oalib

Publish in OALib Journal

ISSN: 2333-9721

APC: Only $99

Submit

Any time

2019 ( 27 )

2018 ( 46 )

2017 ( 50 )

2016 ( 52 )

Custom range...

Search Results: 1 - 10 of 13338 matches for " Eric Sussman "
All listed articles are free for downloading (OA Articles)
Page 1 /13338
Display every page Item
Hemorrhagic Transformation: A Review of the Rate of Hemorrhage in the Major Clinical Trials of Acute Ischemic Stroke
Eric S. Sussman,E. Sander Connolly Jr.
Frontiers in Neurology , 2013, DOI: 10.3389/fneur.2013.00069
Abstract: Acute ischemic stroke is a devastating disease that is often complicated by hemorrhagic transformation. While significant advances have been made over the past two decades with regard to emergent treatment of AIS, many of the therapeutic options are limited by an increased risk of hemorrhage. Here, we sought to review the rates of hemorrhagic transformation in the major clinical trials of AIS intervention. Since the reviewed clinical trials vary significantly in terms of study design, eligibility criteria, stroke severity, and baseline demographic data, direct comparisons between the various trials is not valid. Nevertheless, this review is intended to consolidate the pertinent data on hemorrhagic transformation in order to call attention to any patterns that may warrant further investigation.
Proteopedia - a scientific 'wiki' bridging the rift between three-dimensional structure and function of biomacromolecules
Eran Hodis, Jaime Prilusky, Eric Martz, Israel Silman, John Moult, Joel L Sussman
Genome Biology , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/gb-2008-9-8-r121
Abstract: Structural biology has played a central role in fueling the massive advances made by the life sciences in the last few decades. More than a dozen Nobel prizes have been awarded for achievements in structural biology since solution of the structure of the DNA double helix in the early 1950s was followed by solution of the first protein structures at the end of the same decade. Beautiful images of three-dimensional structures regularly adorn the covers of Science, Nature and Cell. Indeed, a wealth of protein structures has been solved in recent years, and entries in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) [1,2] now number over 50,000. But structural information is surprisingly still not in the mainstream of biology for the simple reason that three-dimensional structures are often hard to understand, even for a structural biologist. The widely held impression is that these structures are understood in detail and put to use in research; in fact, the structures are hardly discussed at all, especially by biologists lacking a structural background. While computer graphics software greatly aids in the understanding of these structures by displaying them in three-dimensions, the pages of printed scientific journals flatten the structures to a two-dimensional image, with much of the three-dimensional information thus being lost. It should be noted, however, that a number of journals (Nature, Nature Structural and Molecular Biology, ACS Chemical Biology and Molecular Biosystems) have begun to offer links to FirstGlance in Jmol [3] for interactive three-dimensional structure visualization, and two journals (ACS Chemical Biology and Biochemical Journal) occasionally offer interactive three-dimensional figures crafted by Molecules In Motion [4]; but these still lack the simple direct link between the printed information and the three-dimensional structures that is provided by Proteopedia. Moreover, many biologists have a limited knowledge of chemistry; thus, structural biologists need to mak
Effects of sixty six adolescent tobacco use cessation trials and seventeen prospective studies of self-initiated quitting
Sussman S
Tobacco Induced Diseases , 2002, DOI: 10.1186/1617-9625-1-5
Abstract: This paper provides a review of the last two and a half decades of research in adolescent and young-adult tobacco use cessation. A total of 66 tobacco cessation intervention studies – targeted or population – are reviewed. In addition, an exhaustive review is completed of adolescent self-initiated tobacco use cessation, involving 17 prospective survey studies. Average reach and retention across the intervention studies was 61% and 78%, respectively, and was higher when whole natural units were treated (e.g., classrooms), than when units created specifically for the program were treated (e.g., school-based clinics). The mean quit-rate at a three to 12-month average follow-up among the program conditions was 12%, compared to approximately 7% across control groups. A comparison of intervention theories revealed that motivation enhancement (19%) and contingency-based reinforcement (16%) programs showed higher quit-rates