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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 99 matches for " Esref Isik "
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Moisture Dependent Physical and Mechanical Properties of Green Laird Lentil (Lens culinaris) grains
ESref ISik
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2007,
Abstract: This study was conducted to investigate some moisture dependent physical and mechanical properties of green laird lentil grains namely, grain dimensions, thousand grain mass, surface area, projected area, sphericity, bulk density, true density, porosity, terminal velocity, static coefficient of friction against different materials. The average diameter and thickness were 6.72 and 2.58 mm, at a moisture content of 11.36% d.b., respectively. In the above moisture range, the arithmetic and geometric mean diameters increased from 5.340 to 5.685 mm and from 4.879 to 5.260 mm, respectively, while the sphericity decreased from 0.727 to 0.744. In the moisture range from 11.36-25.08% d.b., studies on rewetted green laird lentil grains showed that the thousand grain mass increased from 72.00 to 73.90 g, the projected area from 36.98 to 55.60 mm2, the true density from 1170 to 1420 kg m-3, the porosity from 29.91 to 55.63% and the terminal velocity from 5.90 to 7.10 m s-1. The bulk density decreased from 820 to 630 kg m-3 with an increase in the moisture content range of 11.36-25.08% d.b. The static coefficient of friction of green laird lentil grains increased against surfaces of six structural materials, namely, rubber (0.51-0.58), aluminum (0.48-0.57), stainless steel (0.38-0.44), galvanized iron (0.42-0.50), glass (0.35-0.40) and MDF (medium density fiberboard) (0.31-0.36) as the moisture content increased from 11.36-25.08% d.b.
Comparison of the Thermodynamically Analysis of Vacuum Cooling Method with the Experimental Model
Esref Isik
American Journal of Food Technology , 2007,
Abstract: In this study, results of thermodynamically analysis were tested and compared, implementing the vacuum cooling of lettuce. According to the findings of the trial and results of the thermodynamically analysis, it is possible to determine the weight loss within an error of 2.12%, close to the other parameters to be used in the design of vacuum precooling system, such as temperature, pressure, enthalpy and entropy on specified points using the mathematical model prepared from thermodynamically equations. Moreover, the fact that the power need, the most important parameter in the design of the system, could be determined with a minimal error (0.162%) reveals that the thermodynamically analysis could be used in the design of a vacuum precooling system.
Some Engineering Properties of Soybean Grains
Esref Isik
American Journal of Food Technology , 2007,
Abstract: The some engineering properties of soybean grains were determined as a function of moisture content in the range of 10.62-27.06% dry basis (d.b.). The average length, width and thickness were 7.795, 7.123 and 4.189 mm, at a moisture content of 10.62% d.b., respectively. In the above moisture range, the arithmetic and geometric mean diameters increased from 6.369 to 8.048 mm and from 6.149 to 7.933 mm, respectively, while the sphericity increased from 0.788 to 0.835. In the moisture range from 10.62-27.06% d.b., studies on rewetted soybean grains showed that the thousand grain mass increased from 200 to 255 g, the projected area from 37.69 to 53.39 mm2, the true density from 1090 to 1200 kg m-3, the porosity from 40.36 to 54.16% and the terminal velocity from 8.01 to 9.1 m s-1. The bulk density decreased from 650 to 550 kg m-3 with an increase in the moisture content range of 10.62-27.06% d.b. The static coefficient of friction of soybean grains increased the linearly against surfaces of six structural materials, namely, rubber (0.3443-0.3919), aluminum (0.2867-0.3115), stainless steel (0.2905-0.3443), galvanized iron (0.2962-0.3482), glass (0.2309-0.2773) and MDF (medium density fiberboard) (0.2126-0.2679) as the moisture content increased from 10.62-27.06%.
