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TAR HSEL SLAM MODERN TEY A KIN MIDIR? / IS HISTORICAL ISLAM TRANDANCE OF MODERNITY?
Ernur GEN
Journal of the Human and Social Science Researches (itobiad) , 2012,
Abstract: Modern dünyada fundemantalist-radikal slami ideolojilerin ve siyasal slamc l n hakim s ylemlerinin karakteristi ine bak ld nda, slam’ n yaln zca tekil “Müslüman zne”yle s n rl bir din olmad ; aksine toplumsal alan n tüm vechelerine (politik, ekonomik, hukuki vd.) y nelik total bir nitelik ta d sav ne kmaktad r. slam’ n modern d nemdeki yeniden anlamland r lmas ve in as , ona bir “din” olman n tesinde, modern anlamda bir ideoloji karakteristi i katmaktad r. slami ideolojinin entelektüel akt rleri de “siyasal slam” olarak adland r lan bu ideolojiyi bütüncül, evrensel, tarih- tesi ve zsel/ zcü bir sistem olarak ele almaktad rlar. Bu lineer (düz izgisel), ilerlemeci ve seküler ya da yar -seküler anlay er evesinde slam, gelecekte kendi asli k keninden yeniden do acak olan bir medeniyeti yaratacak olan bir din; ayn zamanda modernite ve kapitalizmden tamamen farkl ve onlara tek alternatif sistemdir. Kar t savlar ise siyasal slam ger ekli inin, belirli tarihsel ko ullar n ve süre lerin (Bat l moderniteyle kar la madan do an bir tarihselli in) ürünü oldu unu; dolay s yla tüm di er sistem-i i sosyal-politik hareketlerde oldu u gibi sistem-i i bir muhalefet ileri sürmektedir. Buna g re de, siyasal slam’ n s ylemi ve slami hareketler kendi tarihsel, toplumsal ve konjonktürel ko ullar na g reli olarak d nü üme u rarken; var olan sistemi i sel olarak yeniden üretmenin ve kendi i inde d nü türmenin nemli enstrümanlar ndan birini olu turmaktad r. al mada, siyasal slam’ n moderniteyle ili kisi ba lam nda s z konusu savlar irdelenmekte, siyasal slam ve slami hareketin modern d nemde ortaya k ko ullar ve d nü üm süreci ele al nmaktad r.When we look at the prevailing retoric of fundamentalist islamic ideologies and political islam, the argument that islam is not a religion which only regulates single muslim subject’s life but has a total claim to regulate whole (e.g. political, economic and legal) area of social life. The reinterpretation and rebuilding of slam in modern period make it not only a religion but also an ideology. The intellectuel actors of islamic ideology treat this ideology, which is called as political islam, as a holist, universal, trans-historical and esseantialist system. According to this lineer, progressive, secular or semi-secular understanding, slam is a religion which will create in the future a civilisation born out of its fundamental roots; moreover, it is totally different from modernity and capitalism and the only alternative system to them. The opposite arguments suggest that political slam is
Functional Copolymer/Organo-MMT Nanoarchitectures. VIII. Synthesis, Morphology and Thermal Behavior of Poly(maleic anhydride-alt-acrylamide)-Organo-MMT Clays Nanohybrids  [PDF]
Zakir M. O. Rzayev, Burcu ?enol, Ernur A. Soylemez
Engineering (ENG) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/eng.2011.31009
Abstract: Functional copolymer–clay hybrids were synthesized by radical-initiated intercalative copolymerization of maleic acid (MA) and acrylamide (AAm) with 2,2’-azobis (2-methylpropionamidine) dihydrochloride as a water-soluble ionizable radical initiator in the presence of reactive (octadecyl amine (ODA)-MMT) and non-reactive (dimethyldodecyl ammonium (DMDA)-MMT) organoclays at 50oC in aqueous medium under nitrogen atmosphere. The monomers was dissolved in aqueous medium, as well as both used clay particles were easily dissolved and dispersed with partially swollen in deionized water, respectively. Structure, thermal behavior and morphology of the synthesized nanocomposites were investigated by FTIR, XRD, DSC-TGA, SEM and TEM analysis methods, respectively. It was demonstrated that intercalative copolymerization proceed via ion exchange between organoclays and carboxylic groups of monomers/polymers which essentially improved interfacial interaction of polymer matrix and clay layers through strong H-bonding. In case of intercalative copolymerization in the presence of ODA-MMT clay, similar improvement was provided by in situ hydrogen-bonding and amidolysis of carboxylic/anhydride groups from copolymer chains with primary amine group of ODA-MMT. The nanocomposites exhibit higher intercalation/exfoliation degree of copolymer chains, improved thermal properties and fine dispersed morphology.
