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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 13191 matches for " Eric Pante "
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Getting to the Point: Accuracy of Point Count in Monitoring Ecosystem Change
Eric Pante,Phillip Dustan
Journal of Marine Biology , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/802875
Abstract: Ecological monitoring programs depend on the robust estimation of descriptive parameters. Percent cover, gleaned from transects sampled with video imagery, is a popular benthic ecology descriptor often estimated using point counting, an image-based method for identifying substrate types beneath random points. We tested the hypothesis that the number of points needed to robustly estimate benthic cover in video imagery transects depends on cover itself, predicting that lower cover will require more points/frame to be accurately estimated. While this point may seem obvious to the statistically inclined, the justification of point density has been largely ignored in the literature. We examined the statistical behavior of point count estimates using computer-simulated 20?m-long transects patterned after data from a Bahamian reef. The minimum number of points necessary to insure accurate percent cover estimation, the Optimal Point Count (OPC), is a function of mean percent cover and spatial heterogeneity of the benthic community. More points are required to characterize reefs with lower cover and more homogeneously distributed coral colonies. These results show that careful consideration must be given to sampling design and data analysis prior to attempting to estimate benthic cover, especially in the context of long-term monitoring of degrading coral reef ecosystems. 1. Introduction A common problem while working in ecological characterization and monitoring programs is how to effectively test and optimize methods and experimental designs. Live percent cover is a widely used ecological descriptor in marine conservation biology and large-scale monitoring projects (e.g., [1–4]) and has been a key parameter in the quantification of coral reef degradation over large spatial scales (e.g., [5–7]). Using point count to analyze video transects and photoquadrats is an efficient way to estimate percent cover and monitor large areas, because it allows copious amounts of data to be collected while minimizing underwater time, and provides a permanent record of the benthic community [8, 9]. Substrate types underlying randomly assigned points are identified. Percent cover is then estimated as a ratio of the number of points overlaying a substrate type to the total number of points. The number of points to be used per unit area (point density and the unit area being an image frame from a video transect) is crucial to obtaining a robust estimate of percent cover, and initial statistical tests should be performed to establish the point density that will provide adequate
marmap: A Package for Importing, Plotting and Analyzing Bathymetric and Topographic Data in R
Eric Pante, Benoit Simon-Bouhet
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0073051
Abstract: In this communication we introduce marmap, a package designed for downloading, plotting and manipulating bathymetric and topographic data in R. marmap can query the ETOPO1 bathymetry and topography database hosted by the NOAA, use simple latitude-longitude-depth data in ascii format, and take advantage of the advanced plotting tools available in R to build publication-quality bathymetric maps. Functions to query data (bathymetry, sampling information…) are available interactively by clicking on marmap maps. Bathymetric and topographic data can also be used to calculate projected surface areas within specified depth/altitude intervals, and constrain the calculation of realistic shortest path distances. Such information can be used in molecular ecology, for example, to evaluate genetic isolation by distance in a spatially-explicit framework.
Exploration of the Deep-Sea Fauna of Papua New Guinea
Eric Pante,Laure Corbari,Justine Thubaut,Tin-Yam Chan
Oceanography , 2012,
Abstract: Little is known of New Guinea's deep benthic communities. In fall 2010, the Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle, Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, and University of Papua New Guinea spearheaded an international three-leg cruise, BioPapua, aimed at exploring the deep waters of eastern Papua New Guinea and its satellite islands. Special attention was given to faunal assemblages associated with sunken wood and decomposing vegetation as well as seamount summits and slopes. In this article, we review the information available on the deep ecosystems of Papua New Guinea and summarize preliminary results of the BioPapua cruise.
Deep-Sea Origin and In-Situ Diversification of Chrysogorgiid Octocorals
Eric Pante, Scott C. France, Arnaud Couloux, Corinne Cruaud, Catherine S. McFadden, Sarah Samadi, Les Watling
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0038357
Abstract: The diversity, ubiquity and prevalence in deep waters of the octocoral family Chrysogorgiidae Verrill, 1883 make it noteworthy as a model system to study radiation and diversification in the deep sea. Here we provide the first comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of the Chrysogorgiidae, and compare phylogeny and depth distribution. Phylogenetic relationships among 10 of 14 currently-described Chrysogorgiidae genera were inferred based on mitochondrial (mtMutS, cox1) and nuclear (18S) markers. Bathymetric distribution was estimated from multiple sources, including museum records, a literature review, and our own sampling records (985 stations, 2345 specimens). Genetic analyses suggest that the Chrysogorgiidae as currently described is a polyphyletic family. Shallow-water genera, and two of eight deep-water genera, appear more closely related to other octocoral families than to the remainder of the monophyletic, deep-water chrysogorgiid genera. Monophyletic chrysogorgiids are composed of strictly (Iridogorgia Verrill, 1883, Metallogorgia Versluys, 1902, Radicipes Stearns, 1883, Pseudochrysogorgia Pante & France, 2010) and predominantly (Chrysogorgia Duchassaing & Michelotti, 1864) deep-sea genera that diversified in situ. This group is sister to gold corals (Primnoidae Milne Edwards, 1857) and deep-sea bamboo corals (Keratoisidinae Gray, 1870), whose diversity also peaks in the deep sea. Nine species of Chrysogorgia that were described from depths shallower than 200 m, and mtMutS haplotypes sequenced from specimens sampled as shallow as 101 m, suggest a shallow-water emergence of some Chrysogorgia species.
