: The considerable uncertainty regarding cancer risks associated with inherited mutations of BRCA2 is due to unknown factors. To investigate whether common genetic variants modify penetrance for BRCA2 mutation carriers, we undertook a two-staged genome-wide association study in BRCA2 mutation carriers. In stage 1 using the Affymetrix 6.0 platform, 592,163 filtered SNPs genotyped were available on 899 young (<40 years) affected and 804 unaffected carriers of European ancestry. Associations were evaluated using a survival-based score test adjusted for familial correlations and stratified by country of the study and BRCA2*6174delT mutation status. The genomic inflation factor (λ) was 1.011. The stage 1 association analysis revealed multiple variants associated with breast cancer risk: 3 SNPs had p-values<10?5 and 39 SNPs had p-values<10?4. These variants included several previously associated with sporadic breast cancer risk and two novel loci on chromosome 20 (rs311499) and chromosome 10 (rs16917302). The chromosome 10 locus was in ZNF365, which contains another variant that has recently been associated with breast cancer in an independent study of unselected cases. In stage 2, the top 85 loci from stage 1 were genotyped in 1,264 cases and 1,222 controls. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for stage 1 and 2 were combined and estimated using a retrospective likelihood approach, stratified by country of residence and the most common mutation, BRCA2*6174delT. The combined per allele HR of the minor allele for the novel loci rs16917302 was 0.75 (95% CI 0.66–0.86, ) and for rs311499 was 0.72 (95% CI 0.61–0.85, ). FGFR2 rs2981575 had the strongest association with breast cancer risk (per allele HR = 1.28, 95% CI 1.18–1.39, ). These results indicate that SNPs that modify BRCA2 penetrance identified by an agnostic approach thus far are limited to variants that also modify risk of sporadic BRCA2 wild-type breast cancer.
Modeling a Snap-Action, Variable-Delay Switch Controlling Extrinsic Cell Death
John G Albeck equal contributor,John M Burke equal contributor,Sabrina L Spencer,Douglas A Lauffenburger,Peter K Sorger
PLOS Biology , 2008, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0060299
Abstract: When exposed to tumor necrosis factor (TNF) or TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), a closely related death ligand and investigational therapeutic, cells enter a protracted period of variable duration in which only upstream initiator caspases are active. A subsequent and sudden transition marks activation of the downstream effector caspases that rapidly dismantle the cell. Thus, extrinsic apoptosis is controlled by an unusual variable-delay, snap-action switch that enforces an unambiguous choice between life and death. To understand how the extrinsic apoptosis switch functions in quantitative terms, we constructed a mathematical model based on a mass-action representation of known reaction pathways. The model was trained against experimental data obtained by live-cell imaging, flow cytometry, and immunoblotting of cells perturbed by protein depletion and overexpression. The trained model accurately reproduces the behavior of normal and perturbed cells exposed to TRAIL, making it possible to study switching mechanisms in detail. Model analysis shows, and experiments confirm, that the duration of the delay prior to effector caspase activation is determined by initiator caspase-8 activity and the rates of other reactions lying immediately downstream of the TRAIL receptor. Sudden activation of effector caspases is achieved downstream by reactions involved in permeabilization of the mitochondrial membrane and relocalization of proteins such as Smac. We find that the pattern of interactions among Bcl-2 family members, the partitioning of Smac from its binding partner XIAP, and the mechanics of pore assembly are all critical for snap-action control.
