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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 2563 matches for " Essential Oils "
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Antimicrobial Activity of the Essential Oil from Hyptis carpinifolia Benth  [PDF]
Karen Caroline Camargo, Luís Roberto Batista, Paulo Estev?o de Souza, Maria Luisa Teixeira, Thaís Aparecida Sales, Vanuzia Rodrigues Fernandes Ferreira, Jéssica Oliveira e Nogueira, Maísa Lamounier Magalh?es, Alex Rodrigues Silva Caetano, David Lee Nelson, Maria das Gra?as Cardoso
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2017.811195
Abstract: Essential oils are secondary metabolites whose biological properties have been studied with emphasis on antimicrobial activity. Hyptis carpinifolia Benth (Rosmaninho) is used in folk medicine in the fight against colds and rheumatism. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of the essential oil from H. carpinifolia. The essential oil was extracted by hydrodistillation using a modified Clevenger apparatus. The biological activity was determined using the Agar Cavity Diffusion technique to evaluate the effect of concentrations of 500, 250, 125, 62.5, 31.25, 15.62, 7.81 and 3.9 μg·mL-1 on the bacteria Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Choleraesuis, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The fungicidal potential was evaluated by the method of dilution in agar, and the percentage inhibition of mycelial growth of Alternaria alternata, Botrytis cinerea and Fusarium oxysporum was evaluated. The dilutions tested were 1000, 750, 500, 250 and 100 μL·L-1. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of the essential oil for L. monocytogenes, S. aureus and E. coli were 31.25;
Antimicrobial activity of multipurpose essential oil blends  [PDF]
Harold Edward Laubach, Simone Hobus Ghanavati, Geraldine Whidden
Health (Health) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/health.2012.48070
Abstract: Two types of multipurpose essential oil blends, blend11 containing eleven different essential oils and blend12 containing twelve, were tested against bacterial strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027, Serratia marcescens ATCC 13880 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538 and against the fungi, Candida albicans ATCC 10231, Aspergillus fumigatus ATCC 10894 and Fusarium solani ATCC 36031 to determine the spectrum of in vitro antimicrobial activity using aromatograms (paper disc diffusion assays). Microbial growth was decreased by multipurpose blend11 and blend12 in a similar manner. The saline control disc did not inhibit antimicrobial growth while the two blends exhibited significant zones of inhibition for all 3 bacteria and for the 3 fungi. The greatest antibacterial activity of blend11 and blend12 was exhibited with P. aeruginosa and S. marcescens followed by S. aureus. A high level of activity was associated with C. albicans and a lower level with F. solani followed by A. fumigatus. It is clearly evident from previous published studies that no single essential oil will effectively inhibit the growth of all of the organisms in our study. However, our results demonstrate that blend11 and blend12 have a broad range of inhibitory activity affecting all of the microorganisms tested.
Evaluation of the neuropharmacological properties of nerol in mice  [PDF]
Thiago Henrique Costa Marques, Maria Leonildes Boavista Gomes Castelo Branco Marques, Douglas dos Santos Lima, Hálmisson D’árley Santos Siqueira, Maria do Socorro Boavista Gomes Castelo Branco, Alexandre Araújo de Souza, Dami?o Pergentino de Sousa, Rivelilson Mendes de Freitas
World Journal of Neuroscience (WJNS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/wjns.2013.31004

The search for therapeutic agents that will provide the ground for man and an improvement in their quality of life is ceaseless. The nerol (cis-2,6-dimethyl-2,6-octadien-8-ol) is a monoterpene which can be found in various medicinal plants as Lippia spp and Melissa officinalis L. The objective of this study was to analyze the acute effect of nerol in the central nervous system (CNS) by performing behavioral tests in mice (open field, elevated plus-maze, light/dark and rota rod tests). We used male albino mice (Mus musculus), Swiss variety, adult with 2 month-old. The animals were divided into five groups (n = 8) for each experimental protocol, and they were administered intraperitoneally (i.p.), respectively, Tween 80 0.05% dissolved in saline solution 0.9%, nerol (30, 60 or 90 mg/kg) or diazepam (2 mg/kg). In the open field test, all groups treated with nerol showed a significant decrease in motor activity (number of crossings, rearings and groomings) when compared with vehicle group. In the elevated plus-maze test, nerol groups significantly increased the number of entries and time of permanence in the open arms when compared with vehicle group. In the light-dark test, nerol groups showed a significant increase the time of permanence in the room clear when compared with vehicle group. In the rota rod test, the groups treated with nerol didn’t show modification in time spent and number of falls in the revolving bar when compared with vehicle group. These results indicate a possible anxiolytic effect of nerol in mice.