The Effect of Vacuum Cooling of Some Products on the Ratio of Weight Loss
Esref Isik
Journal of Applied Sciences , 2006,
Abstract: In this study, weight loss and the methods to reduce weight loss were determined as well as the parameters of pressure, temperature and time during the vacuum cooling of lettuce, cauliflower, cabbage and spinach at low evacuation rate using three different methods and these were compared with the studies made before. The weight loss for every 1°C ratios of products with high specific volume values during vacuum pre-cooling practices are also high, since they can release the water inside their structure more easily. However, they are more suitable to vacuum pre-cooling compared with the other products. Spraying water onto the products which could not release their water readily, during vacuum pre-cooling reduces the weight loss for every 1°C and also increases the cooling rate. In this connection one can say that spraying water onto the lettuce, cabbage, cauliflower, spinach and thereafter covering them with perforated PVC film before cooling in the vacuum cooling process is a factor significantly reducing the weight loss for every 1°C and total weight loss.
The Effect of Precooling of Lettuces and Green Beans on the Ratio of Weight Loss and Net Weight after Storage
Esref Isik,Ertugrul Celik
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2006,
Abstract: In this study, we investigated the effects of precooling and not precooling lettuce types Lital and Yedikule to +2 and +4°C and fresh bean types Aysekadin and Rodop to +8°C in a vacuum cooler on the weight loss and net weight of the products at the end of storage. No statistical difference in poststorage weight loss was found between vacuum precooling treatments in the lettuce trials; however, there was a significant (p<0.01) effect of vacuum precooling on poststorage weight loss in beans. Packaging of precooled products affected weight loss of lettuces and beans (p<0.01) and (p<0.05) significance, respectively. The weight loss in packaged products at the end of the vacuum cooling process was 1.82 and 0.74% in lettuces and beans, respectively, whereas in unpackaged products it was 5.05 and 2.41%. Plant types and packages affected the net weight of lettuces significance (p<0.01). Lital was the best product type with 42.34% net weight and packaging products was the best method with 44.95% net weight. No change in net weight was observed in the beans because there was no spoilage after storage.
Moisture Dependent Physical and Mechanical Properties of Dent Corn (Zea mays var. indentata Sturt.) Seeds (Ada-523)
Esref Isik,Nazmi Izli
American Journal of Food Technology , 2007,
Abstract: The physical and mechanical properties of dent corn seeds were determined as a function of moisture content in the range of 11.14-24.07% dry basis (d.b.). The average length, width and thickness were 10.890, 8.173 and 4.466 mm, at a moisture content of 11.14% d.b., respectively. In the above moisture range, the arithmetic and geometric mean diameters and sphericity increased from 7.843-8.448 mm, from 7.352-7.943 mm and from 0.675-0.689, respectively, in the moisture range from 11.14-24.07% d.b. Studies on rewetted dent corn seeds showed that the thousand seed mass increased from 430-542 g, the projected area from 54.46-68.90 mm2, the true density from 995.09-1100.10 kg m-3, the porosity from 29.60-44.51% and the terminal velocity from 6.20-7.50 m sec-1. The bulk density decreased from 700.50-610.50 kg m-3 with an increase in the moisture content range of 11.14-24.07% d.b. The static coefficient of friction of dent corn seeds increased the logarithmic against surfaces of six structural materials, namely, rubber (0.42-0.51), aluminum (0.41-0.49), stainless steel (0.31-0.36), galvanized iron (0.31-0.39), glass (0.27-0.33) and MDF (medium density fiberboard) (0.28-0.35) as the moisture content increased from 11.14-24.07% d.b. The shelling resistance of dent corn seeds decreased as the moisture content increased from 116.13-80.44 N.
Some Physical and Mechanical Properties of Black-eyed Pea (Vigna unguiculata L.) Grains
Halil Unal,Esref Isik,Huseyin Can Alpsoy
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2006,
Abstract: The physical properties of black-eyed pea were evaluated as a function of moisture content. In the moisture range from 10.82 to 31.76% d.b., the dimensions of the major (length), medium (width) and minor (thickness) axes varied from 9.15 to 10.45 mm, .67 to 7.31 mm and 6.01 to 6.55 mm, respectively. In the above moisture range, the arithmetic and geometric mean diameters increased from 7.28 to 8.10 mm and from 7.16 to 7.93 mm, respectively, while the sphericity decreased from 0.783 to 0.761. Thousand grain mass, surface area and projected area increased from 245.4 to 279.3 g, from 161.22 to 198.38 mm2 and from 57.75 to 68.18 mm2, respectively. In the moisture range from 10.82 to 31.76% d.b., the bulk density of the rewetted grain decreased from 637.80 to 602.48 kg m-3, true density increased from 1064.66 to 1205.99 kg m-3, porosity increased from 40.05 to 49.60%. The terminal velocity and angle of repose increased linearly from 4.98 to 5.44 m s-1 and 20.91 to 27.69°, respectively. The static coefficient of friction increased on six structural surfaces namely, rubber (0.380-0.434), galvanised iron (0.355-0.399), aluminium (0.346-0.383), stainless steel (0.333-0.375), glass (0.323-0.374) and medium density fibreboard (0.278-0.342) as the moisture content increased from 10.82 to 31.76% d.b.. The shelling resistance of black-eyed pea decreased as the moisture content increased and the highest force were obtained while loading along the Z-axis (thickness).