Indirect Evolution of Hybrid Lethality Due to Linkage with Selected Locus in Mimulus guttatus
Kevin M. Wright equal contributor ,Deborah Lloyd equal contributor,David B. Lowry,Mark R. Macnair,John H. Willis
PLOS Biology , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1001497
Abstract: Most species are superbly and intricately adapted to the environments in which they live. Adaptive evolution by natural selection is the primary force shaping biological diversity. Differences between closely related species in ecologically selected characters such as habitat preference, reproductive timing, courtship behavior, or pollinator attraction may prevent interbreeding in nature, causing reproductive isolation. But does ecological adaptation cause reproductive incompatibilities such as hybrid sterility or lethality? Although several genes causing hybrid incompatibilities have been identified, there is intense debate over whether the genes that contribute to ecological adaptations also cause hybrid incompatibilities. Thirty years ago, a genetic study of local adaptation to copper mine soils in the wildflower Mimulus guttatus identified a locus that appeared to cause copper tolerance and hybrid lethality in crosses to other populations. But do copper tolerance and hybrid lethality have the same molecular genetic basis? Here we show, using high-resolution genome mapping, that copper tolerance and hybrid lethality are not caused by the same gene but are in fact separately controlled by two tightly linked loci. We further show that selection on the copper tolerance locus indirectly caused the hybrid incompatibility allele to go to high frequency in the copper mine population because of hitchhiking. Our results provide a new twist on Darwin's original supposition that hybrid incompatibilities evolve as an incidental by-product of ordinary adaptation to the environment.
Irf8-Regulated Genomic Responses Drive Pathological Inflammation during Cerebral Malaria
Joanne Berghout equal contributor,David Langlais equal contributor,Irena Radovanovic,Mifong Tam,John D. MacMicking,Mary M. Stevenson,Philippe Gros
PLOS Pathogens , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1003491
Abstract: Interferon Regulatory Factor 8 (IRF8) is required for development, maturation and expression of anti-microbial defenses of myeloid cells. BXH2 mice harbor a severely hypomorphic allele at Irf8 (Irf8R294C) that causes susceptibility to infection with intracellular pathogens including Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We report that BXH2 are completely resistant to the development of cerebral malaria (ECM) following Plasmodium berghei ANKA infection. Comparative transcriptional profiling of brain RNA as well as chromatin immunoprecipitation and high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-seq) was used to identify IRF8-regulated genes whose expression is associated with pathological acute neuroinflammation. Genes increased by infection were strongly enriched for IRF8 binding sites, suggesting that IRF8 acts as a transcriptional activator in inflammatory programs. These lists were enriched for myeloid-specific pathways, including interferon responses, antigen presentation and Th1 polarizing cytokines. We show that inactivation of several of these downstream target genes (including the Irf8 transcription partner Irf1) confers protection against ECM. ECM-resistance in Irf8 and Irf1 mutants is associated with impaired myeloid and lymphoid cells function, including production of IL12p40 and IFNγ. We note strong overlap between genes bound and regulated by IRF8 during ECM and genes regulated in the lungs of M. tuberculosis infected mice. This IRF8-dependent network contains several genes recently identified as risk factors in acute and chronic human inflammatory conditions. We report a common core of IRF8-bound genes forming a critical inflammatory host-response network.
Unique Interplay between Sugar and Lipid in Determining the Antigenic Potency of Bacterial Antigens for NKT Cells
Enrico Girardi equal contributor,Esther Dawen Yu equal contributor,Yali Li,Norihito Tarumoto,Bo Pei,Jing Wang,Petr Illarionov,Yuki Kinjo,Mitchell Kronenberg,Dirk M. Zajonc
PLOS Biology , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1001189
Abstract: Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells are an evolutionary conserved T cell population characterized by features of both the innate and adaptive immune response. Studies have shown that iNKT cells are required for protective responses to Gram-positive pathogens such as Streptococcus pneumoniae, and that these cells recognize bacterial diacylglycerol antigens presented by CD1d, a non-classical antigen-presenting molecule. The combination of a lipid backbone containing an unusual fatty acid, vaccenic acid, as well as a glucose sugar that is weaker or not stimulatory when linked to other lipids, is required for iNKT cell stimulation by these antigens. Here we have carried out structural and biophysical studies that illuminate the reasons for the stringent requirement for this unique combination. The data indicate that vaccenic acid bound to the CD1d groove orients the protruding glucose sugar for TCR recognition, and it allows for an additional hydrogen bond of the glucose with CD1d when in complex with the TCR. Furthermore, TCR binding causes an induced fit in both the sugar and CD1d, and we have identified the CD1d amino acids important for iNKT TCR recognition and the stability of the ternary complex. The studies show also how hydrogen bonds formed by the glucose sugar can account for the distinct binding kinetics of the TCR for this CD1d-glycolipid complex. Therefore, our studies illuminate the mechanism of glycolipid recognition for antigens from important pathogens.