than the overall intervention cessation mean. Regarding modalities (channels) of change, classroom-based programs showed the highest quit rates (17%). Computer-based (expert system) programs also showed promise (13% quit-rate), as did school-based clinics (12%). There was a fair amount of missing data and wide variation on how data points were measured in the programs' evaluations. Also, there were relatively few direct comparisons of program and control groups. Thus, it would be difficult to conduct a formal meta-analysis on the cessation programs. Still, these data suggest that use of adolescent tobacco use cessation interventions double quit rates on the average. In the 17 self-initiated quitting survey studies, key predictors of quitting were living in a social milieu that is composed of fewer smokers, less pharmacological or psychological dependence on smoking, anti-tobacco beliefs (e.g., that society should step in to place controls on smoking) and feeling relatively hopeful about life. Key variables relevant to the quitting process may include structuring the context of programming for youth, motivating quit attempts and reducing ambivalence about quitting, and making programming enjoyable as possible. There also is a need to help youth to sustain a quit-attempt. In this regard, one could provide ongoing support during the acute withdrawal period and teach youth social/life skills. Since there is little information currently available on use of nicotine replacement in young people, continued research in this arena might also be a useful focus for future work.
Effects of sixty six adolescent tobacco use cessation trials and seventeen prospective studies of self-initiated quitting
Sussman S
Tobacco Induced Diseases , 2002, DOI: 10.1186/1617-9625-1-1-35
Abstract: This paper provides a review of the last two and a half decades of research in adolescent and young-adult tobacco use cessation. A total of 66 tobacco cessation intervention studies – targeted or population – are reviewed. In addition, an exhaustive review is completed of adolescent self-initiated tobacco use cessation, involving 17 prospective survey studies. Average reach and retention across the intervention studies was 61% and 78%, respectively, and was higher when whole natural units were treated (e.g., classrooms), than when units created specifically for the program were treated (e.g., school-based clinics). The mean quit-rate at a three to 12-month average follow-up among the program conditions was 12%, compared to approximately 7% across control groups. A comparison of intervention theories revealed that motivation enhancement (19%) and contingency-based reinforcement (16%) programs showed higher quit-rates than the overall intervention cessation mean. Regarding modalities (channels) of change, classroom-based programs showed the highest quit rates (17%). Computer-based (expert system) programs also showed promise (13% quit-rate), as did school-based clinics (12%). There was a fair amount of missing data and wide variation on how data points were measured in the programs' evaluations. Also, there were relatively few direct comparisons of program and control groups. Thus, it would be difficult to conduct a formal meta-analysis on the cessation programs. Still, these data suggest that use of adolescent tobacco use cessation interventions double quit rates on the average. In the 17 self-initiated quitting survey studies, key predictors of quitting were living in a social milieu that is composed of fewer smokers, less pharmacological or psychological dependence on smoking, anti-tobacco beliefs (e.g., that society should step in to place controls on smoking) and feeling relatively hopeful about life. Key variables relevant to the quitting process may include structuring the context of programming for youth, motivating quit attempts and reducing ambivalence about quitting, and making programming enjoyable as possible. There also is a need to help youth to sustain a quit-attempt. In this regard, one could provide ongoing support during the acute withdrawal period and teach youth social/life skills. Since there is little information currently available on use of nicotine replacement in young people, continued research in this arena might also be a useful focus for future work.
A Lifespan Developmental-Stage Approach to Tobacco and Other Drug Abuse Prevention
Steve Sussman
ISRN Addiction , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/745783
