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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 275413 matches for " Erica L. W. Lester "
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The Economic Impact of Weight Regain
Caroline E. Sheppard,Erica L. W. Lester,Anderson W. Chuck,Daniel W. Birch,Shahzeer Karmali,Christopher J. de Gara
Gastroenterology Research and Practice , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/379564
Abstract: Background. Obesity is well known for being associated with significant economic repercussions. Bariatric surgery is the only evidence-based solution to this problem as well as a cost-effective method of addressing the concern. Numerous authors have calculated the cost effectiveness and cost savings of bariatric surgery; however, to date the economic impact of weight regain as a component of overall cost has not been addressed. Methods. The literature search was conducted to elucidate the direct costs of obesity and primary bariatric surgery, the rate of weight recidivism and surgical revision, and any costs therein. Results. The quoted cost of obesity in Canada was $2.0 billion–$6.7 billion in 2013 CAD. The median percentage of bariatric procedures that fail due to weight gain or insufficient weight loss is 20% (average: , range: 5.2–39, ). Revision of primary surgeries on average ranges from 2.5% to 18.4%, and depending on the procedure accounts for an additional cost between $14,000 and $50,000?USD per patient. Discussion. There was a significant deficit of the literature pertaining to the cost of revision surgery as compared with primary bariatric surgery. As such, the cycle of weight recidivism and bariatric revisions has not as of yet been introduced into any previous cost analysis of bariatric surgery. 1. Background Obesity has been established as a global economic burden. Several countries have already quantified the costs associated with obesity on their healthcare systems, and unequivocally bariatric surgery has been found to be a cost-effective method for reducing obesity related costs and increasing quality of life [1–4]. However, the literature has investigated neither the cost of procedure failure rate due to weight regain or insufficient weight loss, nor the cost burden of patients returning to their original obesity status. The rate of weight regain has been reported as ranging from 5 to 39% corresponding to a median of 20% (average: 21.1% ± 10.1%, range: 5.2–39, ) [5–14]. Several authors have attributed this phenomenon to mechanical failure, such as pouch and stoma dilation, while others believe that the behavioural component is the main contributor to weight gain over time [8, 15, 16]. Weight recidivism can be dealt with via two facets: the patient can remain obese or an attempt at surgical revision can be undertaken. Revision can include band removal, band replacement, conversion to sleeve gastrectomy or gastric bypass, gastric bypass limb lengthening, and endoscopic techniques, each of which has an associated cost and complication
Association of Osteopontin Gene Promoter Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms with Bull Semen Quality  [PDF]
Rick W. Rorie, Chance L. Williams, Toby D. Lester
Advances in Reproductive Sciences (ARSci) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/arsci.2016.41001
Abstract: Osteopontin (OPN) is a protein found at higher concentrations in the seminal plasma of bulls with above average fertility. Polymorphisms have been reported within the OPN gene promoter that can affect production of this protein and thus, affect fertility. Therefore, Angus (n = 5) and Angus x Gelbvieh (Balancer, n = 14) and Angus x Brahman (n = 15) bulls were evaluated for presence of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the Bos taurus OPN gene (GenBank: AY878328.1) promoter region, and their possible effects on bull semen quality as evaluated by computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA). Semen was collected by electroejaculation 6 to 9 times from each bull, and each semen collection was evaluated by CASA for motile, progressive and rapid sperm within 5 mins of ejaculation. The bulls were genotyped for reported single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the promoter region of the OPN gene through amplification of two 700 base pair (bp) DNA fragments and sequencing of the resulting PCR products. Seven SNP sites were identified, at bp 3379, 3490, 3492, 5075, 5205, 5209, and 5263 of the OPN gene. The SNP identified at bp 5205, 5209 and 5263 had not been previously reported. Individual SNP sites were evaluated as the main effect on CASA sperm motility variables in a SAS MIXED model for repeated measures. A thymine to guanine substitution at bp 3379 was associated with increased (P ≤ 0.02) percentage of motile, progressive and rapid sperm in Angus x Brahman bulls, and tended (P ≤ 0.10) to increase the same sperm motility parameters in Angus, and Angus x Gelbvieh bulls. The percentages of motile, progressive and rapid sperm were similar (P ≥ 0.05) among genotypes for the other 6 SNP identified. These results suggest that identification and genotyping of polymorphisms within the promoter region of the bovine OPN gene may be useful for selecting bulls with improved sperm motility parameters.
