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Deciphering Signaling Pathway Networks to Understand the Molecular Mechanisms of Metformin Action
Jingchun Sun?,Min Zhao?,Peilin Jia?,Lily Wang?,Yonghui Wu?,Carissa Iverson?,Yubo Zhou?,Erica Bowton,Dan M. Roden?,Joshua C. Denny
PLOS Computational Biology , 2015, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1004202
Abstract: A drug exerts its effects typically through a signal transduction cascade, which is non-linear and involves intertwined networks of multiple signaling pathways. Construction of such a signaling pathway network (SPNetwork) can enable identification of novel drug targets and deep understanding of drug action. However, it is challenging to synopsize critical components of these interwoven pathways into one network. To tackle this issue, we developed a novel computational framework, the Drug-specific Signaling Pathway Network (DSPathNet). The DSPathNet amalgamates the prior drug knowledge and drug-induced gene expression via random walk algorithms. Using the drug metformin, we illustrated this framework and obtained one metformin-specific SPNetwork containing 477 nodes and 1,366 edges. To evaluate this network, we performed the gene set enrichment analysis using the disease genes of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cancer, one T2D genome-wide association study (GWAS) dataset, three cancer GWAS datasets, and one GWAS dataset of cancer patients with T2D on metformin. The results showed that the metformin network was significantly enriched with disease genes for both T2D and cancer, and that the network also included genes that may be associated with metformin-associated cancer survival. Furthermore, from the metformin SPNetwork and common genes to T2D and cancer, we generated a subnetwork to highlight the molecule crosstalk between T2D and cancer. The follow-up network analyses and literature mining revealed that seven genes (CDKN1A, ESR1, MAX, MYC, PPARGC1A, SP1, and STK11) and one novel MYC-centered pathway with CDKN1A, SP1, and STK11 might play important roles in metformin’s antidiabetic and anticancer effects. Some results are supported by previous studies. In summary, our study 1) develops a novel framework to construct drug-specific signal transduction networks; 2) provides insights into the molecular mode of metformin; 3) serves a model for exploring signaling pathways to facilitate understanding of drug action, disease pathogenesis, and identification of drug targets.
Plain cigarette packaging: A policy analysis of Australia’s integrated “whole-of-system” model for smoking cessation  [PDF]
Lorraine Davies, Erica Bell
Health (Health) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/health.2012.412187
Abstract: Introduction: Plain cigarette packaging as a tobacco control measure is to be implemented in Australia on December 1st 2012. There is mounting evidence for its likely impact on smokers and potential smokers. Yet Australia’s integrated model of smoking cessation and the particular role and opportunities it has created for primary healthcare have not yet been subject to policy analysis in leading international journals. This policy analysis paper explores these new Australian policy developments and debates in ways that identify their international relevance to primary healthcare. Policy analysis: There are 57 studies about plain cigarette packaging published since 2002. Of these, 27 looked at the impact of health warnings. These studies support the introduction of plain packaging as a tobacco control measure, by increasing the efficacy of health warnings and reducing misconceptions about cigarettes. However, the Australian tobacco control reforms are not limited to plain cigarette packaging. They include other evidence-based tobacco control measures as part of its primary health care strategy: for example, increasing tobacco excises, a mass media campaign focusing on high-risk and hard-to-reach groups, and a national summit on smoking in prisons. The Australian government has acknowledged the key role of primary health care in health promotion activities, establishing a network of regional primary health care organisations (“medicare locals”) in 2011-2012, and expanding the role of nurses in general practice. These initiatives offer general practice a chance to seize “golden opportunities to intervene with smoking patients”. Conclusions: Whether the combined impact of the Australian government’s recent tobacco control reforms and its previous measures will be sufficient to reduce daily smoking prevalence to 10% or less by 2020, only time will tell. What is more certain is that the Australian experience of plain packaging offers international colleagues in general practice key lessons about the importance of “whole-of-system” approaches, integrating efforts at the local to national levels, to tackle smoking cessation. The achievement of Australia’s political leaders in plain cigarette packaging is an extraordinary testament to political will but there is no room for complacency. Primary healthcare sectors must continue to lobby political leaders around the world to tackle smoking at the system level where the motivations and beliefs about smoking are being shaped, especially among disadvantaged groups with lower health literacy.
Tradutor: o inescapável h?te da língua do Outro
Lima, Erica;
Trabalhos em Linguística Aplicada , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-18132011000200011
Abstract: building on certain concepts of language, translation, and hospitality formulated by french philosopher jacques derrida, this essay aims to establish a relationship between derrida's consideration of the translation of the french term h?te-a word that designates both the host and the guest-and the work of translators. the first part explores how the idea of the language of the h?te influenced derridean thinking and brought forward, from early on, the issue of translation. the second part deals with the translation itself of the term h?te, as emphasized by derrida in his own reading of camus's short story l'h?te, as well as with the translator's relationship as h?te of the other's text. the aim is to show that the discussion of the translation of h?te stages the impossibility of an unconditional hospitality and unveils the relationships through which meaning is formed, in a play of multiple languages that interact in the translation process.
