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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 336861 matches for " Eric S. Sussman "
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Hemorrhagic Transformation: A Review of the Rate of Hemorrhage in the Major Clinical Trials of Acute Ischemic Stroke
Eric S. Sussman,E. Sander Connolly Jr.
Frontiers in Neurology , 2013, DOI: 10.3389/fneur.2013.00069
Abstract: Acute ischemic stroke is a devastating disease that is often complicated by hemorrhagic transformation. While significant advances have been made over the past two decades with regard to emergent treatment of AIS, many of the therapeutic options are limited by an increased risk of hemorrhage. Here, we sought to review the rates of hemorrhagic transformation in the major clinical trials of AIS intervention. Since the reviewed clinical trials vary significantly in terms of study design, eligibility criteria, stroke severity, and baseline demographic data, direct comparisons between the various trials is not valid. Nevertheless, this review is intended to consolidate the pertinent data on hemorrhagic transformation in order to call attention to any patterns that may warrant further investigation.
Effects of sixty six adolescent tobacco use cessation trials and seventeen prospective studies of self-initiated quitting
Sussman S
Tobacco Induced Diseases , 2002, DOI: 10.1186/1617-9625-1-5
Abstract: This paper provides a review of the last two and a half decades of research in adolescent and young-adult tobacco use cessation. A total of 66 tobacco cessation intervention studies – targeted or population – are reviewed. In addition, an exhaustive review is completed of adolescent self-initiated tobacco use cessation, involving 17 prospective survey studies. Average reach and retention across the intervention studies was 61% and 78%, respectively, and was higher when whole natural units were treated (e.g., classrooms), than when units created specifically for the program were treated (e.g., school-based clinics). The mean quit-rate at a three to 12-month average follow-up among the program conditions was 12%, compared to approximately 7% across control groups. A comparison of intervention theories revealed that motivation enhancement (19%) and contingency-based reinforcement (16%) programs showed higher quit-rates than the overall intervention cessation mean. Regarding modalities (channels) of change, classroom-based programs showed the highest quit rates (17%). Computer-based (expert system) programs also showed promise (13% quit-rate), as did school-based clinics (12%). There was a fair amount of missing data and wide variation on how data points were measured in the programs' evaluations. Also, there were relatively few direct comparisons of program and control groups. Thus, it would be difficult to conduct a formal meta-analysis on the cessation programs. Still, these data suggest that use of adolescent tobacco use cessation interventions double quit rates on the average. In the 17 self-initiated quitting survey studies, key predictors of quitting were living in a social milieu that is composed of fewer smokers, less pharmacological or psychological dependence on smoking, anti-tobacco beliefs (e.g., that society should step in to place controls on smoking) and feeling relatively hopeful about life. Key variables relevant to the quitting process may include structuring the context of programming for youth, motivating quit attempts and reducing ambivalence about quitting, and making programming enjoyable as possible. There also is a need to help youth to sustain a quit-attempt. In this regard, one could provide ongoing support during the acute withdrawal period and teach youth social/life skills. Since there is little information currently available on use of nicotine replacement in young people, continued research in this arena might also be a useful focus for future work.
Effects of sixty six adolescent tobacco use cessation trials and seventeen prospective studies of self-initiated quitting
Sussman S
Tobacco Induced Diseases , 2002, DOI: 10.1186/1617-9625-1-1-35
Abstract: This paper provides a review of the last two and a half decades of research in adolescent and young-adult tobacco use cessation. A total of 66 tobacco cessation intervention studies – targeted or population – are reviewed. In addition, an exhaustive review is completed of adolescent self-initiated tobacco use cessation, involving 17 prospective survey studies. Average reach and retention across the intervention studies was 61% and 78%, respectively, and was higher when whole natural units were treated (e.g., classrooms), than when units created specifically for the program were treated (e.g., school-based clinics). The mean quit-rate at a three to 12-month average follow-up among the program conditions was 12%, compared to approximately 7% across control groups. A comparison of intervention theories revealed that motivation enhancement (19%) and contingency-based reinforcement (16%) programs showed higher quit-rates than the overall intervention cessation mean. Regarding modalities (channels) of change, classroom-based programs showed the highest quit rates (17%). Computer-based (expert system) programs also showed promise (13% quit-rate), as did school-based clinics (12%). There was a fair amount of missing data and wide variation on how data points were measured in the programs' evaluations. Also, there were relatively few direct comparisons of program and control groups. Thus, it would be difficult to conduct a formal meta-analysis on the cessation programs. Still, these data suggest that use of adolescent tobacco use cessation interventions double quit rates on the average. In the 17 self-initiated quitting survey studies, key predictors of quitting were living in a social milieu that is composed of fewer smokers, less pharmacological or psychological dependence on smoking, anti-tobacco beliefs (e.g., that society should step in to place controls on smoking) and feeling relatively hopeful about life. Key variables relevant to the quitting process may include structuring the context of programming for youth, motivating quit attempts and reducing ambivalence about quitting, and making programming enjoyable as possible. There also is a need to help youth to sustain a quit-attempt. In this regard, one could provide ongoing support during the acute withdrawal period and teach youth social/life skills. Since there is little information currently available on use of nicotine replacement in young people, continued research in this arena might also be a useful focus for future work.
