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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1031 matches for " Esposito "
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The happy celiac: An oxymoron or a possibility?  [PDF]
Maurizio Esposito
Health (Health) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/health.2012.45041
Abstract: Background: Several international studies, confirmed in Italy too, show a hard presence of socio-relational problems inside the celiac population. Methods: Qualitative study involving persons with celiac disease and their families. 25 individual semi-structured interviews were conducted in three Italian regions. Results: Problems of management of social life for celiac persons are experienced, specially in the fields of: school, work, travels and life outside the home. Conclusion: Chronic illness is a “biographical disruption” [1] and the whole society has to be invested to fight the burden of celiac persons in their possibility of access to public life.
The Social World of Seafarers. A Sociological Research in Central Italy  [PDF]
Esposito Maurizio
Advances in Applied Sociology (AASoci) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/aasoci.2013.34027
Abstract: Background: This article analyzes the social world of seafarers, with the aim of crossing the boundary defining the field of social sciences and entering the area of knowledge, where, to paraphrase Marcel Mauss, scientists argue for a place. Methods and Instruments: The research is based on an empirical study carried out at port authorities, fishermen’s cooperatives and fish markets in a few regions of central Italy during a two year period using empirical research methods utilized in fields of sociological knowledge, such as: semi-structured interviews, talks and informal conversations. The qualitative research was conducted through Computer Assisted Qualitative Data Analysis Software using the software Atlas.ti. Our attempt is to study in depth, through an empirical study conducted on a sample of 119 individuals, the heuristic subject on seafarers, in particular sailors and fishermen, specifically from a sociological point of view. The focus is an analysis of the life-worlds of these people in connection with variables such as the socio-economic characteristics of households, the relationship with the primary nuclear family, the element of solitude (in connection with individual feelings like melancholy and nostalgia), the relationship with peers and the crew. Results: From empirical research, it is seen that sailors and fishermen, despite their different local facets, represent a social world characterized by the richness of its material, social and symbolic expressions. The craft of the sea unites them, sometimes creating a subculture absolutely different from that of other populations and subcultures.
The Rehabilitation Role of Punishment in Prisons in Italy. Theoretical Development and Sociological Considerations  [PDF]
Maurizio Esposito
Sociology Mind (SM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/sm.2014.42018
Abstract:

This article deals with punishment and prisons, in particular, the rehabilitative role of punishment in Italian prisons. This role is herewith specified: On the one hand, by sociological considerations on punishment and prisons, based on the studies of Clemmer and Goffman; on the other hand, by international rules and the Italian legislation, dating back to the Reform of the Penitentiary Code 1975 and lastly, from a critical point of view. Generally speaking, the term rehabilitative model in this context means to restore solidarity with the socially recognized values, reconstructing the broken citizenship bond.

Suicidal Risk in Italian Prisons. A Population-Based Cohort Study  [PDF]
Maurizio Esposito
Sociology Mind (SM) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/sm.2018.81004
Abstract: The article deals with the problem of suicidal risk in Italian prisons. Beginning with a general analysis of the concept and the sociological approaches to suicide, we analyze the main studies on suicide in Italian penal institutions. We present updated Italian prisoners suicide statistics (2002-2015), which we then analyze and discuss both in absolute numbers and in percentage terms. The results indicate that the situation is critical: suicide is the leading cause of death in Italian prisons. The problem mainly affects Italian elder prisoners, the weakest group for mental and physical health. The trend data for female detainees reveal that the ability to adapt to prison life appears more difficult than for male detainees. In addition, suicide among foreign detainees has risen in recent years; a probable contributing factor is the inability to use alternative measures such as house arrest. The conclusion attests a need to provide health policies with treatment options for the cure and care of prisoners in difficulty, with a total approach responding not only to the specific symptoms or to risk behaviors but also to the whole person in a holistic sense.
Spreading Newtonian Philosophy with Instruments: The Case of Atwood’s Machine  [PDF]
Salvatore Esposito, Edvige Schettino
Advances in Historical Studies (AHS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ahs.2014.31007
Abstract: We study how the paradigm of Newton’s science, based on the organization of scientific knowledge as a series of mathematical laws, was definitively accepted in science courses—in the last decades of the XVIII century, in England as well as in the Continent—by means of the “universal” dynamical machine invented by George Atwood in late 1770s just for this purpose. The spreading of such machine, occurring well before the appearance of Atwood’s treatise where he described the novel machine and the experiments to be performed with it, is a quite interesting historical case, which we consider in some detail. In particular, we focus on the “improvement” introduced by the Italian Giuseppe Saverio Poli and the subsequent “simplifications” of the machine, underlying the ongoing change of perspective after the definitive success of Newtonianism. The case studied here allows recognizing the relevant role played by a properly devised instrument in the acceptance of a new paradigm by nonerudite scholars, in addition to the traditional ways involving erudite scientists, and thus the complementary role of machine philosophy with respect to mathematical, philosophical or even physical reasoning.
