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N-Benzyl-N-methyl-3-phenyl-3-[4-(trifluoromethyl)phenoxy]propanamine (N-benzylflouoxetine)
Nosheen Kanwal,Erum Akbar Hussain,Onur Sahin
Acta Crystallographica Section E , 2010, DOI: 10.1107/s1600536810012699
Abstract: In the title compound, C24H24F3NO, the N-benzyl derivative of fluoxetine {N-methyl-3-[4-(trifluoromethyl)phenoxy]benzenepropanamine}, the three aromatic rings A, B and C are inclined to one another by 76.77 (12)° for A/B, 17.05 (14)° for A/C and 89.66 (14)° for B/C. In the crystal structure, molecules are linked via C—H...π interactions to form one-dimensional chains propagating in the [010] direction.
Synthesis, Antibacterial, and Antifungal Activities of Novel Pyridazino Carbazoles
Ghazala Yaqub,Abdul Hannan,Erum Akbar,Muhammad Usman
Journal of Chemistry , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/818739
Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization and antimicrobial studies of mercury(II) complexes of thiolates
Ghulam Rabbani,Anvarhusein A. Isab,Abdul Rahman Al-Arfaj,Saeed Ahmad,Muhammad Saleem,Abdul Hameed,Erum Akbar
Spectroscopy: An International Journal , 2009, DOI: 10.3233/spe-2009-0369
Abstract: Mercury(II) complexes of thiolates having the general formula [Hg(RS)Cl2]? and [Hg(RS)2] have been prepared and characterized by IR and NMR (1H and 13C) spectroscopy (RSH = 2-aminoethanethiol hydrochloride (Aet), cysteine (Cys), thiosalicylic acid (Ts) and 2-mercaptonicotinic acid (Mnt)). The spectral data suggests that the coordination of thiolates to mercury(II) occurs through the sulfur as indicated by the absence of S–H vibrations in IR and significant downfield shifts in the C–S resonance in 13C NMR. However, in Mnt complexes, coordination through both sulfur and nitrogen is indicated. Antimicrobial activities of the complexes were evaluated by minimum inhibitory concentration and the results showed that the complexes exhibited a wide range of activities against gram-negative bacteria (E. coli, P. aeruginosa), while moderate activity was observed against a mold, P. citrinum.
2-{1-[(2-Nitrobenzenesulfonamido)methyl]cyclohexyl}acetic acid
Nosheen Kanwal,Erum Akbar Hussain,Onur Şahin,Orhan Büyükgüngör
Acta Crystallographica Section E , 2012, DOI: 10.1107/s160053681105224x
Abstract: In the title compound, C15H20N2O6S, the C—SO2—NH—C torsion angle is 64.54 (14)°. In the molecule, there is a bifurcated N—H...(O,O) hydrogen bond, forming S(7) rings. In the crystal, inversion dimers are formed via O—H...O hydrogen bonds involving the carboxyl group, so forming R22(8) rings. These dimers are further linked via pairs of C—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming a C(6) chain propagating along the c-axis direction.
Postmodern Science Edification Philosophy  [PDF]
Akbar Nikkhah
Open Journal of Philosophy (OJPP) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2011.11007
Abstract: The objective is to introduce and describe a new philosophy for global science edification that will determine the extent and nature of humans’ accomplishments. These will affect life quality worldwide. Science as an ultimate essence encircles theoretical and applied findings and discoveries. These can only contribute to forming a trivial core, whilst the most crucial are insightful moral surroundings. Morality is most concerned with mentorship commitments. To sustain a dense and rigid shape that progressively improves science and life quality, imagination must be complemented with harmonizing approaches. Such perceptions become an obligation as growing knowledge creates novel questions and challenges. The upper tree of science glorified with blooming branches of knowledge, particularly over the last few centuries, is predicted to undergo progressive declines in the strength of its edification foundations unless the lower tree receives most-deserving mentorship contemplations. The upper tree describes tangible science products in routin life, and the lower tree represents sustainable mentorship. Mentors must replace teachers, by definition, and commit to generating more qualified educators than themselves. Mentors are expected to welcome and manage challenges from mentees. Challenges play crucial roles in granting mentees with integrated pathways of scientific development. The resulting pictures will be eagerly prone to revisions and elaborations as mentees themselves step into the pathway. This systematic edification will strengthen science roots in mentees’ minds and will uphold a sturdy science body for society. Science pictured as an integrated circle grants a prospect to envision where humans are and where not to end up. Maintaining a definitive shape for science in any major before and while enriching central cores with experimental novelties in minds and laboratories is crucial to improving man’s fulfillment of time in the third millennium. Such integrities are an obligation to optimally preserve and utilize what humans have achieved thus far and continue to accomplish.
