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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1281 matches for " Erin Rothwell "
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Ethical and Regulatory Issues with Residual Newborn Screening Dried Bloodspots  [PDF]
Erin Rothwell, Jeffrey R. Botkin
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine (OJPM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojpm.2015.510045
Abstract: After newborn screening is completed, most states retain leftover dried bloodspots. These dried bloodspots are stored for varying lengths of time among different state newborn screening programs. Dried bloodspots are a unique and valuable resource for the development of new newborn screening tests, quality assurance and biomedical research. Recent changes to the 2014 Newborn Screening Reauthorization Saves Lives Act require explicit parental consent for the retention and use of dried bloodspots in federally funded research. This has raised several ethical and regulatory issues and highlighted the challenges of respecting individual autonomy and public health goals. This article provides an overview of these issues and discusses methods for obtaining parental consent. These issues may be applicable to consent for the storage and use of biospecimens among other settings according to proposed changes to the Common Rule.
Squares from D(–4) and D(20) Triples  [PDF]
Zvonko ?erin
Advances in Pure Mathematics (APM) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/apm.2011.15052
Abstract: We study the eight infinite sequences of triples of natural numbers A=(F2n+1,4F2n+3,F2n+7), B=(F2n+1,4F2n+5,F2n+7), C=(F2n+1,5F2n+1,F2n+3), D=(F2n+3,4F2n+1,F2n+3) and A=(L2n+1,4L2n+3,L2n+7), B=(L2n+1,4L2n+5,L2n+7), C=(L2n+1,5L2n+1,L2n+3), D=(L2n+3,4L2n+1,L2n+3. The sequences A,B,C and D are built from the Fibonacci numbers Fn while the sequences A, B, C and D from the Lucas numbers Ln. Each triple in the sequences A,B,C and D has the property D(-4) (i. e., adding -4 to the product of any two different components of them is a square). Similarly, each triple in the sequences A, B, C and D has the property D(20). We show some interesting properties of these sequences that give various methods how to get squares from them.
Preventing alcohol misuse in young people aged 9-11 years through promoting family communication: an exploratory evaluation of the Kids, Adults Together (KAT) Programme
Heather Rothwell, Jeremy Segrott
BMC Public Health , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-810
Abstract: Documentary analysis and interviews with key personnel examined the programme's development. Classroom preparation and KAT family events in two schools were observed. Focus groups with children, and interviews with parents who attended KAT family events were held immediately after programme delivery, and again after three months. Interviews with head teachers and with teachers who delivered the classroom preparation were conducted. Follow-up interviews with programme personnel were undertaken. Questionnaires were sent to parents of all children involved in classroom preparation.KAT achieved high levels of acceptability and involvement among both children and parents. Main perceived impacts of the programme were increased pro-social communication within families (including discussions about harmful parental alcohol consumption), heightened knowledge and awareness of the effects of alcohol consumption and key legal and health issues, and changes in parental drinking behaviours.KAT demonstrated promise as a prevention intervention, primarily through its impact on knowledge and communication processes within families, and its ability to engage with large numbers of parents. A key programme mechanism was the classroom preparation's facilitation of parental involvement in the family fun evening. The programme also incorporated features identified in the literature as likely to increase effectiveness, including a focus on harm reduction, interactive delivery, and targeting primary-school-age children. Further research is needed to test and develop programme theory through implementation in different school contexts, and to examine potential longer-term impacts, and the feasibility of large scale delivery.This paper reports the findings from an exploratory evaluation of a school-based alcohol misuse prevention programme - Kids, Adults Together (KAT), which engaged with primary school children and their parents/carers. A range of health and social impacts of alcohol misuse b
Natural-Mode Representation for the Field Reflected by an Inhomogeneous Conductor-Backed Material Layer - TE Case
Edward J. Rothwell
PIER , 2006, DOI: 10.2528/PIER06051801
Abstract: The transient plane-wave field reflected by a conductorbacked, inhomogeneous, planar material layer is considered. The reflected field is written as a natural-mode expansion, and the natural resonance frequencies of the slab are found by solving a homogeneous integral equation for the field within the slab. Several examples are considered, and the natural mode series is verified by comparison to the inverse fast-Fourier transform of the frequency-domain reflected field.
Reengineering Vital Registration and Statistics Systems [Response to Letter]
Charles J. Rothwell
Preventing Chronic Disease , 2005,
Abstract: Dr Nasseri has registered valid concerns (1) about reengineering vital registration and statistics systems for the United States (2), many of which I share. Certainly the move to state-of-the-art information technology will not be the only key to rejuvenating the vital statistics system. We must not miss this opportunity to improve both the quality and the content of the information provided by these reengineered systems. The expanded data set derived from the new standard certificates, once implemented by the new systems, will improve data content extensively. These certificates are available on the Internet (3). Considerable work lies ahead in finding innovative ways to improve data quality for both new and old data items.