Comparative the Effectiveness of Occlusal Splint and TENS Treatments on Clinical Findings and Pain Threshold of Temporomandibular Disorders Secondary to Bruxism
Beril DO?U,Figen YILMAZ,Ay?e KARAN,Ernur ERG?Z
Türkiye Fiziksel Tip ve Rehabilitasyon Dergisi , 2009,
Abstract: Objective: In the present study we compared the effectiveness of occlusal splint and TENS treatments with respect to clinical findings and pain threshold in patients with myofascial pain syndrome and temporomandibular disorders.Material and Methods: Thirty patients included in the study were randomized into occlusal splint and TENS groups. The severity of pain of the patients (pressure-pain threshold determined with algometric measurements of the trigger point, the degree of pain during rest and functional activities measured with visual analogue, range of motion of joints (measured with a ruler), quality of lives questionnaire specific to masticatory functions and general quality of life scale Short Form-36) were evaluated. These evaluations were repeated three times namely once before, during and after the therapies. Results: Our post-treatment algometric measurements of trigger points pain scores showed that both splint and TENS treatments had been effective (p<0,05). However effectiveness in the TENS group decreased in the first month controls (p>0,05). In both groups pain scores were improved (p<0,05). Improvement in mandibular movements in the patients who applied splint treatment was more significant (p<0,05). We obtained an increase in quality of life measurement scores which is specific to temporomandibular disorders both in TENS group and splint group in post treatment and one month after controls. (p<0,05). However in Short Form-36 evaluations, the pain category was positively influenced and improvement in the TENS group was more apparent (p<0,05).Conclusion: In myofascial pain syndrome secondary to bruxism both splint and TENS treatments are effective in the short term. However the effectiveness of TENS is observedly short lived when compared with TENS treatments. Therefore we suggested that, due to the analgesic properties, usage of TENS in combination with other treatment modalities would be more appropriate.
Implementation of Hierarchical and Distributed Control for Discrete Event Robotic Manufacturing Systems  [PDF]
Gen’ichi Yasuda
Journal of Software Engineering and Applications (JSEA) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jsea.2010.35049
Abstract: The large scale and complex manufacturing systems have a hierarchical structure where a system is composed several lines with some stations and each station also have several machines and so on. In such a hierarchical structure, the controllers are geographically distributed according to their physical structure. So it is desirable to realize the hierarchical and distributed control. In this paper, a methodology is presented using Petri nets for hierarchical and distributed control. The Petri net representation of discrete event manufacturing processes is decomposed and distributed into the machine controllers, which are coordinated through communication between the coordinator and machine controllers so that the decomposed transitions fire at the same time. Implementation of a hierarchical and distributed control system is described for an example robotic manufacturing system. The demonstrations show that the proposed system can be used as an effective tool for consistent modeling and control of large and complex manufacturing systems.
Discrete Event Net Based Modeling and Control System Design for Real-Time Concurrent Control of Multiple Robot Systems  [PDF]
Gen’ichi Yasuda
Intelligent Control and Automation (ICA) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ica.2012.32015
Abstract: This paper deals with control system design and implementation problems encountered in multiple robot systems. The methodology developed is depicted by a set of coordination mechanisms using hierarchical net structures and their accompanying rules. With the net models, the hierarchical and distributed control system is designed for an assembly task. Synchronization commands allow coordination of the movements of the robots. The net models make concurrency of the movements of the robots transparent to users. The net based machine controller executes robot motion control through the communication with the external robot controller using the command/response concept. Sensory signals indicating the change of state of robots are used to trigger or initiate tasks. Simultaneous movement of the robots is obtained by creating different background threads running in parallel under Windows OS. The multilevel hierarchical control system can be consistently constructed using net models.