Corrigendum: The effect of stimulus context on the buildup to stream segregation
Elyse S. Sussman
Frontiers in Neuroscience , 2014, DOI: 10.3389/fnins.2014.00280
Abstract:
The Last Three Minutes: Issues in Gravitational Wave Measurements of Coalescing Compact Binaries
Curt Cutler,Theocharis A. Apostolatos,Lars Bildsten,Lee Samuel Finn,Eanna E. Flanagan,Daniel Kennefick,Dragoljubov M. Markovic,Amos Ori,Eric Poisson,Gerald Jay Sussman,Kip S. Thorne
Physics , 1992, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.70.2984
Abstract: Gravitational-wave interferometers are expected to monitor the last three minutes of inspiral and final coalescence of neutron star and black hole binaries at distances approaching cosmological, where the event rate may be many per year. Because the binary's accumulated orbital phase can be measured to a fractional accuracy $\ll 10^{-3}$ and relativistic effects are large, the waveforms will be far more complex, carry more information, and be far harder to model theoretically than has been expected. Theorists must begin now to lay a foundation for extracting the waves' information.
Proteopedia - a scientific 'wiki' bridging the rift between three-dimensional structure and function of biomacromolecules
Eran Hodis, Jaime Prilusky, Eric Martz, Israel Silman, John Moult, Joel L Sussman
Genome Biology , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/gb-2008-9-8-r121
Abstract: Structural biology has played a central role in fueling the massive advances made by the life sciences in the last few decades. More than a dozen Nobel prizes have been awarded for achievements in structural biology since solution of the structure of the DNA double helix in the early 1950s was followed by solution of the first protein structures at the end of the same decade. Beautiful images of three-dimensional structures regularly adorn the covers of Science, Nature and Cell. Indeed, a wealth of protein structures has been solved in recent years, and entries in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) [1,2] now number over 50,000. But structural information is surprisingly still not in the mainstream of biology for the simple reason that three-dimensional structures are often hard to understand, even for a structural biologist. The widely held impression is that these structures are understood in detail and put to use in research; in fact, the structures are hardly discussed at all, especially by biologists lacking a structural background. While computer graphics software greatly aids in the understanding of these structures by displaying them in three-dimensions, the pages of printed scientific journals flatten the structures to a two-dimensional image, with much of the three-dimensional information thus being lost. It should be noted, however, that a number of journals (Nature, Nature Structural and Molecular Biology, ACS Chemical Biology and Molecular Biosystems) have begun to offer links to FirstGlance in Jmol [3] for interactive three-dimensional structure visualization, and two journals (ACS Chemical Biology and Biochemical Journal) occasionally offer interactive three-dimensional figures crafted by Molecules In Motion [4]; but these still lack the simple direct link between the printed information and the three-dimensional structures that is provided by Proteopedia. Moreover, many biologists have a limited knowledge of chemistry; thus, structural biologists need to mak
A Lifespan Developmental-Stage Approach to Tobacco and Other Drug Abuse Prevention
Steve Sussman
ISRN Addiction , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/745783
Abstract: At least by informal design, tobacco and other drug abuse prevention programs are tailored to human developmental stage. However, few papers have been written to examine how programming has been formulated as a function of developmental stage throughout the lifespan. In this paper, I briefly define lifespan development, how it pertains to etiology of tobacco and other drug use, and how prevention programming might be constructed by five developmental stages: (a) young child, (b) older child, (c) young teen, (d) older teen, and (e) adult (emerging, young-to-middle and older adult substages). A search of the literature on tobacco and other drug abuse prevention by developmental stage was conducted, and multiple examples of programs are provided for each stage. A total of 34 programs are described as examples of each stage (five-young children, 12-older children, eight-young teens, four-older teens, and five-adults). Implications for future program development research are stated. In particular, I suggest that programming continue to be developed for all stages in the lifespan, as opposed to focusing on a single stage and that developmentally appropriate features continues to be pursued to maximize program impact. 