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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 24449 matches for " Eric Xing "
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Large Scale Distributed Distance Metric Learning
Pengtao Xie,Eric Xing
Computer Science , 2014,
Abstract: In large scale machine learning and data mining problems with high feature dimensionality, the Euclidean distance between data points can be uninformative, and Distance Metric Learning (DML) is often desired to learn a proper similarity measure (using side information such as example data pairs being similar or dissimilar). However, high dimensionality and large volume of pairwise constraints in modern big data can lead to prohibitive computational cost for both the original DML formulation in Xing et al. (2002) and later extensions. In this paper, we present a distributed algorithm for DML, and a large-scale implementation on a parameter server architecture. Our approach builds on a parallelizable reformulation of Xing et al. (2002), and an asynchronous stochastic gradient descent optimization procedure. To our knowledge, this is the first distributed solution to DML, and we show that, on a system with 256 CPU cores, our program is able to complete a DML task on a dataset with 1 million data points, 22-thousand features, and 200 million labeled data pairs, in 15 hours; and the learned metric shows great effectiveness in properly measuring distances.
Cauchy Principal Component Analysis
Pengtao Xie,Eric Xing
Computer Science , 2014,
Abstract: Principal Component Analysis (PCA) has wide applications in machine learning, text mining and computer vision. Classical PCA based on a Gaussian noise model is fragile to noise of large magnitude. Laplace noise assumption based PCA methods cannot deal with dense noise effectively. In this paper, we propose Cauchy Principal Component Analysis (Cauchy PCA), a very simple yet effective PCA method which is robust to various types of noise. We utilize Cauchy distribution to model noise and derive Cauchy PCA under the maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) framework with low rank constraint. Our method can robustly estimate the low rank matrix regardless of whether noise is large or small, dense or sparse. We analyze the robustness of Cauchy PCA from a robust statistics view and present an efficient singular value projection optimization method. Experimental results on both simulated data and real applications demonstrate the robustness of Cauchy PCA to various noise patterns.
CryptGraph: Privacy Preserving Graph Analytics on Encrypted Graph
Pengtao Xie,Eric Xing
Computer Science , 2014,
Abstract: Many graph mining and analysis services have been deployed on the cloud, which can alleviate users from the burden of implementing and maintaining graph algorithms. However, putting graph analytics on the cloud can invade users' privacy. To solve this problem, we propose CryptGraph, which runs graph analytics on encrypted graph to preserve the privacy of both users' graph data and the analytic results. In CryptGraph, users encrypt their graphs before uploading them to the cloud. The cloud runs graph analysis on the encrypted graphs and obtains results which are also in encrypted form that the cloud cannot decipher. During the process of computing, the encrypted graphs are never decrypted on the cloud side. The encrypted results are sent back to users and users perform the decryption to obtain the plaintext results. In this process, users' graphs and the analytics results are both encrypted and the cloud knows neither of them. Thereby, users' privacy can be strongly protected. Meanwhile, with the help of homomorphic encryption, the results analyzed from the encrypted graphs are guaranteed to be correct. In this paper, we present how to encrypt a graph using homomorphic encryption and how to query the structure of an encrypted graph by computing polynomials. To solve the problem that certain operations are not executable on encrypted graphs, we propose hard computation outsourcing to seek help from users. Using two graph algorithms as examples, we show how to apply our methods to perform analytics on encrypted graphs. Experiments on two datasets demonstrate the correctness and feasibility of our methods.
Statistical Estimation of Correlated Genome Associations to a Quantitative Trait Network
Seyoung Kim,Eric P. Xing
PLOS Genetics , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1000587
Abstract: Many complex disease syndromes, such as asthma, consist of a large number of highly related, rather than independent, clinical or molecular phenotypes. This raises a new technical challenge in identifying genetic variations associated simultaneously with correlated traits. In this study, we propose a new statistical framework called graph-guided fused lasso (GFlasso) to directly and effectively incorporate the correlation structure of multiple quantitative traits such as clinical metrics and gene expressions in association analysis. Our approach represents correlation information explicitly among the quantitative traits as a quantitative trait network (QTN) and then leverages this network to encode structured regularization functions in a multivariate regression model over the genotypes and traits. The result is that the genetic markers that jointly influence subgroups of highly correlated traits can be detected jointly with high sensitivity and specificity. While most of the traditional methods examined each phenotype independently and combined the results afterwards, our approach analyzes all of the traits jointly in a single statistical framework. This allows our method to borrow information across correlated phenotypes to discover the genetic markers that perturb a subset of the correlated traits synergistically. Using simulated datasets based on the HapMap consortium and an asthma dataset, we compared the performance of our method with other methods based on single-marker analysis and regression-based methods that do not use any of the relational information in the traits. We found that our method showed an increased power in detecting causal variants affecting correlated traits. Our results showed that, when correlation patterns among traits in a QTN are considered explicitly and directly during a structured multivariate genome association analysis using our proposed methods, the power of detecting true causal SNPs with possibly pleiotropic effects increased significantly without compromising performance on non-pleiotropic SNPs.