A Research on the Impacts of Core Employees on the Performances of SME’s  [PDF]
Kurtulu? Y?lmaz Gen
Sociology Mind (SM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/sm.2014.43021
Abstract:
This study includes a research on the impacts of core employees on the perceived performances of Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SME’s). Employees, who are working at manufacturing department or basic function, were taken as core employees in the frame of the research. This research was conducted at the Middle and Eastern Black Sea region of Turkey; at 60 SME’s. The research was realised on the bases of the resource-based view of the firm; the relation between the characteristics of core employees as rareness, hardness to imitation and the perceived performances of SME’s were given. This study contributes to the literature for its regional focus to the topic and for the presentation of how SME’s perceive organizational performance as dimensional context. The results of the research didn’t support the hypothesis which claims that there is a positive relationship between the expertises of core employees, whose superior characteristics are specific to firms and the organizational performance.
Worker Recruiting with Favoritism and Bribery  [PDF]
Gen Chen, Jun Tang
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2015.53048
Abstract: This paper discusses the corruptive action widespread in the organizations’ worker recruiting: favoritism and bribery. The managers of the firm are actually able to discern the type of the productivity of the job-seekers, but they utilize the information advantage through the two types of misconduct—favoritism and bribery, at the expense of the profit share of the principal (the owner) and the workers’ wage rent. The key conclusion is drawn from this paper as follows: neither the intensity of favoritism nor the wage level matters in determining whether there’s profit or loss in the firm, whereas the key variable is the relative situation of exterior labor market.
2D J–INEPT NMR Spectroscopy for CDn Groups: A Theoretical Study  [PDF]
Azmi Gen?ten, ?rfan ?aka
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2011.27084
Abstract: 2D J–INEPT NMR experiment is a combination of heteronuclear 2D J–Resolved and INEPT experiments. In this study, 2D J–INEPT experiment was analytically investigated by using product operator theory for weakly coupled ISn (I = ½, S=1; n = 1, 2, 3) spin systems. The obtained theoretical results represent the FID values of CD, CD2 and CD3groups. In order to make Fourier transform of the obtained FID values, a Maple program is used and then simulated spectra for of 2D J–INEPT experiment are obtained for CD, CD2 and CD3 groups. It is found that 2D J–INEPT is a useful experiment for both polarisation transfer and 2D J–resolved spectral assignment for CDn groups in complex molecules.
III. Ahmed D nemi ran Seferlerinde Nakliyenin Sa lanmas Ve Nakliye Vas talar (1722-1725)/// The Fulfillment of Transport and the Means of Transport in the Campaigns to Iran during the Reign of Ahmed III (1722-1725)
Serdar GEN
History Studies : International Journal of History , 2012,
Abstract: In this article the transport of grains, arms and ammunition needed by the army in the campaigns waged by the Ottoman State against the Safavids between 1722 and 1725 is studied. In this context, the means of transport on which the grains and ammunition were carried were studied one by one and, thus, it was expatiated upon from what places and through which methods the said were provided and which route they followed. Besides, information was given on the rentals remunerated to the owners of those vehicles as well as the attendants in charge thereof.
Orta a Piskoposlar n n Bildirilerine Bir rnek Olarak Capitulare Episcoporum Capitulare/// Episcoporum as an Example of Capitularies of Middle Ages Bishops
?zlem Gen
History Studies : International Journal of History , 2011,
Abstract: Capitula Episcoporum, which means the capitulary of bishops, is one of the capitularies of episcopate in which the bishops wrote their instructions – especially the religious ones- to the ecclesiastics in the regions they were responsible for. Such capitularies were very common in the Middle Ages. The date it was written is controversial, however, in many manuscripts it is listed under the title of “Karoli Magni Capitularia”. It was written with the consensus of the bishops as a result of a famine that gave hard times to the people. It declares what both the clergy and the laymen should do in order to be protected from the dangers of the famine and to prevent people from being hungry and desperate. The instructions in the capitulary, such as the prayers, hymns, fasts and feeding the hungry and the poor, inform the people of all classes and thus contain valuable information to understand both the social and the economic life of the period.
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