Reengineering Vital Registration and Statistics Systems for the United States
Charles J. Rothwell
Preventing Chronic Disease , 2004,
Abstract: For more than a hundred years, the United States has operated a decentralized vital statistics system as an essential component of public health. Statistics based on births and deaths registered in the United States are a primary source of data used to track health status, to plan, implement, and evaluate health and social services, and to set health policy. The national vital statistics system provides nearly complete, continuous, and comparable federal, state, and local data. The system, however, is based on outmoded vital registration practices and structures, which raises concerns about data quality, timeliness, and the lack of real-time linkage capabilities. While many organizations are working together to address these issues and have made notable achievements, questions remain to be answered. Efforts to rejuvenate the nation s vital statistics system will need to expand dramatically to provide public health with a timely, high-quality, and flexible system to monitor vital health outcomes at the local, state, and national levels.
A Classification of M-Learning Applications from a Usability Perspective
Robin Deegan,Paul Rothwell
Journal of the Research Center for Educational Technology , 2010,
Abstract: One of the possible barriers to the successful integration of mobile learning (m-learning) into mainstream education is the set of issues associated with the usability of applications designed for mobile devices. Applications delivered on mobile devices have many specific usability issues. The designer must meet and overcome all of these constraints, challenges and context of use issues in order to design a usable application. A first step in addressing these challenges is to be clear on their exact nature. This paper clarifies the notion of m-learning and the usability issues peculiar to m-learning applications. Beginning with a very general definition of m-learning as “learning with the aid of a mobile device”, we classify m-learning into several distinct categories. These categories focus on the role of the mobile device in the learning. The categories are: Learning Management, Supportive, Content-Based, Context-Based, and Collaborative. The issues and challenges associated with developing usable m-learning applications within each of these categories are identified and outlined. In conclusion we identify plans for future work towards a framework for the design and development of usable m-learning applications.
Factors That Can Affect the External Validity of Randomised Controlled Trials
Peter M Rothwell
PLOS ONE , 2006, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pctr.0010009
Carbon density and anthropogenic land use influences on net land-use change emissions
S. J. Smith,A. Rothwell
Biogeosciences Discussions , 2013, DOI: 10.5194/bgd-10-4157-2013
Abstract: We examine historical and future land-use emissions using a simple mechanistic carbon-cycle model with regional and ecosystem specific parameterizations. Our central estimate of net terrestrial land-use change emissions, exclusive of climate feedbacks, is 250 Gt C over the last three hundred years. This estimate is most sensitive to assumptions for pre-industrial forest and soil carbon densities. We also find that estimates are sensitive to the treatment of crop and pasture lands. These sensitivities also translate into differences in future terrestrial uptake in the RCP4.5 land-use scenario. This estimate of future uptake is lower than the native values from the GCAM integrated assessment model result due to lower net reforestation in the RCP4.5 gridded land-use data product.
Identification of a 12-Gene Signature for Lung Cancer Prognosis through Machine Learning  [PDF]
Erin Bard, Wei Hu
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2011.22017
Abstract: Personalized medicine is critical for lung cancer treatment. Different gene signatures that can classify lung cancer patients as high- or low-risk for cancer recurrence have been found. The aim of this study is to identify a novel gene signature that has higher recurrence risk prediction accuracy for non-small cell lung cancer patients than previous re-search, which can clearly differentiate the high- and low-risk groups. To accomplish this we employed an ensemble of feature selection algorithms, an ensemble of classification algorithms, and a genetic algorithm, an evolutionary search algorithm. Compared to one previous study, our 12-gene signature more accurately classifies the patients in the training set (n = 256), 57.32% compared to 50.78%, as well as in the two test sets (n = 104 and n = 82), 67.07% compared to 54.9% and 57.32% compared to 54.8%; where the prediction accuracy was determined by the average of the four classifiers. Through Kaplan-Meier analysis on high- and low-risk patients our 12-gene signature revealed statistically significant risk differentiation in each data set: the training set had a p-value less than 0.001 (log-rank) and the two test sets had (log-rank) p-values less than 0.05. Analysis of the posterior probabilities revealed strong correlation between 5-year survival and the 12-gene signature. Also, functional pathway analysis uncovered associations between the 12-gene signature and cancer causing genes in the literature.
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