GINI: From ISH Images to Gene Interaction Networks
Kriti Puniyani,Eric P. Xing
PLOS Computational Biology , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1003227
Abstract: Accurate inference of molecular and functional interactions among genes, especially in multicellular organisms such as Drosophila, often requires statistical analysis of correlations not only between the magnitudes of gene expressions, but also between their temporal-spatial patterns. The ISH (in-situ-hybridization)-based gene expression micro-imaging technology offers an effective approach to perform large-scale spatial-temporal profiling of whole-body mRNA abundance. However, analytical tools for discovering gene interactions from such data remain an open challenge due to various reasons, including difficulties in extracting canonical representations of gene activities from images, and in inference of statistically meaningful networks from such representations. In this paper, we present GINI, a machine learning system for inferring gene interaction networks from Drosophila embryonic ISH images. GINI builds on a computer-vision-inspired vector-space representation of the spatial pattern of gene expression in ISH images, enabled by our recently developed system; and a new multi-instance-kernel algorithm that learns a sparse Markov network model, in which, every gene (i.e., node) in the network is represented by a vector-valued spatial pattern rather than a scalar-valued gene intensity as in conventional approaches such as a Gaussian graphical model. By capturing the notion of spatial similarity of gene expression, and at the same time properly taking into account the presence of multiple images per gene via multi-instance kernels, GINI is well-positioned to infer statistically sound, and biologically meaningful gene interaction networks from image data. Using both synthetic data and a small manually curated data set, we demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach in network building. Furthermore, we report results on a large publicly available collection of Drosophila embryonic ISH images from the Berkeley Drosophila Genome Project, where GINI makes novel and interesting predictions of gene interactions. Software for GINI is available at http://sailing.cs.cmu.edu/Drosophila_ISH?_images/
Timeline: A Dynamic Hierarchical Dirichlet Process Model for Recovering Birth/Death and Evolution of Topics in Text Stream
Amr Ahmed,Eric P. Xing
Computer Science , 2012,
Abstract: Topic models have proven to be a useful tool for discovering latent structures in document collections. However, most document collections often come as temporal streams and thus several aspects of the latent structure such as the number of topics, the topics' distribution and popularity are time-evolving. Several models exist that model the evolution of some but not all of the above aspects. In this paper we introduce infinite dynamic topic models, iDTM, that can accommodate the evolution of all the aforementioned aspects. Our model assumes that documents are organized into epochs, where the documents within each epoch are exchangeable but the order between the documents is maintained across epochs. iDTM allows for unbounded number of topics: topics can die or be born at any epoch, and the representation of each topic can evolve according to a Markovian dynamics. We use iDTM to analyze the birth and evolution of topics in the NIPS community and evaluated the efficacy of our model on both simulated and real datasets with favorable outcome.
Sparse Topical Coding
Jun Zhu,Eric P. Xing
Computer Science , 2012,
Abstract: We present sparse topical coding (STC), a non-probabilistic formulation of topic models for discovering latent representations of large collections of data. Unlike probabilistic topic models, STC relaxes the normalization constraint of admixture proportions and the constraint of defining a normalized likelihood function. Such relaxations make STC amenable to: 1) directly control the sparsity of inferred representations by using sparsity-inducing regularizers; 2) be seamlessly integrated with a convex error function (e.g., SVM hinge loss) for supervised learning; and 3) be efficiently learned with a simply structured coordinate descent algorithm. Our results demonstrate the advantages of STC and supervised MedSTC on identifying topical meanings of words and improving classification accuracy and time efficiency.
Screening Rules for Overlapping Group Lasso
Seunghak Lee,Eric P. Xing
Computer Science , 2014,
Abstract: Recently, to solve large-scale lasso and group lasso problems, screening rules have been developed, the goal of which is to reduce the problem size by efficiently discarding zero coefficients using simple rules independently of the others. However, screening for overlapping group lasso remains an open challenge because the overlaps between groups make it infeasible to test each group independently. In this paper, we develop screening rules for overlapping group lasso. To address the challenge arising from groups with overlaps, we take into account overlapping groups only if they are inclusive of the group being tested, and then we derive screening rules, adopting the dual polytope projection approach. This strategy allows us to screen each group independently of each other. In our experiments, we demonstrate the efficiency of our screening rules on various datasets.
Integrating Document Clustering and Topic Modeling
Pengtao Xie,Eric P. Xing
Computer Science , 2013,
Abstract: Document clustering and topic modeling are two closely related tasks which can mutually benefit each other. Topic modeling can project documents into a topic space which facilitates effective document clustering. Cluster labels discovered by document clustering can be incorporated into topic models to extract local topics specific to each cluster and global topics shared by all clusters. In this paper, we propose a multi-grain clustering topic model (MGCTM) which integrates document clustering and topic modeling into a unified framework and jointly performs the two tasks to achieve the overall best performance. Our model tightly couples two components: a mixture component used for discovering latent groups in document collection and a topic model component used for mining multi-grain topics including local topics specific to each cluster and global topics shared across clusters.We employ variational inference to approximate the posterior of hidden variables and learn model parameters. Experiments on two datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of our model.
Efficient Algorithm for Extremely Large Multi-task Regression with Massive Structured Sparsity
Seunghak Lee,Eric P. Xing
Quantitative Biology , 2012,
Abstract: We develop a highly scalable optimization method called "hierarchical group-thresholding" for solving a multi-task regression model with complex structured sparsity constraints on both input and output spaces. Despite the recent emergence of several efficient optimization algorithms for tackling complex sparsity-inducing regularizers, true scalability in practical high-dimensional problems where a huge amount (e.g., millions) of sparsity patterns need to be enforced remains an open challenge, because all existing algorithms must deal with ALL such patterns exhaustively in every iteration, which is computationally prohibitive. Our proposed algorithm addresses the scalability problem by screening out multiple groups of coefficients simultaneously and systematically. We employ a hierarchical tree representation of group constraints to accelerate the process of removing irrelevant constraints by taking advantage of the inclusion relationships between group sparsities, thereby avoiding dealing with all constraints in every optimization step, and necessitating optimization operation only on a small number of outstanding coefficients. In our experiments, we demonstrate the efficiency of our method on simulation datasets, and in an application of detecting genetic variants associated with gene expression traits.
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