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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 462280 matches for " Erin A. Tripp "
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Origin of African Physacanthus (Acanthaceae) via Wide Hybridization
Erin A. Tripp, Siti Fatimah, Iain Darbyshire, Lucinda A. McDade
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0055677
Abstract: Gene flow between closely related species is a frequent phenomenon that is known to play important roles in organismal evolution. Less clear, however, is the importance of hybridization between distant relatives. We present molecular and morphological evidence that support origin of the plant genus Physacanthus via “wide hybridization” between members of two distantly related lineages in the large family Acanthaceae. These two lineages are well characterized by very different morphologies yet, remarkably, Physacanthus shares features of both. Chloroplast sequences from six loci indicate that all three species of Physacanthus contain haplotypes from both lineages, suggesting that heteroplasmy likely predated speciation in the genus. Although heteroplasmy is thought to be unstable and thus transient, multiple haplotypes have been maintained through time in Physacanthus. The most likely scenario to explain these data is that Physacanthus originated via an ancient hybridization event that involved phylogenetically distant parents. This wide hybridization has resulted in the establishment of an independently evolving clade of flowering plants.
Evaluating Displayed Depression Symptoms on Social Media Sites  [PDF]
Megan A. Moreno, Erin Kelleher, Megan Pumper
Social Networking (SN) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/sn.2013.24018
Abstract:

Social networking sites (SNSs) are immensely popular and allow for display of personal information, including references to depression. Evaluating displayed content on a SNS for research purposes requires a systematic approach and a precise data collection instrument. The purpose of this paper is to describe one approach to the development of a research codebook for depression so that others may develop and test their own codebooks for use in SNS research. The depression SNS research codebook was grounded in ethics, theory and clinical criteria.The key elements in the codebook developmental process included an iterative team approach to develop variables of interest and data collection sheet layout. Training protocols involve coding practice and reliability assessments. Interrater reliability remains a critical assessment tool. Codebook successes include consistently high interrater reliability. Challenges include time investment in coder training, SNS server changes, and social or cultural norms regarding public displays of mental health. We provide detailed information about a systematic approach to codebook development so that other researchers may use this structure to develop and test their own codebooks for use in SNS research. Future directions for the codebook include expanding areas of interest such as anxiety or other depression evaluation criteria, and expansion to other SNSs such as Twitter.

Epidermal collagenase activity and its induction by 20-hydroxyecdysone in the fiddler crab Uca pugilator
Erin A. TOUPS,Erin A. TOUPS
Current Zoology , 2009,
Abstract: The epidermal collagenase activity and its induction by 20-hydroxyecdysone in Uca pugilator were investigated. Zymographic electrophoresis showed four bands of collagenase activity, 16, 19, 22 and 29 kDa in molecular weight, with the former two accounting for 60% and 36%, respectively, of the total collagenase activity. The collagenase activity varies during the molting cycle. Among the molt stages tested, Premolt Stage D0 exhibited the highest epidermal collagenase activity for both the 16 and 19 kDa isoenzymes and, as the molt stage proceeded, the enzymatic activity of these two isoenzymes decreased, with the lowest activity for both found in Premolt Stage D3–4. Injection of 20-hydroxyecdysone significantly induced the activity of the 16 kDa collagenase in the epidermis of Uca pugilator, suggesting that the activity of this isoenzyme is under molting hormone control. Although 20-hydroxyecdysone injection did not result in a statistically significant increase in the activity of the 19 kDa isoenzyme, a tendency of the induction was nonetheless demonstrated. This is the first report on epidermal collagenase activity and its induction by the molting hormone in a crustacean [Current Zoology 55(1): 75–80, 2009].