Physical and Mechanical Properties of Turkish G ynük Bombay Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)
Yucel Tekin,Esref Isik,Halil Unal,Rasim Okursoy
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2006,
Abstract: The physical properties of Turkish G ynük Bombay bean grains were determined as a function of moisture content in the range of 10.25-25.6% dry basis (d.b.). The average length, width and thickness were 22.60, 13.57 and 10.25 mm, at a moisture content of 10.25% d.b., respectively. In the above moisture range, the arithmetic and geometric mean diameters increased from 15.477 to 16.283 mm and from 14.617 to 14.825 mm, respectively, while the sphericity decreased from 0.734 to 0.599. In the moisture range from 10.25 to 25.6% d.b., Studies on rewetted Turkish G ynük Bombay bean grains showed that the thousand grain mass increased from 1700 to 2170 g, the projected area from 185.80 to 225.44 mm2, the true density from 1301.60 to 1452.80 kg m-3,the porosity from 46.287 to 63.047% and the terminal velocity from 6.20 to 6.98 m sec-1.The bulk density decreased from 664.95 to 536.19 kg m-3 with an increase in the moisture content range of 10.25-25.6% d.b. The static coefficient of friction of Turkish Gunk Bombay bean grains increased the linearly against surfaces of six structural materials, namely, rubber (0.41-0.60), aluminum (0.33-0.48), stainless steel (0.29-0.40), galvanized iron (0.32-0.43), glass (0.28-0.40) and mdf (medium density fiberboard) (0.24-0.36) as the moisture content increased from 10.25 to 25.6% d.b. The shelling resistance of Turkish G ynük Bombay beans grain decreased as the moisture content increased from 100.76 to 59.01 N.
Getting Ready for the Post-Oil Age: The Entrepreneurship as the Rising Star of Development Policies in the Gulf States  [PDF]
Mehtap Isik
Modern Economy (ME) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/me.2018.91008
Abstract: Gulf Cooperation Council countries have been offering opportunities to attract global investors for a while. Yet, the strong tension between the existing government structures and the democratic elements that are needed for investments to flourish creates a complicated economic environment. Besides, the external dynamics sourced from international relations in the region add a new dimension to the problem. For many economies of the same characteristics, governmental supports for entrepreneurial activities rise as a natural solution for many problems. Is it the case for the Gulf States, too? This study, first, draws a framework in order to explore the extent of the new entrepreneur-led growth policies in the region and relates the possible policies to the existing economic problems. Then, three markets, the Kuwaiti labor market which is a good representative of other Gulf States’ labor markets, renewable energy markets and biotechnology markets which have increasing roles in new industrial policies, are studied to examine the challenges and the opportunities created by these government policies. The study reveals numerous opportunities offered to entrepreneurs and investors, however further requirements to improve the conditions necessary for entrepreneur-led growth are advised as policy purposes.
L' "actio de efussis vel deiectis" nel diritto romano classico
Kucuk,Esref;
Revista de estudios histórico-jurídicos , 2008, DOI: 10.4067/S0716-54552008000100004
Abstract: the actio de effusis vel deiectis is about the responsibility by a third party event and of a formula given against that who has the availability of a house (habitator), for the damage caused by something fallen or a liquid spilled from the house on a public transit place. the sentence is variable. guilt is not considered a requirement to demand responsibility, because what is sentenced is not the hurtful event, but the danger, in order to protect the security of public transit. in the article the elements that give way to this responsibility are studied.
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