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The Factors of Musculoskeletal Pain in Geriatric Patients and the Relationship between Pain and Quality of Life  [PDF]
Esra Cicekci, Zuhal Ozisler, Sumru Ozel, Sibel Unsal-Delialioglu, Cem Ozisler
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2017.88047
Abstract: Aim: The purpose of the study was to assess the musculoskeletal pain frequency and intensity, to pinpoint the factors affecting the pain and to research their effect on patients’ quality of life. Methods: 203 patients over 65 who came to our Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation clinic were included in the study. Intensity of comorbid diseases were calculated by using Cumulative Illness Rating Scale (CIRS). Geriatric Pain Measure-24 (GPM) was used to assess the pain intensity, Geriatric Depression Scale-15 (GDS) was used to detect the presence of depression and Short Form-36 (SF-36) was used to determine quality of life. Results: The median age of the patients was 72.9 ± 6.36 (65 - 92) years. 97% of patients complained of pain. GPM total value mean of the patients was 61.9 (0 - 99.9). GPM scores were significantly higher in patients who were female (p < 0.001), single (p < 0.015), lower education, housewife (p < 0.001), depressed (p < 0.001), and with a preexisting comorbidity. However, in multivariate linear regression analysis, only female sex and depression presence was found out to be the factors that significantly affect the GPM scores (p < 0.001). There was a significant positive correlation between GPM and GDS scores (p = 0.001, r = 0.545). There were significant negative correlations between all subgroup parameters of SF-36 and both GPM and GDS. Conclusions: Low education, being single, presence of comorbidities and being a housewife all relates to pain intensity, yet the most important factors are being female and presence of depression. Pain intensity is connected to low quality of life. We think this study will show a path to program geriatric population’s healthcare needs.
Spectrographic Characteristics of Turkish /h/  [PDF]
Esra Ertan
Open Journal of Acoustics (OJA) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/oja.2013.34015

/h/ is described differently by different researchers. While some argue that /h/ is a glottal fricative, others argue that it is the voiceless counterpart of the following vowel, yet others argue that /h/ is a glide or an approximant. However, de- tailed acoustic studies focusing on /h/ are very limited. This study aims to describe the spectrographic characteristics of /h/ in Turkish. Test words consisted of 48 monosyllabic and disyllabic words containing /h/ which was followed by eight Turkish vowels. Totally 1440 tokens were analyzed. After segmentation, /h/ was classified based on its spectrographic characteristics: 1) segment exhibiting formants, 2) segment exhibiting frication (but no formants) with energy in lower frequencies and 3) segment exhibiting almost no energy. In order to find out if there is a significant difference among these three categories, Chi-square test was applied. The spectrographic characteristics of /h/ in Turkish suggest that it is more like the voiceless version of the surrounding vowels, significantly when it is in syllable initial position and the preceding vowel when in syllable final position.

The Formula of Kinetic Energy for the Closed Planar Homothetic Direct Motions  [PDF]
Ayhan Tutar, Esra Inan
Journal of Applied Mathematics and Physics (JAMP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jamp.2015.35069
Abstract: In this paper, during one-parameter closed planar homothetic direct motions, the formula of kinetic energy is expressed. Then we show the relation between the formula of kinetic energy and the Steiner formula. We investigate some properties of closed planar homothetic motions. These motions appear between two coordinate systems, fixed and moving (direct motion). Finally, we show how the results can be applied to experimentally measured motions. As an example, we consider a motion of winch in the sagittal direction. We obtain the formula of kinetic energy for the motion of winch during one-parameter closed planar homothetic direct motions.