Soil Moisture and Fungi Affect Seed Survival in California Grassland Annual Plants
Erin A. Mordecai
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0039083
Abstract: Survival of seeds in the seed bank is important for the population dynamics of many plant species, yet the environmental factors that control seed survival at a landscape level remain poorly understood. These factors may include soil moisture, vegetation cover, soil type, and soil pathogens. Because many soil fungi respond to moisture and host species, fungi may mediate environmental drivers of seed survival. Here, I measure patterns of seed survival in California annual grassland plants across 15 species in three experiments. First, I surveyed seed survival for eight species at 18 grasslands and coastal sage scrub sites ranging across coastal and inland Santa Barbara County, California. Species differed in seed survival, and soil moisture and geographic location had the strongest influence on survival. Grasslands had higher survival than coastal sage scrub sites for some species. Second, I used a fungicide addition and exotic grass thatch removal experiment in the field to tease apart the relative impact of fungi, thatch, and their interaction in an invaded grassland. Seed survival was lower in the winter (wet season) than in the summer (dry season), but fungicide improved winter survival. Seed survival varied between species but did not depend on thatch. Third, I manipulated water and fungicide in the laboratory to directly examine the relationship between water, fungi, and survival. Seed survival declined from dry to single watered to continuously watered treatments. Fungicide slightly improved seed survival when seeds were watered once but not continually. Together, these experiments demonstrate an important role of soil moisture, potentially mediated by fungal pathogens, in driving seed survival.
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) attachment and nonstructural proteins modify the type I interferon response associated with suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins and IFN-stimulated gene-15 (ISG15)
Elizabeth C Moore, Jamie Barber, Ralph A Tripp
Virology Journal , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1743-422x-5-116
Abstract: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), a member of the Pneumovirus genus within the family Paramyxoviridae, is the single most important viral respiratory pathogen infecting infants and young children worldwide, as well as an important cause of respiratory tract illness in the elderly, transplant patients, and immune suppressed [12,22,33,48,51]. The RSV genome (15 kb) is single-stranded, negative-sense RNA that contains 10 transcription units which are sequentially transcribed to produce 11 proteins in the following order: NS1, NS2, N, P, M, SH, G, F, M2-1, M2-2, and L [52]. The NS1 and NS2 non-structural proteins are not expressed on the virion but are two of the most abundantly expressed RNAs in RSV-infected cells due to their promoter-proximal location [5,11,15] These accessory proteins have been shown to act cooperatively to suppress the activation and nuclear translocation of the IFN-regulatory factor IRF-3 [4,47], and inhibit the type I IFN signaling cascade by mediating proteosome degradation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 2 (STAT2) with Elongin-Cullin E3 ligase [10,29].Additionally, constructs of "humanized" NS1 and NS2 recombinant protein expressed in Escherichia coli have been shown to decrease STAT2 levels as well as type I IFN responsiveness [29], and recent RNA interference (RNAi) studies in mice targeting NS proteins for silencing by short interfering RNA (siRNA) resulted in inhibition of RSV replication in mice [67]. The NS1 and NS2 proteins may also function to facilitate RSV replication outside the interferon arena as they have an anti-apoptotic effect on RSV-infected A549 cells thereby enhancing viral replication [3].Increasing evidence suggests that other RSV proteins, particularly the surface proteins on the virion, have important roles in facilitating RSV infection and replication [51]. The RSV surface attachment protein, i.e. G protein, has been shown to modify pulmonary trafficking of immune cells [55], as well as the pattern
siRNA Genome Screening Approaches to Therapeutic Drug Repositioning
Olivia Perwitasari,Abhijeet Bakre,S. Mark Tompkins,Ralph A. Tripp
Pharmaceuticals , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/ph6020124
Abstract: Bridging high-throughput screening (HTS) with RNA interference (RNAi) has allowed for rapid discovery of the molecular basis of many diseases, and identification of potential pathways for developing safe and effective treatments. These features have identified new host gene targets for existing drugs paving the pathway for therapeutic drug repositioning. Using RNAi to discover and help validate new drug targets has also provided a means to filter and prioritize promising therapeutics. This review summarizes these approaches across a spectrum of methods and targets in the host response to pathogens. Particular attention is given to the utility of drug repurposing utilizing the promiscuous nature of some drugs that affect multiple molecules or pathways, and how these biological pathways can be targeted to regulate disease outcome.