Profile: Erica Smith
Erica Smith
Partnership : the Canadian Journal of Library and Information Practice and Research , 2011,
Gender und Entwicklung: Methodologische Perspektiven von Kinderarbeit Engendering Development: Some Methodological Perspectives on Child Labour Engendrando desarrollo: Algunas perspectivas metodológicas sobre el trabajo infantil
Erica Burman
Forum : Qualitative Social Research , 2006,
Abstract: : In diesem Beitrag m chte ich zeigen, wann und warum der Fokus auf Genderspezifika einen wesentlichen Beitrag zur Konzeption und zum Design entwicklungspsychologischer Forschung leisten kann. Da rein abstrakt geführte methodologische Debatten in der Regel unspezifisch und wenig fruchtbar sind und kaum sinnvoll auf konkrete Situationen oder Themen bezogen werden k nnen, m chte ich meine Argumentation entlang einer ganz konkreten Problematik entwickeln: Kinderarbeit. Ich hoffe, auf diese Art zeigen zu k nnen, dass eine genderspezifische Perspektive innerhalb der und auf die entwicklungspsychologische Forschung sowohl praktischen als auch analytischen Wert hat. Es mag zun chst etwas eigenartig erscheinen, die Auseinandersetzung mit entwicklungspsychologischer Forschungspraxis speziell auf das Thema Kinderarbeit zuzuspitzen; es sollte jedoch im Verlauf dieses Beitrags deutlich werden, inwiefern sich die Vers umnisse und blinden Flecken der traditionellen psychologischen Forschung gerade anhand dieser Thematik explizieren lassen. Im Besonderen befasse ich mich mit den analytischen und methodologischen Vorteilen der Untersuchung der verschiedenen Zug nge, mittels der über Gender die Vorstellungen von Kindheit strukturiert werden. Hierbei er ffnet die analytische Aufmerksamkeit für sich wandelnde Formen und Beziehungen von Kinderarbeit eine differenzierte Betrachtung, bei der auch konomische und kulturelle (auch genderbezogener) Bedingungen und auf diese Weise auch soziale Ungleichheit einbezogenen werden k nnen. Diese Ungleichheit strukturiert auch die methodologischen Bedingungen und die Paradigmen, die für die Forschung über Kinder hinzugezogen werden. Insoweit werden entlang der Diskussion über Kinderarbeit am Ende vier Schlüsselprinzipien für genderbezogene psychologische Forschung mit Kindern und über Kinder herausgearbeitet, aus denen weitergehende Implikationen auch für die Konzeptualisierung der Beziehungen zwischen Gender, Kindheit, Kultur und Familie erwachsen. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs060111 In this article I address when and why it is useful to focus on gender in the design and conceptualisation of developmental psychological research. Since methodological debates treated in the abstract tend to lack both the specificity and rigour that application to a particular context or topic imports, I take a particular focus for my discussion: child labour. In doing so I hope to highlight the analytical and practical gains of bringing gendered agendas alongside, and into, developmental research. While child labour may seem a rather curious topic for discuss
Sous la rature, la littérature. L’expérience de la philologie italienne au service de la littérature comparée
Erica Durante
Trans : Revue de Littérature Générale et Comparée , 2006,
Abstract: Dans l’Italie de la fin des années quarante, Benedetto Croce et Gianfranco Contini ont débattu autour d’une critique des textes littéraires fondée sur l’étude des brouillons des écrivains. Celle qui s’annon ait comme une question de critique littéraire nationale est devenue une interrogation plus générale sur l’écriture, l’étude des uvres littéraires et a représenté un enrichissement précieux pour l’histoire de la littérature et de la critique littéraire européenne du XXe siècle. In the 1940s, in Italy, Benedetto Croce and Gianfranco Contini discussed a brand of literary criticism based on the study of the writers’ rough drafts. What appeared to be a question of national literary criticism, became a more general controversy about writing and literature, and ended up representing a precious enrichment for the history of literature and for European literary criticism of the 20th century. En Italia a final de los a os cuarenta, Benedetto croce y Gianfranco Contini debatieron sobre la crítica de textos literarios fundada en el estudio de los borradores de los autores. Lo que se antojaba como una cuestión de crítica literaria nacional pronto se convirtió en una preocupación más amplio sobre la escritura, el estudio de las obras literarias, cuyo efecto representó un enriquecimiento invaluable para la historia de la literatura y de la crítica literaria europea del siglo XX.
Présentation "Université invitée" : Naples capitale du comparatisme
Erica Durante
Trans : Revue de Littérature Générale et Comparée , 2006,
Abstract: Nous avons décidé d’inaugurer cette nouvelle rubrique avec l’Italie, un pays qui nous est particulièrement proche, en termes de culture et de tradition littéraire et intellectuelle. En septembre dernier, c’est à Venise que l’Association Internationale de Littérature Comparée, a célébré le cinquantième anniversaire de sa fondation ; “un retour symbolique” dans ce lieu ouvert au monde et aux échanges entre les langues et les hommes d’Orient et d’Occident.Tout comme Venise, certaines villes ital...
Web Reviews: Religious Institute—Denominational Statements
Erica Durham
Theological Librarianship , 2011,
Running the Library Race
Erica Jesonis
In the Library with the Lead Pipe , 2012,
Abstract: In Brief: This article draws a parallel between fatigued runners and overworked librarians, proposing that libraries need to pace work more effectively to avoid burnout. Through an exploration of cognitive science, organizational psychology, and practical examples, guest author Erica Jesonis offers considerations for improving productivity and reducing stress within our fast-paced library culture. I recently [...]
Disciplines for and against Psychology
Erica Burman
Universitas Psychologica , 2012,
Abstract: This paper evaluates the scope and functions of interdisciplinary connec- tions for psychologists in dealing with its conceptual and methodological and sometimes political difficulties. Developing examples from my own context and practice, I indicate how feminist research has engaged with and addressed such questions. Brief consideration of three key epistemological turns in psychology, indicates that psychologists should neither uncritically turn to, nor turn away from, other disciplines but rather understand how what it is within such turns that indicates more about the nature of the conceptual, methodological and political problems we are trying to address.
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