Effects of At2 Receptor Agonist Novokinin on Oxidative Stress, Inflammation and Infarct Size Due to Myocardial Ischemia-Reperfusion  [PDF]
Esra Gunduz, Engin Sahna
Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering (JBiSE) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jbise.2017.105020
Abstract: Aim: Ischemia and reperfusion (IR) injury is a serious problem that is occured during thrombolytic therapy, organ transplantation, coronary angioplasty, and cardiopulmonary bypass. There is an increase in the number of AT2 receptors in some pathological conditions such as cardiac hypertrophy, myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure. This study was designed to investigate the effects AT2 receptor agonist Novokinin on infarct size, caveolin-1 (CAV-1), HSP90, ADMA, NADPH oxidase and Rhokinase associated to endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress, and NFκB and TLR-4 levels induced by inflammation on myocardial IR. Methods: The experimental groups: Sham (C), Novokinin (N), IR and IRN. Novokinin was performed with infusion pump before ischemia, and during IR. The left main coronary artery was occluded for 30 minutes ischemia followed by 120 minutes reperfusion in anesthetized rats. CAV-1, HSP90, and NFκB levels were measured by the quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), ADMA, TLR-4, NADPH oxidase, and Rhokinase levels were measured by ELISA, infarct size was measured by ImageJ, an image analysis software, in the heart tissue. Results: NFκB, HSP90, NADPH oxidase and TLR-4 levels increased with IR and significantly decreased with Novokinin. CAV-1 levels were not different between the groups. ADMA and Rhokinase levels were increased due to IR but decreased with Novokinin. Novokinin reduced infarct size due to IR. Conclusion: Our results showed that, ADMA, HSP90, NFκB, TLR-4, Rhokinase, and NADPH oxidase levels play important roles on IR injury. AT2 receptor agonist Novokinin may affect positively oxidative changes, inflammation, and endothelial function in myocardial IR injury.
Theoretical Orientations of Turkish Counselor Trainees: The Role of Thinking Styles, Epistemology and Curiosity  [PDF]
Ilkay Demir, Esra Ismen Gazioglu
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2012.37077
Abstract: Counselors vary in personality traits, worldviews, epistemic values, cognitive styles, and developmental influences, and these variations in return effect their choice of a guiding theory. This study addresses the variables associated with the theoretical orientations of Turkish psychological counseling students. Participants completed measures of curiosity, thinking styles, epistemological beliefs and a questionnaire on their theoretical choices. Three separate discriminant analysis were conducted to understand which variables differentiate between theoretical orientations. Results of the discriminant analysis revealed that conservative and liberal thinking styles and absorption dimension of curiosity differentiated between theoretical orientations.
Analysis of Cardiotocogram Data for Fetal Distress Determination by Decision Tree Based Adaptive Boosting Approach  [PDF]
Esra Mahsereci Karabulut, Turgay Ibrikci
Journal of Computer and Communications (JCC) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jcc.2014.29005

Cardiotocography is one of the most widely used technique for recording changes in fetal heart rate (FHR) and uterine contractions. Assessing cardiotocography is crucial in that it leads to iden- tifying fetuses which suffer from lack of oxygen, i.e. hypoxia. This situation is defined as fetal dis- tress and requires fetal intervention in order to prevent fetus death or other neurological disease caused by hypoxia. In this study a computer-based approach for analyzing cardiotocogram in- cluding diagnostic features for discriminating a pathologic fetus. In order to achieve this aim adaptive boosting ensemble of decision trees and various other machine learning algorithms are employed.

Heteroskedasticity-Consistent Covariance Matrix Estimators in Small Samples with High Leverage Points  [PDF]
Esra ?im?ek, Mehmet Orhan
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2016.64071
Abstract: The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the impact of high leverage observations on the performances of prominent and popular Heteroskedasticity-Consistent Covariance Matrix Estimators (HCCMEs) with the help of computer simulation. Firstly, we figure out high leverage observations, then remove them and recalculate the HCCMEs without these observations in order to compare the HCCME performances with and without high leverage points. We identify high leverage observations with the Minimum Covariance Determinant (MCD). We select from among different covariates and disturbance term variances from the related literature in simulation runs in order to compare the percentage difference between the expected value of the HCCME and true covariance matrix as well as the symmetric loss function. Our results revealed that the elimination of high leverage (high MCD distance) observations had improved the HCCME performances considerably and under some settings substantially, depending on the degree of leverage. We hope our theoretical findings will be benefited for practical purposes in applications.