Science of Camel and Yak Milks: Human Nutrition and Health Perspectives  [PDF]
Akbar Nikkhah
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2011.26092
Abstract: Camels and yaks milks are rich in numerous bioactive substances that function beyond their nutritive value. Milk Camel milk is more similar to goat milk and contains less short-chain fatty acids than cow, sheep and buffalo milks, and about 3 times greater vitamin-C than cow milk. One kg of camel milk meets 100% of daily human requirements for calcium and phosphorus, 57.6% for potassium, 40% for iron, copper, zinc and magnesium, and 24% for sodium. Camel milk helps treat liver problems, lowers bilirubin output, lightens vitamin inadequacy and nutrient deficiency, and boosts immunity. Camel milk reduces allergies caused by cow dairy products. Camel milk has low milk fat made mainly from polyunsaturated fatty acids. It lacks ß-lactoglobulin and is rich in immunoglobulins, compatible with human milk. Yak milk has 16.9 - 17.7% solids, 4.9 - 5.3% protein, 5.5 - 7.2% fat, 4.5 - 5.0% lactose, and 0.8 - 0.9% minerals. Yak milk fat is richer in polyunsaturated fatty acids, protein, casein and fat than cow milk. Yak milk casein is used to produce antihypertensive peptides with capacities for producing value-added functional foods and proteins. Continual system-atic education of milk science especially for non-cow species will be an obligation for health implications to be optimally perceived by human populations worldwide.
Bioscience of ruminant intake evolution: feeding time models  [PDF]
Akbar Nikkhah
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology (ABB) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/abb.2011.24039
Abstract: Ruminants have evolved to ruminate mostly over- night and graze during day. As such, rumen fermentation, post-rumen nutrient assimilation and peripheral metabolism have 24-h patterns. These evolutionary rhythms in eating behavior and metabolism have led to annual, seasonal, and circadian rhythms in ruminant endocrinology. Such natural patterns have encountered dramatic shifts in productivity in the last few decades. For optimum nutrient use and animal health, securing a synchrony between external cues and ruminant internal conditions is essential. Most recent discoveriess suggest alterations in post-prandial intake patterns of non-grazing lactating cows by altered feeding time. Eating rate and feed intake within the first 3 h after feeding have been increased by evening instead of morning feeding. As a result, postprandial patterns in rumen fermentation and peripheral blood levels of metabolites and hormones have been altered. These findings and insights establish a chronological nature for intake regulation in modern ruminants. Feeding time is a major external cue that affects eating extent, rate and efficiency in ruminants. Time of feeding requires special consideration and more mechanistic evaluations for animals and humans.
Science Education of the New Millennium: Mentorship Arts for Creative Lives  [PDF]
Akbar Nikkhah
Creative Education (CE) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2011.24048
Abstract: Science as an ultimate essence encircles theoretical and applied findings and discoveries that can only contribute to forming a trivial core. The most crucial are, however, insightful moral surroundings. The upper tree of science glorified with blooming branches of knowledge is predicted to undergo progressive declines in the strength of its education foundations unless the lower tree receives most-deserving mentorship contemplations. Mentoring rather than teaching of science will be a frontier for quality creative lives. Postmodern Mentors will create and designate definitive shapes from discoveries and findings to grant human life with ongoing peace and ultimate satisfaction. Mentors are expected to welcome and manage challenges from mentees. Challenges play crucial roles in granting mentees with creative pathways of scientific development. Science education policies are to pursue arts as a model to reach and maintain harmony. Finest harmonies are accomplished by assimilating a multitude of creative sciences as is rousing a piece of music by composing manifold melodies. Human brain communicates with arts in ways that determine various future choices of life. Artistic science education requires creative educators who can perceive, perform and analyze arts. Governments are increasingly responsible for making new policies that will allow creative public education and refined education programs. Governments should foster creative education policies at governors, educators, and learners levels. In the post-modern time, mentors and trainers themselves require frequent timely education to remain most up-to-date and creatively functional. Constant education of educators faces more practical challenges than education of learners. Effectual education of governments and policy makers on ‘science education policies’ will be a turning point in enabling continual improvements in global science and creative life qualities. Sciences educated artistically will make and shape most yielding policies in creative science education of the new resourceful millennium.