The Genesis of the Quantum Theory of the Chemical Bond  [PDF]
Salvatore Esposito, Adele Naddeo
Advances in Historical Studies (AHS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ahs.2014.35020
Abstract: An historical overview is given of the relevant steps that allowed the genesis of the quantum theory of the chemical bond, starting from the appearance of the new quantum mechanics and following later developments till approximately 1931. General ideas and some important details are discussed concerning molecular spectroscopy, as well as quantum computations for simple molecular systems performed within perturbative and variational approaches, for which the Born- Oppenheimer method provided a quantitative theory accounting for rotational, vibrational and electronic states. The novel concepts introduced by the Heitler-London theory, complemented by those underlying the method of the molecular orbitals, are critically analyzed along with some of their relevant applications. Further improvements in the understanding of the nature of the chemical bond are also considered, including the ideas of one-electron and three-electron bonds introduced by Pauling, as well as the generalizations of the Heitler-London theory firstly performed by Majorana, which allowed the presence of ionic structures into homopolar compounds and provided the theoretical proof of the stability of the helium molecular ion. The study of intermolecular interactions, as developed by London, is finally examined.
Strategies, Performances and Profiling of a Sample of U.S. Universities in 2012  [PDF]
Angela Besana, Annamaria Esposito
Open Journal of Applied Sciences (OJAppS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojapps.2015.53008
Abstract: The global economic crisis is affecting performances of not-for-profits. At the same time donors are targeted by a pressing good-cause related marketing, so that the competition for philanthropy is particularly keen. U.S. universities can be public, not-for-profit and for-profit. U.S. not-for-profit universities are confronted with different marketing, fundraising and revenue diversification. Above all, marketing concerns customers and their segmentation and their purchasing-power exploitation; fundraising aims to gain the trustworthiness of donors, instead. The aim of this paper is the analysis of the revenue diversification of a sample of 100 U.S. not-for-profit universities according to IRS (Internal Revenue Service) Forms. These 100 U.S. universities had the highest 2012’s revenues for the Guidestar ranking (www.guidestar.org). The cluster analysis gives evidence that the highest gain and the highest solvency are both connected with the implementation of revenue diversification for one profile. The most crowded cluster is the Marketing Expert with the second highest gain.
Beyond Range: Innovating Fluorescence Microscopy
Alessandro Esposito
Remote Sensing , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/rs4010111
Abstract: Time-of-Flight (ToF) technologies are developed mainly for range estimations in industrial applications or consumer products. Recently, it was realized that ToF sensors could also be used for the detection of fluorescence and of the minute changes in the nanosecond-lived electronic states of fluorescent molecules. This capability can be exploited to report on the biochemical processes occurring within living organisms. ToF technologies, therefore, provide new opportunities in molecular and cell biology, diagnostics, and drug discovery. In this short communication, the convergence of the engineering and biomedical communities onto ToF technologies and its potential impact on basic, applied and translational sciences are discussed.
Biopolítica y Filosofía: (Entrevistado por Vanessa Lemm y Miguel Vatter)
ESPOSITO,ROBERTO;
Revista de ciencia política (Santiago) , 2009, DOI: 10.4067/S0718-090X2009000100007
Abstract: this interview addresses the question of biopolitics and its situation with respect to the traditions of modem philosophy. it discusses the relation between political ideologies of the 20th century and the rise of biopolitics. lastly, it thematizes the kinds of conceptions of life that are at stake in biopolitics.
Transition from Majorana to Weyl fermions and anapole moments
Esposito, S.
High Energy Physics - Phenomenology , 2013,
Abstract: The apparent splitting of zero-bias conductance peaks, apparently observed in recent experiments concerning Majorana fermions in nanowires coupled to superconductors, can be interpreted as a manifestation of a transition in the structure from (massive) Majorana to (massless) Weyl fermions. A modification of the experiments in order to test such phenomenon is proposed by making recourse to the only possible electromagnetic interaction allowed to (massive) Majorana particles and mediated by their anapole moment. In suitably designed heterostructures with toroidal symmetry, the additional anapole interaction manifests itself in the lowering of the critical magnetic field required for the appearance of the zero-bias peak, a shift that can be directly measured and thus reveal the presence of Majorana (rather than Weyl) fermions. Anapole interactions, though not previously considered, may also be a powerful method to control the dynamics of Majorana fermions, and then to manipulate the qubit state in quantum computation
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