Microencapsulation of Essential Oils within Alginate: Formulation and in Vitro Evaluation of Antifungal Activity  [PDF]
E. A. Soliman, A. Y. El-Moghazy, M. S. Mohy El-Din, M. A. Massoud
Journal of Encapsulation and Adsorption Sciences (JEAS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jeas.2013.31006
Abstract: Essential oils (EOs) are the volatile lipophilic components extracted from plants. Many EOs have demonstrated strong antimicrobial properties when tested in in vitro experiments. The commercial applications of these EOs require a suitable formulation constituted by biodegradable compounds that protect them from degradation and evaporation at the same time that allows for a sustained release. The objective of this study was therefore to reduce the rate of evaporation of the oil via microencapsulation. Alginate microspheres (AMSs) were prepared using emulsion extrusion method. The AMSs were hardened with a cross-linking agent, calcium chloride. The effects of the three variables: alginate concentration (0.5% - 8%), the amount of cross-linking agent (0.125% - 2%) and time of cross-linking (5 - 30 min.) on loading capacity and encapsulation efficiency (EE, %) were studied. The effect of the amount of cross-linker was significant on loading capacity (%) and EE (%). The AMSs under the optimized conditions provided loading capacity of 22% - 24% and EE of 90% - 94% based on type of EO. The antifungal activity of vapors of microencapsulated and non-microencapsulated oils were evaluated against two of pathogenic fungi species for stored grains: Aspergillus niger and Fusarium verticillioides. The optimized MSs were observed to have a sustained in vitro release profile (50% of the antifungal activity was maintained at the 8th day of the study). In conclusion, encapsulation in Ca-alginate microspheres may effectively reduce the evaporation rate of essential oils, thus increase the potential antifungal activity.

An Essential Oil Blend Decreases Methane Emissions and Increases Milk Yield in Dairy Cows  [PDF]
Kenton J. Hart, Hefin G. Jones, Kate E. Waddams, Hilary J. Worgan, Beatrice Zweifel, C. Jamie Newbold
Open Journal of Animal Sciences (OJAS) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ojas.2019.93022
Abstract: This study was conducted to investigate the effect of a commercial essential oil (EO) additive on milk production and methane (CH4) emissions from dairy cows. Early lactation Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were fed grass, whole crop wheat and corn silage total mixed ration. Cows were allocated to one of two experimental treatments: Control (no additive, CON) or 1 g/head/day of EO. Cows were housed in a free stall barn, split into two pens for the duration of the experiment. Two gas data loggers units used to measure CH4 emissions were provided per pen for the duration of the 22 week-long study. Milk yield was determined daily, and milk components were analyzed every two weeks. CH4 was recorded continuously, and daily values were tabulated. Body weight and body condition score were determined at the start and bi-weekly. Results were analyzed as a randomized complete block trial. In total, 149 cows participated in the study (76 CON, 73 EO). Milk yields were greater (P < 0.05) for the test treatment (28.3 CON, 31.2 EO) with no change in milk component concentrations. Milk component concentrations were unaffected (P > 0.05) by treatment. Yields of fat, protein, lactose, and solids were higher for EO fed cows (P < 0.05). CH4 output was reduced with the EO compared to the CON treatment (411 g/day vs 438 g/day; 13.8 g/L of milk vs 17.2 g/L of milk, P < 0.05) over the duration of the trial. There were no effects of treatment on reproductive performance or the occurrence of mastitis. Feeding EO to dairy cows reduced CH4 emissions whilst also increasing performance.