A novel biofarm technology to monitor and quantify oestrus cervix morphology in dairy cows  [PDF]
Akbar Nikkhah
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology (ABB) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/abb.2011.26062
Abstract: Increased cow productivity in the last few decades has depressed fertility and reproductive efficiency. Optimum uterus health and accurate true estrus detection have thus been greatly elusive on farm. The objective was to quantify cow cervix morphology during proestrus (PE), standing estrus (SE), diestrus (DE) and metestrus (ME) phases of the oestrus cycle using a novel biofarm technology. The cervical tissue was videotaped with an apparatus in 4 Holstein cows (50 days in milk, 31 kg milk yield, 670 kg BW) on multiple estrus and non-estrus phases (per treatment day n = 8). The videotaping apparatus had 45 cm length and 2.7 cm diameter, with internal electrical settings, external polyvinyl cover, front lights, and terminal wires for computer connection. The recordings were processed in a laptop computer installed with an image processing software. Cervix’s central positioning, motility, mucosal secretions, and clarity in the captured images were scored each on a 5-scale basis. The score of 1 represented highly central, very stable, highly mucosal, and discrete cervices. The score of 5 described entirely non-central, unstable, non-mucosal, and inseparable cervices. Results verified that cervix was significantly (P < 0.01) more discrete, more mucosal, more central, and more stable on standing estrus days than on non-estrus days. A significant differential order (P < 0.01) was found for SE > PE > DE > ME for an increased cervix distinctness (1.00, 1.20, 3.10, 3.62), central placement (1.13, 1.50, 3.73, 4.15), stability (decreased motility) (1.00, 1.50, 2.58, 4.33), and mucosal secretions (1.00, 1.50, 3.88, 4.13), respectively. Rectal temperature (RT) was similar among ME, DE, PE and SE phases, respectively (38.66, 38.33, 38.58, and 38.83C ± 0.22). Regression analysis showed minor relations between RT and cervix morphology changes. Findings verify the on-farm feasibility of the novel technology as a cost-effective management tool (e.g., $US200 - 500 for the monitoring apparatus and computer software) to quantify cow cervix morphology. The novel biofarm technology holds promises for cohort uses with farm individuals visually detecting estrus. Future research on further quantification of the reproductive tract physiology and health is required.
Science of eating time: A novel chronophysiological approach to optimize glucose-insulin dynamics and health  [PDF]
Akbar Nikkhah
Journal of Diabetes Mellitus (JDM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jdm.2012.21002
Abstract: Timing of eating is a life strategy that requires special considerations in healthy nutritional programs. Human body tolerates less glucose as evening begins, mainly because glucose is demanded most during more active times or daytime. A recommendation is being developed to avoid large night meals to help reduce risks of visceral adiposity, type-2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and cardiovascular issues. Optimal understanding of physiology in any given species requires optimal understanding of comparative animal-human physiology. Optimal animal physiology is understood with optimal perception of ruminant physiology with its unique complex systems biology. Thus, ruminants as irreplaceable human food producers are metabolically and economically suitable models to study cell, organ and whole body physiology. Evening vs. morning feeding of lactating cows increases eating rate, postprandial levels of rumen and peripheral metabolism, and milk and meat production. External cues and internal physiology may thus be synchronized to optimize production and health. Effective education will enable the public to be adequately cognizant of time of eating as a feasible strategy for the success of nutritional programs in optimizing health status.
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