Abstract:
This paper investigates dynamically downscaled regional climate model
(RCM) output from the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program
(NARCCAP) for two sub-regions of the Southeast United States. A suite of four
statistical measures were used to assess model skill and biases were presented
in hindcasting daily minimum and maximum temperature and mean precipitation
during a historical reference period, 1970-1999. Most models demonstrated high
skill for temperature during the historical period. Two outliers included two
RCMs run using the Geophysical Fluids Dynamics Lab (GFDL) model as their
lateral boundary conditions; these models suffered from a cold maximum
temperature bias. Improvement with GFDL-based projections of maximum temperature was noted
from May through November when they ran with observed seasurface conditions
(GFDL-timeslice), particularly for the east sub-region. Precipitation skill
proved mixed-relatively high when measured using a probability density function
overlap measurement or the index of agreement, but relatively low when measured
with root-mean square error or mean absolute error, because several models
overestimated the frequency of extreme precipitation events.

Abstract:
Chen et al. proved that every 18-tough chordal graph has a Hamilton cycle [Networks 31 (1998), 29-38]. Improving upon their bound, we show that every 10-tough chordal graph is hamiltonian (in fact, Hamilton-connected). We use Aharoni and Haxell's hypergraph extension of Hall's Theorem as our main tool.

Abstract:
Life is an inordinately complex unsolved puzzle. Despite significant theoretical progress, experimental anomalies, paradoxes, and enigmas have revealed paradigmatic limitations. Thus, the advancement of scientific understanding requires new models that resolve fundamental problems. Here, I present a theoretical framework that economically fits evidence accumulated from examinations of life. This theory is based upon a straightforward and non-mathematical core model and proposes unique yet empirically consistent explanations for major phenomena including, but not limited to, quantum gravity, phase transitions of water, why living systems are predominantly CHNOPS (carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, and sulfur), homochirality of sugars and amino acids, homeoviscous adaptation, triplet code, and DNA mutations. The theoretical framework unifies the macrocosmic and microcosmic realms, validates predicted laws of nature, and solves the puzzle of the origin and evolution of cellular life in the universe.

Abstract:
Combined with X-ray imaging and spectral data, observations of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect (SZE) can be used to determine direct distances to galaxy clusters. These distances are independent of the extragalactic distance ladder and do not rely on clusters being standard candles or rulers. Observations of the SZE have progressed from upper limits to high signal-to-noise ratio detections and imaging of the SZE. SZE/X-ray determined distances to galaxy clusters are beginning to trace out the theoretical angular-diameter distance relation. The current ensemble of 41 SZE/X-ray distances to galaxy clusters imply a Hubble constant of H_0~ 61 +/- 3 +/- 18 km s-1 Mpc-1, where the uncertainties are statistical followed by systematic at 68% confidence. With a sample of high-redshift galaxy clusters, SZE/X-ray distances can be used to measure the geometry of the Universe.

Abstract:
Background: Acute otitis externa is a common multi-factorial disorder in the dog. Several topical preparations are available on the veterinary market, which are licensed for an either specified duration of treatment or for a discretionary period that is determined by the clinician. Objectives: To compare the efficacy of two topical products, both licensed for the treatment of otitis externa in the dog, but with different treatment durations. Animal Population: One hundred and sixty dogs were enrolled in this multicentre field study from which 157 dogs were analysed in the Per Protocol sample (73 Aurizon^{?}treated animals and 84 Easotic^{?}treated animals). Method: Dogs were randomly assigned to Aurizon^{?}or Easotic^{?}treatment groups. Aurizon^{?}(Vétoquinol SA: marbofloxacin, clotrimazole, dexamethasone) was administered daily in the affected ear(s) for 7 or 14 days, and was compared with a daily administration of Easotic^{?}(Virbac SAS: gentamicin, miconazole, hydrocortisone aceponate) for 5 days. General and localised clinical signs were scored on days 0 (D0), 3 (D3), 7 (D7), 14 (D14) and 21 (D21). Results: Clinical cure rates at the end of treatment were 56.3% and 48.8% (p=0.35) in the Aurizon^{?}and Easotic^{?}groups respectively and 81.2% versus 74.7% one week after completing the course of treatment (p = 0.34). Twenty-one days after initially presenting for the study, cure rates were 84.3% in the Aurizon^{?}group and 73.8% in the Easotic^{?}(p=0.12). A relationship between severity of clinical signs and treatment duration was observed. Conclusion and Clinical Significance: At the end of the trial period, cure rates showed a tendency to be higher in the Aurizon^{?}treated animals. The flexible dosage and the veterinary monitoring permitted treatment duration to be adjusted based upon the severity of otitis externa thus increasing the likelihood of clinical cure.