Uranium Bio-Transformations: Chemical or Biological Processes?  [PDF]
Erica L.-W. Majumder, Judy D. Wall
Open Journal of Inorganic Chemistry (OJIC) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojic.2017.72003
Abstract: Uranium bio-transformations are the many and varying types of interactions that microbes can have with uranium encountered in their environment. In this review, bio-transformations, including reduction, oxidation, respiration, sorption, mineralization, accumulation, precipitation, biomarkers, and sensors are defined and discussed. Consensus and divergences are noted in bioavailability, mechanism of uranium reduction, environment, metabolism and the type of organism. The breadth of organisms with characterized bio-trans formations is also cataloged and discussed. We further debate if uranium biotransformations provide bio-protection or bio-benefit to the microbe and highlight the need for more work in the field to understand if microbes use uranium reduction for energy gain and growth, as having the ability is separate from exercising it. The presentation centers on the fundamental drivers for these processes with an additional exposition of the essential contribution of inorganic chemistry techniques to the molecular characterization of these biological processes.
The Impact of Volunteering on Seniors’ Health and Quality of Life: An Assessment of the Retired and Senior Volunteer Program  [PDF]
Theodore W. McDonald, Erica L. Chown, Jordan E. Tabb, Amy K. Schaeffer, Elsa K. M. Howard
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2013.43A042
Abstract:

Past research suggests that senior citizens often face challenges related to deteriorating physical and mental health, and the quality of their lives may suffer as a result. Past research also suggests that volunteering can improve the health and quality of life for seniors. In the present study, 451 volunteers enrolled in the Retired and Senior Volunteer Program (RSVP) completed surveys including questions regarding their volunteer experiences and how these experiences have affected their health and quality of life. The results suggest that volunteering through RSVP is associated with improvements in health and quality of life across a variety of dimensions. Furthermore, these improvements may be particularly greater for women, current volunteers, and older seniors. These findings may help guide interventions designed to enhance the health and well-being of senior citizens in a variety of settings.

The BEAN experiment - An EISCAT study of ion temperature anisotropies
I. W. McCrea,G. O. L. Jones,M. Lester
Annales Geophysicae (ANGEO) , 2003,
Abstract: Results are presented from a novel EISCAT special programme, SP-UK-BEAN, intended for the direct measurement of the ion temperature anisotropy during ion frictional heating events in the high-latitude F-region. The experiment employs a geometry which provides three simultaneous estimates of the ion temperature in a single F-region observing volume at a range of aspect angles from 0° to 36°. In contrast to most previous EISCAT experiments to study ion temperature anisotropies, field-aligned observations are made using the Sodankyl radar, while the Kiruna radar measures at an aspect angle of the order of 30°. Anisotropic effects can thus be studied within a small common volume whose size and altitude range is limited by the radar beamwidth, rather than in volumes which overlap but cover different altitudes. The derivation of line-of-sight ion temperature is made more complex by the presence of an unknown percentage of atomic and molecular ions at the observing altitude and the possibility of non-Maxwellian distortion of the ion thermal velocity distribution. The first problem has been partly accounted for by insisting that a constant value of electron temperature be maintained. This enables an estimate of the ion composition to be made, and facilitates the derivation of more realistic line-of-sight ion temperatures and temperature anisotropies. The latter problem has been addressed by assuming that the thermal velocity distribution remains bi-Maxwellian. The limitations of these approaches are discussed. The ion temperature anisotropies and temperature partition coefficients during two ion heating events give values intermediate between those expected for atomic and for molecular species. This result is consistent with an analysis which indicates that significant proportions of molecular ions (up to 50%) were present at the times of greatest heating.
New Treatments for Bacterial Keratitis
Raymond L. M. Wong,R. A. Gangwani,Lester W. H. Yu,Jimmy S. M. Lai
Journal of Ophthalmology , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/831502
Abstract: Purpose. To review the newer treatments for bacterial keratitis. Data Sources. PubMed literature search up to April 2012. Study Selection. Key words used for literature search: “infectious keratitis”, “microbial keratitis”, “infective keratitis”, “new treatments for infectious keratitis”, “fourth generation fluoroquinolones”, “moxifloxacin”, “gatifloxacin”, “collagen cross-linking”, and “photodynamic therapy”. Data Extraction. Over 2400 articles were retrieved. Large scale studies or publications at more recent dates were selected. Data Synthesis. Broad spectrum antibiotics have been the main stay of treatment for bacterial keratitis but with the emergence of bacterial resistance; there is a need for newer antimicrobial agents and treatment methods. Fourth-generation fluoroquinolones and corneal collagen cross-linking are amongst the new treatments. In vitro studies and prospective clinical trials have shown that fourth-generation fluoroquinolones are better than the older generation fluoroquinolones and are as potent as combined fortified antibiotics against common pathogens that cause bacterial keratitis. Collagen cross-linking was shown to improve healing of infectious corneal ulcer in treatment-resistant cases or as an adjunct to antibiotics treatment. Conclusion. Fourth-generation fluoroquinolones are good alternatives to standard treatment of bacterial keratitis using combined fortified topical antibiotics. Collagen cross-linking may be considered in treatment-resistant infectious keratitis or as an adjunct to antibiotics therapy.