High Levels of Genetic Differentiation between Ugandan Glossina fuscipes fuscipes Populations Separated by Lake Kyoga
Patrick P. Abila equal contributor,Michel A. Slotman equal contributor ,Aristeidis Parmakelis equal contributor,Kirstin B. Dion equal contributor,Alan S. Robinson,Vincent B. Muwanika,John C. K. Enyaru,Loyce M. Lokedi,Serap Aksoy,Adalgisa Caccone
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2008, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0000242
Abstract: Background Glossina fuscipes fuscipes is the major vector of human African trypanosomiasis, commonly referred to as sleeping sickness, in Uganda. In western and eastern Africa, the disease has distinct clinical manifestations and is caused by two different parasites: Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense and T. b. gambiense. Uganda is exceptional in that it harbors both parasites, which are separated by a narrow 160-km belt. This separation is puzzling considering there are no restrictions on the movement of people and animals across this region. Methodology and Results We investigated whether genetic heterogeneity of G. f. fuscipes vector populations can provide an explanation for this disjunct distribution of the Trypanosoma parasites. Therefore, we examined genetic structuring of G. f. fuscipes populations across Uganda using newly developed microsatellite markers, as well as mtDNA. Our data show that G. f. fuscipes populations are highly structured, with two clearly defined clusters that are separated by Lake Kyoga, located in central Uganda. Interestingly, we did not find a correlation between genetic heterogeneity and the type of Trypanosoma parasite transmitted. Conclusions The lack of a correlation between genetic structuring of G. f. fuscipes populations and the distribution of T. b. gambiense and T. b. rhodesiense indicates that it is unlikely that genetic heterogeneity of G. f. fuscipes populations explains the disjunct distribution of the parasites. These results have important epidemiological implications, suggesting that a fusion of the two disease distributions is unlikely to be prevented by an incompatibility between vector populations and parasite.
Genetic and Structural Basis for Selection of a Ubiquitous T Cell Receptor Deployed in Epstein-Barr Virus Infection
John J. Miles equal contributor ,Anna M. Bulek equal contributor,David K. Cole equal contributor,Emma Gostick,Andrea J. A. Schauenburg,Garry Dolton,Vanessa Venturi,Miles P. Davenport,Mai Ping Tan,Scott R. Burrows,Linda Wooldridge,David A. Price equal contributor,Pierre J. Rizkallah equal contributor,Andrew K. Sewell equal contributor
PLOS Pathogens , 2010, DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1001198
Abstract: Despite the ~1018 αβ T cell receptor (TCR) structures that can be randomly manufactured by the human thymus, some surface more frequently than others. The pinnacles of this distortion are public TCRs, which exhibit amino acid-identical structures across different individuals. Public TCRs are thought to result from both recombinatorial bias and antigen-driven selection, but the mechanisms that underlie inter-individual TCR sharing are still largely theoretical. To examine this phenomenon at the atomic level, we solved the co-complex structure of one of the most widespread and numerically frequent public TCRs in the human population. The archetypal AS01 public TCR recognizes an immunodominant BMLF1 peptide, derived from the ubiquitous Epstein-Barr virus, bound to HLA-A*0201. The AS01 TCR was observed to dock in a diagonal fashion, grasping the solvent exposed peptide crest with two sets of complementarity-determining region (CDR) loops, and was fastened to the peptide and HLA-A*0201 platform with residue sets found only within TCR genes biased in the public response. Computer simulations of a random V(D)J recombination process demonstrated that both TCRα and TCRβ amino acid sequences could be manufactured easily, thereby explaining the prevalence of this receptor across different individuals. Interestingly, the AS01 TCR was encoded largely by germline DNA, indicating that the TCR loci already comprise gene segments that specifically recognize this ancient pathogen. Such pattern recognition receptor-like traits within the αβ TCR system further blur the boundaries between the adaptive and innate immune systems.
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