Abstract: At least by informal design, tobacco and other drug abuse prevention programs are tailored to human developmental stage. However, few papers have been written to examine how programming has been formulated as a function of developmental stage throughout the lifespan. In this paper, I briefly define lifespan development, how it pertains to etiology of tobacco and other drug use, and how prevention programming might be constructed by five developmental stages: (a) young child, (b) older child, (c) young teen, (d) older teen, and (e) adult (emerging, young-to-middle and older adult substages). A search of the literature on tobacco and other drug abuse prevention by developmental stage was conducted, and multiple examples of programs are provided for each stage. A total of 34 programs are described as examples of each stage (five-young children, 12-older children, eight-young teens, four-older teens, and five-adults). Implications for future program development research are stated. In particular, I suggest that programming continue to be developed for all stages in the lifespan, as opposed to focusing on a single stage and that developmentally appropriate features continues to be pursued to maximize program impact. 1. Introduction Lifespan development refers to the neurobiological (e.g., maturation, aging), cognitive (e.g., motivation, reasoning), microsocial (e.g., family, peer group), and macrosocial-level (e.g., socio-cultural, mass media) events, and their inter-relationships, that occur across one’s life. The vicissitudes in which one interacts with the world, impacting on the world and being impacted by it, is a function of one’s developmental age or stage [1, 2]. Influences on individuals vary over the lifespan and may direct one’s developmental course. For example, self-esteem tends to increase from adolescence until 50 years of age and then begins to decrease, and it impacts depression symptoms, relationships, job satisfaction, and to a lesser extent, physical health, throughout the life course [3]. Also, behavior-response contingencies are learned throughout the life-span, which vary as a function of environmental demands and physical capacity, and contingency-based goal striving is associated with higher self-esteem [2]. Various general theoretical stages of development have been delineated among children and adults [4, 5]. As an example, Piaget [6] observed general stages of cognitive and intellectual development that occurred during the life course of children. These include a Sensorimotor stage (development of motor coordination and object
Considering the Definition of Addiction
Steve Sussman,Alan N. Sussman
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/ijerph8104025
Abstract: The definition of addiction is explored. Elements of addiction derived from a literature search that uncovered 52 studies include: (a) engagement in the behavior to achieve appetitive effects, (b) preoccupation with the behavior, (c) temporary satiation, (d) loss of control, and (e) suffering negative consequences. Differences from compulsions are suggested. While there is some debate on what is intended by the elements of addictive behavior, we conclude that these five constituents provide a reasonable understanding of what is intended by the concept. Conceptual challenges for future research are mentioned.
Endovascular Thrombectomy Following Acute Ischemic Stroke: A Single-Center Case Series and Critical Review of the Literature
Eric Sussman,Christopher Kellner,Michael McDowell,Peter Yang,Eric Nelson,Sophie Greenberg,Daniel Sahlein,Sean Lavine,Philip Meyers,E. Sander Connolly
Brain Sciences , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/brainsci3020521
Abstract: Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) due to thrombo-embolic occlusion in the cerebral vasculature is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States and throughout the world. Although the prognosis is poor for many patients with AIS, a variety of strategies and devices are now available for achieving recanalization in patients with this disease. Here, we review the treatment options for cerebrovascular thromboembolic occlusion with a focus on the evolution of strategies and devices that are utilized for achieving endovascular clot extraction. In order to demonstrate the progression of this treatment strategy over the past decade, we will also present a single-center case series of AIS patients treated with endovascular thrombectomy.
The effect of stimulus context on the buildup to stream segregation
Jonathan Sussman-Fort,Elyse Sussman
Frontiers in Neuroscience , 2014, DOI: 10.3389/fnins.2014.00093