Octal Bent Generalized Boolean Functions
Pante Stanica,Thor Martinsen
Mathematics , 2011,
Abstract: In this paper we characterize (octal) bent generalized Boolean functions defined on $\BBZ_2^n$ with values in $\BBZ_8$. Moreover, we propose several constructions of such generalized bent functions for both $n$ even and $n$ odd.
The Origins of the Acheulean at Olduvai Gorge (Tanzania): A New Paleoanthropological Project in East Africa
Ignacio de la Torre,Lindsay McHenry,Jackson Njau,Michael Pante
Archaeology International , 2012, DOI: 10.5334/ai.1505
Abstract: The disappearance of the earliest human culture, the Oldowan, and its substitution by a new technology, the Acheulean, is one of the main topics in modern Paleoanthropology. Recent research has established that the Acheulean emerged originally in East Africa around 1.7–1.6 million years ago, and from that area expanded across the rest of Africa, Europe and parts of Asia. Despite the great relevance of the Oldowan-Acheulean transition, little is known about the biological and cultural evolutionary mechanisms underlying this process. Traditionally, it has been assumed that this major cultural change was ignited by the emergence of a new human species, Homo ergaster/erectus, and that there was a steady technological evolution during the Oldowan that eventually led to the emergence of the Acheulean handaxes. However, these assumptions are not grounded in the current available evidence, but rooted in cultural-history paradigms that should now be superseded. Olduvai Gorge (Tanzania) is the site where the traditional view of the Oldowan-Acheulean transition was established. The aim of the recently launched Olduvai Geochronology and Archaeology Project is to tackle this question by conducting a comprehensive research program at Olduvai, based on the retrieval of fresh data derived from new laboratory and fieldwork research. The multidisciplinary character of this ongoing study is providing an integrative perspective to the analysis of the paleoecology, archaeology, geology and geochronology of the transition to the Acheulean at Olduvai. Using an innovative theoretical perspective that combines interests in cultural change, ecological adaptations, and biological evolution, and state-of-the-art methods in archaeology, geology and taphonomy, this project aims to make Olduvai one of the world’s best references for the understanding of the evolutionary processes that led to the emergence of the Acheulean, the longest lasting culture in the history of humankind.
Growth Performance and Initial Heritability Estimates for Growth Traits in Juvenile Sea Urchin Tripneustes gratilla
Ma. Josefa Pante,Joy Joseph Garvida,Talna Lorena dela Cruz
Science Diliman , 2007,
Abstract: Genetic improvement of performance traits of maricultured species is becoming an important concern. Improvement of performance traits is important for two reasons: it enhances the growth and survival of the animals and it translates to economic gains to the fish farmer. In the sea urchin, Tripneustes gratilla, growth performance of the different families and heritabilities for wet weight, test diameter and test height were estimated from 1,020 offspring from a mating of each of the 15 males with 1 or 2 females. Measurements were done monthly starting at the grow-out stage or four months after hatching. There were significant family differences for the performance traits in sea urchin reared in tanks at the BML hatchery as revealed by ANOVA. Estimates of heritabilities based on the sire component of variance were low for wet weight (0.027), test diameter (0.033) and zero for test height. Heritabilities estimated from the dam component of variance were low for wet weight (0.063), moderate for test diameter (0.286) and test height (0.227). The results indicate that test diameter and wet weight have lowly heritable traits, which means that mass or individual selection may not be the best method for improving the traits for sea urchin populations in Bolinao. Other methods such as family and combined family selection should be explored.
A Tale of Two Motives: Endogenous Time Preference, Cash-in-Advance Constraints and Monetary Policy  [PDF]
Eric Kam
Modern Economy (ME) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/me.2013.46045
Abstract:

This paper demonstrates the effects of modeling an endogenous rate of time preference and two cash-in-advance constraints. If the constraint is levied on consumption and capital goods, time preference effects are neutral and cash-in-advance constraint effects invert the Tobin Effect. If the constraint applies solely to consumption goods, opposing motives are offsetting and monetary policy is super neutral.

Targeting Phosphodiesterase 4 to Block the Link between Acute Exacerbation of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and the Metabolic Complications  [PDF]
Eric Cho
Journal of Biosciences and Medicines (JBM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jbm.2015.311007
Abstract: The metabolic disorders such as obesity and diabetes are found to be more frequent in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The chronic systemic inflammation orchestrated by macrophages constitutes one critical pathophysiological process underlying both acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD) and its metabolic complications such as obesity and diabetes. The cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) signaling controlled by phosphodiesterase (PDE) 4 is a pivotal intracellular modulator for macrophages functions in immune inflammatory response underlying AECOPD as well as obesity and diabetes. Targeting PDE4/cAMP signaling has been suggested to be effective in treating AECOPD or the metabolic disorders of obesity and diabetes. It is therefore reasonable to hypothesize that the chronic systemic inflammation can be a critical link between AECOPD and the metabolic disorders and targeting the PDE4/cAMP signaling can be effective to block this link between AECOPD and the associated metabolic complications.
A Method to Calculate Inductance in Systems of Parallel Wires  [PDF]
Eric Deyo
Journal of Electromagnetic Analysis and Applications (JEMAA) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jemaa.2017.91001
Abstract: This paper gives a method that maps the static magnetic field due to a system of parallel current-carrying wires to a complex function. Using this function simplifies the calculation of the magnetic field energy density and inductance per length in the wires, and we reproduce well-known results for this case.
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