The Performance Analysis Based on SAR Sample Covariance Matrix
Esra Erten
Sensors , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/s120302766
Abstract: Multi-channel systems appear in several fields of application in science. In the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) context, multi-channel systems may refer to different domains, as multi-polarization, multi-interferometric or multi-temporal data, or even a combination of them. Due to the inherent speckle phenomenon present in SAR images, the statistical description of the data is almost mandatory for its utilization. The complex images acquired over natural media present in general zero-mean circular Gaussian characteristics. In this case, second order statistics as the multi-channel covariance matrix fully describe the data. For practical situations however, the covariance matrix has to be estimated using a limited number of samples, and this sample covariance matrix follow the complex Wishart distribution. In this context, the eigendecomposition of the multi-channel covariance matrix has been shown in different areas of high relevance regarding the physical properties of the imaged scene. Specifically, the maximum eigenvalue of the covariance matrix has been frequently used in different applications as target or change detection, estimation of the dominant scattering mechanism in polarimetric data, moving target indication, etc. In this paper, the statistical behavior of the maximum eigenvalue derived from the eigendecomposition of the sample multi-channel covariance matrix in terms of multi-channel SAR images is simplified for SAR community. Validation is performed against simulated data and examples of estimation and detection problems using the analytical expressions are as well given.
Turkish Studies , 2010,
Abstract: In this article, it is examined gerunds made from suffix –GAn in Uzbek Turkish through Said Ahmad’s novel called “Ufq”, which is a Turkic language of southeastern branch, and is approached in details historical development, structure and utilization of suffixes. Additionaly, it is emphasized functions of gerund-making by using case ending, noun derivational affix, particle and word of the suffix -GAn, and to understand this issue, utilizations of these suffixes have supported the examinations obtained from “Ufq” novel. Bu makalede, Said Ahmad’ n “Ufq” roman esas nda zbek Türk esinde -GAn ekiyle yap lan zarf-fiiller konusu incelenmi ve eklerin tarihi geli imi, yap s ve kullan mlar ayr nt l bir ekilde ele al nm t r.Ayr ca, –GAn ekinin, isim ekim eki, isim yapma eki, edat ve kelime kullanarak zarf-fiil yapma i levleri üzerinde durulmu ve konunun anla lmas i in bu zarf-fiil eklerinin kullan mlar “Ufq” roman ndan elde edilen rneklerle desteklenmi tir.
Turkish Studies , 2012,
Abstract: Ahmet Cevdet Pasha, Turkish history, as well as in terms of the history of Turkish grammar is extremely important. Western elements to enter the Turkish language is written at the beginning has been a pioneer for all the grammar books. At the same time to learn our language, written language, the language of the new concepts to meet the difference between the elimination of speech, has addressed various issues such as driving innovation in the Arabic alphabet. Western elements to enter the Turkish language is written at the beginning has been a pioneer for all the grammar books. Pasha, the only language for writing the book not only our language to learn, meet new concepts that come with the Westernization of the difference between the elimination of written language as colloquial Arabic alphabet, has addressed various issues such as driving innovation in a team. Grammar books written in terms of grammar, has pioneered the use of terms. Cevdet Pasha has gained importance with the Tanzimat period in terms of language teaching. Ahmet Cevdet Pasha, the madrasa education and the culture was grown due to trans while under the influence of the Arabic language, Turkish language as a teaching language development, enrichment and spent great efforts on purifying. Western-style, the author of the first language, Ahmet Cevdet Pasha, the sample itself was next in line. Cevdet Pasha, Turkish schools, the learning of grammar books, speaking the language to consider the difference between the written language, the operation of cleansing Turkish, Arabic and Persian, and it refers to the problems which is used with Arabic alphabet by Turkish. Ahmet Cevdet Pa a, Türk tarihi i in oldu u kadar Türk dil bilgisi tarihi bak m ndan da son derece nemlidir. Türk diline bat l unsurlar n girmeye ba lad d nemde yaz lm bütün dil bilgisi kitaplar i in bir ncü olmu tur. Ayn zamanda dilimizin renilmesi, yeni kavramlar n kar lanmas konu ma diliyle yaz dili aras ndaki fark n giderilmesi, Arap alfabesinde yenilikler yap lmas gibi pek ok konuyu ele alm t r. Cevdet Pa a’yla birlikte Tanzimat D nemi dil retimi a s ndan nem kazanm t r. Ahmet Cevdet Pa a, ald medrese e itimi ve i inde yeti ti i kültür evresi sebebiyle Arap dilinin etkisinde kalm olmakla birlikte, Türk enin bir e itim dili olarak geli mesi, zenginle mesi ve sadele mesi konular nda ok büyük abalar harcam t r. Bat tarz ilk dil bilgisi kitaplar n n yazar olan Ahmet Cevdet Pa a, kendisinden sonrakilere rnek olmu tur. Cevdet Pa a’n n dil bilgisi kitaplar Türk enin Arap a ve Fars adan ar nmaya al
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