1. Introduction Lifespan development refers to the neurobiological (e.g., maturation, aging), cognitive (e.g., motivation, reasoning), microsocial (e.g., family, peer group), and macrosocial-level (e.g., socio-cultural, mass media) events, and their inter-relationships, that occur across one’s life. The vicissitudes in which one interacts with the world, impacting on the world and being impacted by it, is a function of one’s developmental age or stage [1, 2]. Influences on individuals vary over the lifespan and may direct one’s developmental course. For example, self-esteem tends to increase from adolescence until 50 years of age and then begins to decrease, and it impacts depression symptoms, relationships, job satisfaction, and to a lesser extent, physical health, throughout the life course [3]. Also, behavior-response contingencies are learned throughout the life-span, which vary as a function of environmental demands and physical capacity, and contingency-based goal striving is associated with higher self-esteem [2]. Various general theoretical stages of development have been delineated among children and adults [4, 5]. As an example, Piaget [6] observed general stages of cognitive and intellectual development that occurred during the life course of children. These include a Sensorimotor stage (development of motor coordination and object
Considering the Definition of Addiction
Steve Sussman,Alan N. Sussman
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/ijerph8104025
Abstract: The definition of addiction is explored. Elements of addiction derived from a literature search that uncovered 52 studies include: (a) engagement in the behavior to achieve appetitive effects, (b) preoccupation with the behavior, (c) temporary satiation, (d) loss of control, and (e) suffering negative consequences. Differences from compulsions are suggested. While there is some debate on what is intended by the elements of addictive behavior, we conclude that these five constituents provide a reasonable understanding of what is intended by the concept. Conceptual challenges for future research are mentioned.
XPS & FTIR Study of Adsorption Characteristics Using Cationic and Anionic Collectors on Smithsonite  [PDF]
Hosseini S. Hamid, Forssberg Eric
Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering (JMMCE) , 2006, DOI: 10.4236/jmmce.2006.51002
Abstract: The adsorption of cationic and anionic collectors on the surface of smithsonite was studied using diffuse reflectance FTIR (DRIFT) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS or ESCA) techniques. The FT-IR spectra studies of smithsonite conditioned using DDA (dodecylamine) show the presence of RNH2on the surface of smithsonite and accordingly the adsorption of DDA. XPS results show the presence of a ZnS layer on the surface after sulphidising in amine adsorption. The appearance of the N (1s) signal of the amine groups and S (2p) signal of ZnS which increased in the intensity of the signal of C (1s) peak by adsorption of DDA on smithsonite. The presence of COO- on the surface of smithsonite after oleic acid treatment confirmed the adsorption of OA (oleic acid) onto the surface. The most adsorption occurs at around pH 10, when RCOO- is predominant in solution and has ample opportunities for interaction with the mineral surface. The appearance of CS2 on the surface of smithsonite exposes the adsorption of KAX (potassium amyl xanthate) onto surface. XPS results confirm the presence of ZnS layer on the surface after sulphidising in amine adsorption and also the transferring the surface to CuS in KAX adsorption. It is suggested that copper cations exchange with those of zinc during copper activation of smithsonite such as activation of sphalerite.
Some statistical mechanical properties of photon black holes
Hernandez, X;Lopez-Monsalvo, C.S;Mendoza, S;Sussman, R.A;
Revista mexicana de física , 2006,
Abstract: we show that if the total internal energy of a blackhole is constructed as the sum of n photons all having a fixed wavelength chosento scale with the schwarzschild radius as λ = αrs, then n will scale with. a statistical mechanical calculation of the configuration proposed yields α = 4π2/ ln(2) and a total entropy of the system s = kbn ln(2), in agreement with the bekenstein entropy of a black hole. it is shown that the critical temperature for bose-einstein condensation for relativistic particles of λ = αrs is always well below the hawking temperature of a black hole, in support of the proposed internal configuration. we then examine our results from the point of view of recent loop quantum gravity ideas and find that a natural consistency of both approaches appears. we show that the jeans criterion for gravitational instability can be generalised to the special and general relativistic regimes and holds for any type of mass-energy distribution.
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