Factor structure and validity of the shoulder pain and disability index in a population-based study of people with shoulder symptoms
Catherine L Hill, Susan Lester, Anne W Taylor, Michael E Shanahan, Tiffany K Gill
BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2474-12-8
Abstract: The North West Adelaide Health Study is a representative longitudinal cohort study of people aged 18 years and over. The original sample was randomly selected and recruited by telephone interview. Overall, 3 206 participants returned to the clinic during the second stage (2004-2006) and were asked to report whether they had pain, aching or stiffness on most days in either of their shoulders. Data was also collected on body mass index and shoulder range of motion (ROM) and demographic factors. The SPADI (numeric rating scale) was administered to participants with shoulder symptoms. Principal components factor analysis, with varimax rotation of factor loadings, was used to assess subscale structure of SPADI. Correlations between the SPADI, shoulder ROM and SF-36 were performed.Overall, 22.3% of participants indicated that they had pain, aching or stiffness in either of their shoulders. SPADI results were available for 588 of participants with current shoulder symptoms. The internal consistency of the SPADI subscales were high (Cronbach's alpha > 0.92). Two factors, explaining 61.4% of the total variance were extracted by factor analysis. These were interpreted as disability and pain respectively. There was a strong negative correlation between SPADI disability subscale scores and shoulder range of motion. SPADI disability, but not pain, subscale scores were correlated with age.The SPADI is a valid measure to assess pain and disability in people with shoulder pain in a population-based study. In this setting, the SPADI had a bidimensional structure with both pain and disability subscales.The Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI) is a self-administered questionnaire designed to measure the pain and disability associated with shoulder pathology in the outpatient setting [1]. It consists of 13 items in 2 domains; pain (5 items) and disability (8 items), scored on a visual analog scales, ranging from 0 to 100 (0 = no pain/no difficulty and 10 = worst pain imaginable/s
No Association between FCγR3B Copy Number Variation and Susceptibility to Biopsy-Proven Giant Cell Arteritis
Emma Dunstan,Sue Lester,Rachel Black,Maureen Rischmueller,Helen Chan,Alex W. Hewitt,Catherine L. Hill
Arthritis , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/514914
Abstract: Objective. To determine the relationship between FCGR3B gene copy number variation (CNV) and biopsy proven giant cell arteritis (GCA). Methods. FCGR3B CNV was determined in 139 Australian biopsy proven GCA patients and 162 population matched controls, using a duplex qPCR assay and RNase P as the reference gene. Copy number was determined using Copy Caller software (v.1.0, Applied Biosystems, USA). CNV genotypes were classified into 3 groups (<2, 2, 3+) for analysis purposes, and analysis was performed using logistic regression. Results. All GCA patients had a positive temporal artery biopsy, and the most common presenting symptoms were visual disturbance and temporal headache. The mean age of patients at biopsy was 74 years (range 51–94) and 88/139 (63%) were female. The frequency of low (<2) FCGR3B copy number was comparable between GCA patients ( %) and controls ( %), as was the frequency of high (3+) FCGR3B copy number (15/130 (10.8%) in GCA patients versus 13/162 (8.0%) in controls). Overall there was no evidence that FCGR3B CNV frequencies differed between GCA patients and controls ( , , ). Conclusion. FCGR3B CNV is not associated with GCA; however, replicate studies are required. 1. Introduction Giant cell arteritis (GCA), also known as temporal arteritis, is a systemic inflammatory vasculitis which primarily affects medium to large extracranial arteries of the head and neck and can result in stroke and blindness. GCA typically affects people aged over 50 years and incidence rates increase with advancing age, peaking around 80 years of age [1]. GCA is 2-3 times more likely to affect females and is more commonly diagnosed in Caucasians than in any other ethnic background with the highest incidence observed in populations of Scandinavian descent [2]. The pathogenesis of GCA is not understood, although environmental, infectious, and genetic risk factors have been implicated. Familial aggregation and established associations with HLA-DR4 provide evidence for a genetic component to GCA [3–5]. Multiple genetic association studies have been performed on a number of immune response genes. However, the majority of these studies have been performed on a single GCA cohort from north-western Spain and, to date, have failed to confirm any additional genetic associations. One gene of interest is Fc gamma receptor 3B (FCGR3B) which exhibits gene copy number variation (CNV), an important source of quantitative genetic variation. Copy number variation is a departure from the normal diploid number of genes ( ) which may arise through gene duplication and deletion