Identification of volatile compounds in thinning discards from plum trees (Prunus salicina Lindl.) cultivar Harry Pickstone
Podestá, Rossana;Pagliosa, Cristiane Manfé;Vieira, Manoela Alano;Provesi, Jo?o Gustavo;Amante, Edna Regina;Zeni, Ana Lúcia Bertarello;Raitz, Ismael;Rebelo, Ricardo Andrade;
Ciência e Tecnologia de Alimentos , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S0101-20612011000300024
Abstract: plum (prunus salicina lindl. cv. harry pickstone), a china indigenous fruit, is widely produced and consumed in countries such as japan and brazil. the practice of thinning is common in horticulture and the fruits removed are discarded as waste. like the great majority of vegetables, these thinning discards also contain essential oils which have not been investigated until the present time. the extraction of the plum thinning discards volatile oil, through the hydrodistillation method, produced a yield of 0.06% (m/m) and a total of 21 components were identified, with 11 of them being responsible for 72,9% of the total oil composition. the major compounds determined through gc and gc-ms were z-α-bisabolene (13.7%), n-hexadecanoic acid (12.7%), phytol (12.7%), and β-caryophyllene (10.4%).
De aromas e perfumes, o mercado da indústria do "cheiro"
Speziali, Marcelo Gomes;
Química Nova , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-40422012000400038
Abstract: several flavors and fragrances (f&f) companies hold the economic leadership in the market, although not always have also the leadership in patent applications. the ranking of technological production in the fragrance area still remains with industries while scientific knowledge is equally shared between industries and academia. contextualizing brazil in this scene, despite all scientific expertise gained over the years, brazilian technological park is still at the beginning of the production of technologies applied directly to the f&f industries. the dependence on foreign technologies is remarkable as indicated by the great trade deficit in this sector.
Un sistema para la deteccion de antioxidantes volatiles comunmente emitidos desde especias y hierbas medicinales
Pastene, Edgar;Gómez, Maritza;Speisky, Hernán;Nú?ez-Vergara, Luís;
Química Nova , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-40422009000200035
Abstract: an apparatus which allows the direct measurement of the antioxidant capacity of volatiles compounds emitted from some herbs and culinary spices is described. the device comprises: a sample chamber, a mixing chamber, a pump and, a detection system. volatiles from clove (syzygium aromaticum (l.) merr. & l.m. perry) were purged and captured into a dpph-containing solution and changes in the absorbance were recorded on-line. linear response was observed when temperature was set between 30-53 oc; nitrogen flow was 15 ml min-1 during 60 min; dpph concentration was 20 μmol l-1 and a sample size (powdered clove) ranged between 200-1000 mg.
Estudo comparativo dos óleos voláteis de algumas espécies de Piperaceae
Mesquita, J.M.O.;Cavaleiro, C.;Cunha, A.P.;Lombardi, J.A.;Oliveira, A.B.;
Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia , 2005, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-695X2005000100003
Abstract: essential oils from various vegetal species of the piperaceae family were analysed by capillary gas chromatography (gc) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (gc/ms). the investigated species were: piper aduncum, p. amalago, p. arboreum, p. cernuum, p. hispidum, p. regnelii, p. submarginalum, p. vicosanum and pothomorphe umbellata. over 80% of the essential oils compounds were identified by the qualitative and quantitative analysis. the analysed species showed the predominance of sesquiterpenoids, except for p. hispidum, p. submarginalum and p. vicosanum in which the predominant compounds were monoterpenoids. for the 9 studied species, the major compounds found in the oils were b-pinene (9/9) and spathulenol (9/9), followed by the e-caryophyllene (8/9), caryophyllene oxide (8/9), germacrene d (7/9), a-pinene (7/9) and limonene (6/9).
Compuestos Antimicrobianos Adicionados en Recubrimientos Comestibles para Uso en Productos Hortofrutícolas
Ramos-García, Margarita de Lorena;Bautista-Ba?os, Silvia;Barrera-Necha, Laura Leticia;Bosquez-Molina, Elsa;Alia-Tejacal, Irán;Estrada-Carrillo, Marisa;
Revista mexicana de fitopatología , 2010,
Abstract: coatings and films are continuous matrixes typically formulated of lipids, proteins and carbohydrates or their combination. a carbohydrate used to formulate edible coatings is the chitosan that reduces the growth of fungi and bacteria. coatings may work as vehicles of a broad range of food additives including antimicrobial compounds in order to provide higher attributes such as the control of microorganism. essential oils are among the natural additives. there is broad evidence that essential oils extracted from different plant species present inhibition against fungi and bacteria. the incorporation of chitosan and essential oils into the edible formulations avoids the development of microorganism and extends the storage life of the horticultural commodity. in this article, a literature review about the main components of the coatings and its effect on the physiology of the commodity was carried. a revision of literature about the effect of chitosan and the addition of essential oils on the activity of pathogenic microorganisms was also carried out.
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