Abstract:
Clinicians and researchers studying protein metabolism in vivo, typically use isotopically-labeled free amino acids as metabolic tracers rather than isotopically-labeled proteins because such proteins are commercially unavailable. However, the use of free amino acids in lieu of protein tracers violates the critical assumption that tracer molecules undergo the identical biochemical reactions as the tracee molecules of interest. To address this problem we synthesized 13C-labeled proteins using egg laying hens and investigated the relationship between tracer dose and method of delivery on 13C-protein production. We enriched hens with one of two isotope tracers (13C-1-leucine or a uniformly labeled 13C-amino acid mixture) mixed in their food or dissolved in their drinking water at different dosing levels (86-432 mg day-1). The recovery of 13C in egg white proteins of the hen fed 13C-leucine ranged from 14% to 21%; recovery rates were highest at the lowest dosing level. At the highest dosing level egg whites were enriched more than 150‰ above background levels of 13C. The time required for half maximal 13C enrichment depended chiefly on the mode of tracer administration, and ranged from 2.5 days for 13C-leucine dissolved in water to 4.9 days for 13C-leucine mixed in food. Relative rates of 13C recovery in the egg protein were lowest for hens fed the uniformly 13C labeled amino acid mixture, presumably because of the high proportion of nonessential amino acids. The time required for the 13C-enrichment in eggs to return to background levels at the end of the enrichment period was about twice that required to initially reach isotopic equilibrium with the diet, indicating significant biochemical discrimination of endogenous 13C amino acids. We conclude that delivering small amounts of 13C amino acid tracers in the drinking water of hens is the most effective way to produce 13C-enriched proteins to for tracer studies that do not require delt 13C-enrichment above 200‰.

Abstract:
We prove that the two-colouring number of any planar graph is at most 8. This resolves a question of Kierstead et al. [SIAM J. Discrete Math.~23 (2009), 1548--1560]. The result is optimal.

Abstract:
Fourth-order many-body corrections to matrix elements for atoms with one valence electron are derived. The obtained diagrams are classified using coupled-cluster-inspired separation into contributions from n-particle excitations from the lowest-order wavefunction. The complete set of fourth-order diagrams involves only connected single, double, and triple excitations and disconnected quadruple excitations. Approximately half of the fourth-order diagrams are not accounted for by the popular coupled-cluster method truncated at single and double excitations (CCSD). Explicit formulae are tabulated for the entire set of fourth-order diagrams missed by the CCSD method and its linearized version, i.e. contributions from connected triple and disconnected quadruple excitations. A partial summation scheme of the derived fourth-order contributions to all orders of perturbation theory is proposed.

Abstract:
We consider a general model for representing and manipulating parametric curves, in which a curve is specified by a black box mapping a parameter value between 0 and 1 to a point in Euclidean d-space. In this model, we consider the nearest-point-on-curve and farthest-point-on-curve problems: given a curve C and a point p, find a point on C nearest to p or farthest from p. In the general black-box model, no algorithm can solve these problems. Assuming a known bound on the speed of the curve (a Lipschitz condition), the answer can be estimated up to an additive error of epsilon using O(1/epsilon) samples, and this bound is tight in the worst case. However, many instances can be solved with substantially fewer samples, and we give algorithms that adapt to the inherent difficulty of the particular instance, up to a logarithmic factor. More precisely, if OPT(C,p,epsilon) is the minimum number of samples of C that every correct algorithm must perform to achieve tolerance epsilon, then our algorithm performs O(OPT(C,p,epsilon) log (epsilon^(-1)/OPT(C,p,epsilon))) samples. Furthermore, any algorithm requires Omega(k log (epsilon^(-1)/k)) samples for some instance C' with OPT(C',p,epsilon) = k; except that, for the nearest-point-on-curve problem when the distance between C and p is less than epsilon, OPT is 1 but the upper and lower bounds on the number of samples are both Theta(1/epsilon). When bounds on relative error are desired, we give algorithms that perform O(OPT log (2+(1+epsilon^(-1)) m^(-1)/OPT)) samples (where m is the exact minimum or maximum distance from p to C) and prove that Omega(OPT log (1/epsilon)) samples are necessary on some problem instances.