New Treatments for Bacterial Keratitis
Raymond L. M. Wong,R. A. Gangwani,Lester W. H. Yu,Jimmy S. M. Lai
Journal of Ophthalmology , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/831502
Abstract: Purpose. To review the newer treatments for bacterial keratitis. Data Sources. PubMed literature search up to April 2012. Study Selection. Key words used for literature search: “infectious keratitis”, “microbial keratitis”, “infective keratitis”, “new treatments for infectious keratitis”, “fourth generation fluoroquinolones”, “moxifloxacin”, “gatifloxacin”, “collagen cross-linking”, and “photodynamic therapy”. Data Extraction. Over 2400 articles were retrieved. Large scale studies or publications at more recent dates were selected. Data Synthesis. Broad spectrum antibiotics have been the main stay of treatment for bacterial keratitis but with the emergence of bacterial resistance; there is a need for newer antimicrobial agents and treatment methods. Fourth-generation fluoroquinolones and corneal collagen cross-linking are amongst the new treatments. In vitro studies and prospective clinical trials have shown that fourth-generation fluoroquinolones are better than the older generation fluoroquinolones and are as potent as combined fortified antibiotics against common pathogens that cause bacterial keratitis. Collagen cross-linking was shown to improve healing of infectious corneal ulcer in treatment-resistant cases or as an adjunct to antibiotics treatment. Conclusion. Fourth-generation fluoroquinolones are good alternatives to standard treatment of bacterial keratitis using combined fortified topical antibiotics. Collagen cross-linking may be considered in treatment-resistant infectious keratitis or as an adjunct to antibiotics therapy. 1. Introduction Infectious keratitis is a potentially blinding ocular condition of cornea which can cause severe visual loss if not treated at early stage. If the appropriate antimicrobial treatment is delayed, only 50% of the eyes gain good visual recovery [1]. It can be caused by bacteria, virus, fungus, protozoa, and parasites. The common risk factors for infectious keratitis include ocular trauma, contact lens wear, recent ocular surgery, preexisting ocular surface disease, dry eyes, lid deformity, corneal sensational impairment, chronic use of topical steroids, and systemic immunosuppression [2–5]. The common pathogens include Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-negative Staphylococcus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus pneumonia, and Serratia species. The majority of community acquired cases of bacterial keratitis resolve with empiric treatment and do not require culture [6]. Corneal scraping for culture and sensitivity is indicated for corneal ulcers that are large in size, central in location, extend from middle
Association of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition phenotype with responsiveness to the p21-activated kinase inhibitor, PF-3758309, in colon cancer models
Todd M. Pitts,Brion W. Murray,Kelly L. McPhillips,Erica L. Bradshaw-Pierce
Frontiers in Pharmacology , 2013, DOI: 10.3389/fphar.2013.00035
Abstract: The p21-activated kinase (PAK) family of serine/threonine kinases, which are overexpressed in several cancer types, are critical mediators of cell survival, motility, mitosis, transcription, and translation. In the study presented here, we utilized a panel of colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines to identify potential biomarkers of sensitivity or resistance that may be used to individualize therapy to the PAK inhibitor PF-03758309. We observed a wide range of proliferative responses in the CRC cell lines exposed to PF-03758309, this response was recapitulated in other phenotypic assays such as anchorage-independent growth, three-dimensional (3D) tumor spheroid formation, and migration. Interestingly, we observed that cells most sensitive to PF-03758309 exhibited up-regulation of genes associated with a mesenchymal phenotype (CALD1, VIM, ZEB1) and cells more resistant had an up-regulation of genes associated with an epithelial phenotype (CLDN2, CDH1, CLDN3, CDH17) allowing us to derive an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) gene signature for this agent. We assessed the functional role of EMT-associated genes in mediating responsiveness to PF-3758309, by targeting known genes and transcriptional regulators of EMT. We observed that suppression of genes associated with the mesenchymal phenotype conferred resistance to PF-3758309, in vitro and in vivo. These results indicate that PAK inhibition is associated with a unique response phenotype in CRC and that further studies should be conducted to facilitate both patient selection and rational combination strategies with these agents.
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