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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 212 matches for " Esker Copeland "
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Safeguarding Primary Healthcare: A Case Study of Barbados
Patricia Rodney,Esker Copeland
Social Medicine , 2010,
Abstract: The concept of primary health care has regained prominence as many countries around the globe face rising health costs and failed health systems. This study examines Barbados, a developing country in the eastern Caribbean, which has consistently included the concept of primary health care in all of its development plans. Based on the government's stated commitment to Health for All, this review was conducted to examine whether this focus has prevailed. The purpose of this paper was to identify some of the advancements or reversals of primary health care policy in Barbados.
A geometric preferential attachment model with fitness
H. van den Esker
Mathematics , 2008,
Abstract: We study a random graph $G_n$, which combines aspects of geometric random graphs and preferential attachment. The resulting random graphs have power-law degree sequences with finite mean and possibly infinite variance. In particular, the power-law exponent can be any value larger than 2. The vertices of $G_n$ are $n$ sequentially generated vertices chosen at random in the unit sphere in $\mathbb R^3$. A newly added vertex has $m$ edges attached to it and the endpoints of these edges are connected to old vertices or to the added vertex itself. The vertices are chosen with probability proportional to their current degree plus some initial attractiveness and multiplied by a function, depending on the geometry.
The Cross-Sectional Risk Premium of Decomposed Market Volatility in UK Stock Market  [PDF]
Yan Yang, Laurence Copeland
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2014.27006

We decompose UK market volatility into short- and long-run components using EGARCH component model and examine the cross-sectional prices of the two components. Our empirical results suggest that these two components are significantly priced in the cross-section and the negative risk premia are consistent with the existing literature. The Fama-French three-factor model is improved by the inclusion of the two volatility components. However, our ICAPM model using market excess return and the decomposed volatility components as state variables compares inferiorly to the traditional three-factor model.

Meteorological factors and Asian soybean rust epidemics: a systems approach and implications for risk assessment
Del Ponte, Emerson Medeiros;Esker, Paul David;
Scientia Agricola , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-90162008000700014
Abstract: favorable meteorological and environmental conditions are critical components that affect asian soybean rust (asr), caused by phakopsora pachyrhizi, the most damaging fungal disease of soybean. in this review, we used available knowledge on the effect of meteorological factors affecting the disease to construct a systems-based approach to understand the risk of asr epidemics. the systems approach is based on a hierarchical framework where relevant environmental factors that affect the key stages of the asr disease cycle are identified and this included both aerobiological and epidemiological components. the formal framework we used examined the following epidemic characteristics: spore release, spore dispersal, spore deposition, infection efficiency, latent period and spore production. it provided the ability to identify the most important meteorological-related factors along with relevant knowledge gaps from which the implications for disease forecasting were described. this is new information that can be used as a guide for further epidemiological research and especially to develop and improve upon both local and regional risk models.
Meeting the Challenges for Agriculture
Les Copeland
Agriculture , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/agriculture1010001
Abstract: Ensuring food security is an ongoing global challenge. Many forecasts point to a need to increase food production by at least 70% if we are to feed the world’s projected population of nine billion in 2050. Recent volatility in commodity prices and the general upward trend in the cost of food are indicators that global food systems are now driven by demand rather than supply. There are various reasons for this: greater demand for animal protein with economic growth in developing countries; the continuing increase in world population; competition between food and bioenergy crops for land and water; low inventories of world grain stocks; reduced investment in agricultural R&D; and unfavorable weather resulting in a succession of poor harvests around the world. Increasing production of grains, which are the foundation of the human food supply, will have to be achieved through higher crop yields without boosting inputs of land, water and energy. Meeting community expectations for environmental stewardship and sustainability, and adapting food production to increasingly variable climate, add greatly to the challenge.