Abstract: Stream segregation is the process by which the auditory system disentangles the mixture of sound inputs into discrete sources that cohere across time. The length of time required for this to occur is termed the ‘buildup’ period. In the current study, we used the buildup period as an index of how quickly sounds are segregated into constituent parts. Specifically, we tested the hypothesis that stimulus context impacts the timing of the buildup and, therefore, affects when stream segregation is detected. To measure the timing of the buildup we recorded the Mismatch Negativity component (MMN) of event-related brain potentials (ERPs), during passive listening, to determine when the streams were neurophysiologically segregated. In each condition, a pattern of repeating low (L) and high (H) tones (L-L-H) was presented in trains of stimuli separated by silence, with the H tones forming a simple intensity oddball paradigm and the L tones serving as distractors. To determine the timing of the buildup, probe tones occurred in two positions of the trains, early (within the buildup period) and late (past the buildup period). The context was manipulated by presenting roving versus non-roving frequencies across trains in two conditions. MMNs were elicited by intensity probe tones in the Non-Roving condition (early and late positions) and the Roving condition (late position only) indicating that neurophysiologic segregation occurred faster in the Non-Roving condition. This suggests a shorter buildup period when frequency was repeated from train to train. Overall, our results demonstrate that the dynamics of the environment influence the way in which the auditory system extracts regularities from the input. The results support the hypothesis that the buildup to segregation is highly dependent upon stimulus context and that the auditory system works to maintain a consistent representation of the environment when no new information suggests that reanalyzing the scene is necessary.
The Last Three Minutes: Issues in Gravitational Wave Measurements of Coalescing Compact Binaries
Curt Cutler,Theocharis A. Apostolatos,Lars Bildsten,Lee Samuel Finn,Eanna E. Flanagan,Daniel Kennefick,Dragoljubov M. Markovic,Amos Ori,Eric Poisson,Gerald Jay Sussman,Kip S. Thorne
Physics , 1992, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.70.2984
Abstract: Gravitational-wave interferometers are expected to monitor the last three minutes of inspiral and final coalescence of neutron star and black hole binaries at distances approaching cosmological, where the event rate may be many per year. Because the binary's accumulated orbital phase can be measured to a fractional accuracy $\ll 10^{-3}$ and relativistic effects are large, the waveforms will be far more complex, carry more information, and be far harder to model theoretically than has been expected. Theorists must begin now to lay a foundation for extracting the waves' information.
Youth tobacco use cessation: 2008 update
Steve Sussman, Ping Sun
Tobacco Induced Diseases , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1617-9625-5-3
Abstract: Tobacco use is the most prevalent lifestyle-related cause of death worldwide [1,2]. Investigation of the prevalence of a regular pattern of tobacco use is illuminating. Daily cigarette smoking prevalence in the United States increases from approximately 4% among 12 year olds, to 8% among 16 year olds, 12% among 18 year olds, 15% among 20 year olds, and levels off among 26 year olds at 22%, and then drops by 4% among older age groups [3]. A similar pattern of regular smoking develops among youth in other countries, with some variation in the age range and steepness in increase [4]. The relatively steep daily smoking inflexion curve evident during the teen years supports the assertion that teen tobacco use cessation programming is needed among the world's youth [5] (also see http://www.globaltreatmentpartnership.org/treatment_case.html webcite, accessed on 12-20-07). In addition, internationally approximately 60%–85% of young tobacco users are likely to have made at least one quit attempt and failed [6-12]. It appears that youth do want to quit tobacco use, and most appear unable to quit on willpower alone [13].There have been 8 systematic reviews of the teen smoking cessation literature thus far. First, Sussman, Lichtman, Ritt, and Pallonen [14] evaluated 34 programs, 17 smoking cessation trials and 17 smoking prevention trials for their impact on cessation of cigarette smoking. Sussman [15] provided an enlarged review of 66 cessation trials (which included single-subject designs), and 17 studies of self-initiated quitting. McDonald et al. [16] provided a re-review of the Sussman [15] study. Garrison et al. [17] reviewed 6 studies of relatively rigorous designs. Backinger et al. [18] did a qualitative review of prevention and cessation programs.Then, Sussman, Sun, & Dent [10] completed the first formal meta-analysis of 48 studies, which included both experimental and quasi-experimental designs. Shortly thereafter Grimshaw & Stanton [19] provided a 2006 Cochrane meta-
Page 1 /13338
Display every page Item


Home
Copyright © 2008-2017 Open Access Library. All rights reserved.