Tumor Progression Locus 2 Promotes Induction of IFNλ, Interferon Stimulated Genes and Antigen-Specific CD8+ T Cell Responses and Protects against Influenza Virus
Teneema Kuriakose?,Ralph A. Tripp,Wendy T. Watford
PLOS Pathogens , 2015, DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1005038
Abstract: Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAP) cascades are important in antiviral immunity through their regulation of interferon (IFN) production as well as virus replication. Although the serine-threonine MAP kinase tumor progression locus 2 (Tpl2/MAP3K8) has been implicated as a key regulator of Type I (IFNα/β) and Type II (IFNγ) IFNs, remarkably little is known about how Tpl2 might contribute to host defense against viruses. Herein, we investigated the role of Tpl2 in antiviral immune responses against influenza virus. We demonstrate that Tpl2 is an integral component of multiple virus sensing pathways, differentially regulating the induction of IFNα/β and IFNλ in a cell-type specific manner. Although Tpl2 is important in the regulation of both IFNα/β and IFNλ, only IFNλ required Tpl2 for its induction during influenza virus infection both in vitro and in vivo. Further studies revealed an unanticipated function for Tpl2 in transducing Type I IFN signals and promoting expression of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs). Importantly, Tpl2 signaling in nonhematopoietic cells is necessary to limit early virus replication. In addition to early innate alterations, impaired expansion of virus-specific CD8+ T cells accompanied delayed viral clearance in Tpl2-/- mice at late time points. Consistent with its critical role in facilitating both innate and adaptive antiviral responses, Tpl2 is required for restricting morbidity and mortality associated with influenza virus infection. Collectively, these findings establish an essential role for Tpl2 in antiviral host defense mechanisms.
Liraglutide (Saxenda) as a Treatment for Obesity  [PDF]
Erin St. Onge, Shannon A. Miller, Carol Motycka
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2016.74024
Abstract: Obesity is a significant concern in the United States, affecting approximately 35% of the population. Comorbidities, such as diabetes, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia, significantly increase one’s risk of heart attack, stroke, and even death. Liraglutide, a medication originally used to treat diabetes, has been approved for the treatment of obesity. Clinical trials have shown significant improvements in body weight and body mass index (BMI) at a dose of up to 3.0 mg daily. The most common adverse effects are gastrointestinal in nature, however, these often subside with time. Safety concerns with regards to thyroid tumors and pancreatitis should be carefully considered prior to use of this agent. Liraglutide should be considered an additional tool in the treatment of obesity, especially in patients with concomitant diabetes.
Pesquisa-a??o: uma introdu??o metodológica
Tripp, David;
Educa??o e Pesquisa , 2005, DOI: 10.1590/S1517-97022005000300009
Abstract: as a result of its greatly increased in popularity and range of application, action research has now become a loosely applied term for any kind of attempt to improve or investigate practice. in view of the confusion that frequently arises from this, the main aim of this author is to clarify the term. after a brief history of the method, the makes a case for regarding action research as one of a number of different forms of action inquiry which he briefly defines as any ongoing, systematic, empirically based attempt to improve practice. the author them discusses the role of theory in action research before describing what he sees as the distinguishing characteristics of the process. next, a more detailed examination of the action research cycle is prefaced by an account of the way in which action research stands between routine practice and academic research. the author then moves on to discuss some common issues with the method, such participation, the role of reflection, the need for knowledge management, and the ethics of the process. the last part of the paper covers five different 'modes' of action research, and it concludes with an outline of the structure of an action research dissertation.
Book Review: Cronin, M. (2009) Translation Goes to the Movies
Liza Tripp
Graduate Journal of Social Science , 2009,
Abstract:
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