Psychometric properties of the OLQ-13 scale to measure Sense of Coherence in a community-dwelling older population
Jenneken Naaldenberg, Hilde Tobi, Franciska van den Esker, Lenneke Vaandrager
Health and Quality of Life Outcomes , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1477-7525-9-37
Abstract: The OLQ-13 scale was administered as part of a healthy aging project for non-institutionalized people aged 65 years and older. Internal consistency and reliability were assessed by means of inter-item and test-halves correlations and Cronbach's alpha. Construct validity was explored using cluster analysis and exploratory factor analysis (n = 703) and tested using confirmatory factor analysis on a separate subset of individuals (n = 658). Item face validity was investigated by means of 12 semi-structured interviews.The reliability and the validity of the OLQ-13 in this population of non-institutionalized individuals aged 65 years and older was ambiguous, at least partly due to the poor performance of two items (b and d), which was confirmed by results from the qualitative part of this study. The psychometric properties of the proposed OLQ-11, obtained by deleting the two items, were better. In particular, the interpretation of exploratory factor solution improved. Whereas the underlying theoretical constructs could not be linked to the exploratory analyses of OLQ-13, this was to some extent possible in OLQ-11. The superior validity of OLQ-11 over OLQ-13 was supported by the better model fit in the confirmatory factor analysis.The present mixed-method study suggests the proposed OLQ-11 as a more suitable instrument for measuring Sense of Coherence than the OLQ-13 in a population of ageing individuals. This study confirms that the validity and reliability of OLQ-13 may differ substantially in different populations.Salutogenesis offers a theoretical approach to health promotion in which Sense of Coherence (SOC), the ability to use available resources in a health promoting way, takes a central place [1-3]. Within the salutogenic theory, Sense of Coherence is described as a global orientation that expresses the extent to which individuals have a feeling of confidence that their environment is structured, predictable and explicable; resources are available to meet challeng
Universality for the distance in finite variance random graphs: Extended version
Henri van den Esker,Remco van der Hofstad,Gerard Hooghiemstra
Mathematics , 2006,
Abstract: We generalize the asymptotic behavior of the graph distance between two uniformly chosen nodes in the configuration model to a wide class of random graphs. Among others, this class contains the Poissonian random graph, the expected degree random graph and the generalized random graph (including the classical Erdos-Renyi graph). In the paper we assign to each node a deterministic capacity and the probability that there exists an edge between a pair of nodes is equal to a function of the product of the capacities of the pair divided by the total capacity of all the nodes. We consider capacities which are such that the degrees of a node has uniformly bounded moments of order strictly larger than two, so that, in particular, the degrees have finite variance. We prove that the graph distance grows like \log_\nu N, where the \nu depends on the capacities. In addition, the random fluctuations around this asymptotic mean \log_\nu N are shown to be tight. We also consider the case where the capacities are independent copies of a positive random \Lambda with \prob{\Lambda> x}\leq cx^{1-\tau}, for some constant c and \tau>3, again resulting in graphs where the degrees have finite variance. The method of proof of these results is to couple each member of the class to the Poissonian random graph, for which we then give the complete proof by adapting the arguments of the corresponding result for the configuration model.
Making sense of nonsense: the evolution of selenocysteine usage in proteins
Paul R Copeland
Genome Biology , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/gb-2005-6-6-221
Abstract: As well as the 20 amino acids universally found in proteins, two other amino acids - pyrrolysine and selenocysteine - are incorporated into a small number of proteins in some groups of organisms. L-pyrrolysine is a C4-substituted pyrroline-5-carboxylate attached to the ε-nitrogen of lysine; L-seleno-cysteine is identical to cysteine but with selenium substituted for sulfur. Pyrrolysine has so far been found only in enzymes required for methanogenesis in some archaebacteria, suggesting a possible role in catalysis, but the precise role of this amino acid has not been identified. The selenium atom in selenocysteine confers a much higher reactivity than cysteine, as its lower pKa (5.2) allows it to remain ionized at physiological pH. Most selenoproteins use their higher nucleophilic activity to catalyze redox reactions, but many have no known function. The current studies of selenoprotein evolution represent one of the important tools used to completely identify and categorize selenoprotein function.The Sargasso Sea (named for the surface-borne sargassum seaweed) is a body of water covering 2 million square miles in the middle of the North Atlantic Ocean near Bermuda. Its well defined physical and geochemical properties, including relatively low nutrient levels, made it an alluring target for a shotgun sequencing project covering a whole biome - a collection of interrelated ecosystems typical of a particular physical environment [1]. This effort, the first 'biome sequencing project', represents a novel application for shotgun genome sequencing and is an important new component of modern bioinformatics. Of the 1.2 million genes identified by this approach, however, a small subset is likely to be misannotated because of the presence of in-frame nonsense codons, either UGA or UAG, which in these cases are acting as codons for selenocysteine and pyrrolysine, respectively. In some archaea, the UAG codon is redefined as a pyrrolysine codon, apparently forcing these organisms
Observations and Experiments on the Case-Building Instinct of TwoSpecies of Trichoptera
Manton Copeland,Sears Crowell
Psyche , 1937, DOI: 10.1155/1937/70785
Participation and the role of Public Space
Anna Gabriel Copeland
Public Space : the Journal of Law and Social Justice , 2008,
Abstract: This article examines participatory rights as human rights and considers their importance to the lives of children and young people. It argues that a broad definition of participation needs to be used which takes us from 'round tables' to understanding that young people participate in many different ways. It points out that failure to recognise and respect the many varied ways that children and young people choose to participate results in a breach of their human rights. It shows how our socio-legal system operates to permit and support these breaches of the rights of children and young people, resulting in their alienation from civic society.
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