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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 13446 matches for " Eric Ouattara "
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Public Expenditure Contribution to Pro-Poor Growth in Cote D’Ivoire: A Micro Simulated General Equilibrium Approach  [PDF]
Wautabouna Ouattara
Modern Economy (ME) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/me.2012.33043
Abstract: The purpose of the present study is to analyze the public expenditure contribution to the improvement of the profitable economic growth to the poor in Cote d’Ivoire. The paper tried to show out the explanatory power of the government actions concerning the poor populations’ well-being. This reflection is based on a micro simulated general equilibrium analysis with the data provided by the national institute of the statistical (INS). These data are obtained from the investigations achieved on the households’ level of the lives. The results of the study suggest that the Ivorian authorities contributed meaningfully to the reduction of poverty severity. In other words, the poor benefited from fruits of the economic growth induced by the public investments.
Social learning of vocal structure in a nonhuman primate?
Alban Lemasson, Karim Ouattara, Eric J Petit, Klaus Zuberbühler
BMC Evolutionary Biology , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2148-11-362
Abstract: To address this point, we compared the degree of acoustic similarity of contact calls in free-ranging Campbell's monkeys as a function of their social bonds and genetic relatedness. We calculated three different indices to compare the similarities between the calls' frequency contours, the duration of grooming interactions and the microsatellite-based genetic relatedness between partners. We found a significantly positive relation between bond strength and acoustic similarity that was independent of genetic relatedness.Genetic factors determine the general species-specific call repertoire of a primate species, while social factors can influence the fine structure of some the call types. The finding is in line with the more general hypothesis that human speech has evolved gradually from earlier primate-like vocal communication.What are the biological roots of vocal production learning in humans, a key capacity for the development of spoken language? Paradoxically, some cetaceans, songbirds and bats are more similar to humans in their vocal learning skills than any of the nonhuman primates, in the sense that all require social models to acquire functionally adequate vocal behavior [1]. The differences are not so much in terms of call use and perception, as there is good evidence that juvenile non-human primates learn from adult models how to use vocalizations in contextually appropriate ways [2-4]. In terms of call morphology, however, the default assumption has always been that nonhuman primate calls develop under strong genetic influences [5] with little or no voluntarily control [6]. Under this hypothesis, any kind of individual variability in call structure is usually explained in terms of maturational changes in morphology or differences in individuals' affective states. This hypothesis has also led to the widespread notion that studies of primate vocal behavior are largely irrelevant for understanding the evolution of speech.Recently, however, this stance has be
Early upper digestive tract side effects of zidovudine with tenofovir plus emtricitabine in West African adults with high CD4 counts
Eric Ouattara,Christine Danel,Raoul Moh,Delphine Gabillard
Journal of the International AIDS Society , 2013, DOI: 10.7448/ias.16.1.18059
Abstract: Introduction: Tenofovir (TDF) with emtricitabine (FTC) and zidovudine (ZDV) is a recognized alternate first-line antiretroviral (ART) regimen for patients who cannot start treatment with non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs). Clinical studies comparing TDF+FTC+ZDV to other regimens are lacking. Methods: Participants in a trial of early ART in C te d'Ivoire (Temprano ANRS 12136) started treatment with TDF/FTC plus either efavirenz (EFV) or ZDV (HIV-1+2 dually infected patients and women refusing contraception or previously treated with nevirapine). We compared rates of upper digestive serious adverse events (sAEs) between TDF/FTC+EFV and TDF/FTC+ZDV patients during the first six months of treatment. sAEs were defined as either grade 3–4 AEs or persistent grade 1–2 AEs leading to drug discontinuation. Results: A total of 197 patients (76% women, median CD4 count 395/mm3) started therapy with TDF/FTC, 126 with EFV and 71 with ZDV. During the first six months of ART, 94 patients had digestive AEs (nausea/vomiting) of any grade (EFV 36/126, 29%; ZDV 58/71, 82%, p<0.0001), including 20 sAEs (EFV 3/126, 5%; ZDV 17/71, 24%, p<0.0001). In-patients on TDF/FTC+ZDV with digestive AEs, the median time to the first symptom was two days (IQR: 1–4). Plasma ZDV (Cmax) distributions and pill ZDV dosages were normal. Patients with digestive AEs had higher haemoglobin levels and tended to have higher body mass indices and more frequent past histories of cotrimoxazole (CTX) prophylaxis. Conclusions: We observed an unexpectedly high rate of digestive sAEs in West African adults, mostly women, who started a 3-nuc ART with TDF/FTC+ZDV in C te d'Ivoire. These adults were participating in a trial of early ART and had much higher CD4 counts than those who currently routinely start ART in sub-Saharan Africa. They all received CTX concomitantly with ZDV. We suggest that further early prescriptions of TDF+XTC+ZDV should be carefully monitored and that whenever possible, the rate of early upper digestive adverse events should be compared to that occurring in-patients taking other drug regimens. Clinical Trial Number: NCT00495651.
Endogenous Choice of Managerial Incentives in a Mixed Duopoly with a Foreign Private Firm  [PDF]
Kadohognon Sylvain Ouattara
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2016.62029
Abstract: This paper studies the endogenous choice of managerial incentives in a mixed duopoly where a public firm competes with a foreign private firm. The foreign firm is partly owned by domestic investors and the firm’s owners have the option to hire a manager. We focus on a new incentive scheme of public firm’s managers that is a linear combination of social welfare and sales revenue. In equilibrium we find that when the weight attached to the foreign firm’s profits in social welfare is high enough, only the public firm hires a manager. This is in contrast with the classical sales delegation contract used in existing literature.
Quantum Chemistry Prediction of Molecular Lipophilicity Using Semi-Empirical AM1 and Ab Initio HF/6-311++G Levels  [PDF]
Ouanlo Ouattara, Nahossé Ziao
Computational Chemistry (CC) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/cc.2017.51004
Abstract: Reliable prediction of lipophilicity in organic compounds involves molecular descriptors determination. In this work, the lipophilicity of a set of twenty-three molecules has been determined using up to eleven quantum various descriptors calculated by means of quantum chemistry methods. According to Quantitative Structure Property Relationship (QSPR) methods, a first set of fourteen molecules was used as training set whereas a second set of nine molecules was used as test set. Calculations made at AM1 and HF/6-311++G theories levels have led to establish a QSPR relation able to predict molecular lipophilicity with over 95% confidence.
Relationship between geomagnetic classes’ activity phases and their occurrence during the sunspot cycle
Frédéric Ouattara
Annals of Geophysics , 2009, DOI: 10.4401/ag-4634
Abstract: Four well known geomagnetic classes of activity such as quiet days activity, fluctuating activity, recurrent activity and shock activity time occurrences have been determined not only by using time profile of sunspot number Rz but also by using aa index values. We show that recurrent wind stream activity and fluctuating activity occur in opposite phase and slow solar wind activity during minimum phase and shock activity at the maximum phase. It emerges from this study that fluctuating activity precedes the sunspot cycle by π/2 and the latter also precedes recurrent activity by π/2. Thus in the majority the activities do not happen at random; the sunspot cycle starts with quiet days activity, continues with fluctuating activity and during its maximum phase arrives shock activity. The descending phase is characterized by the manifestation of recurrent wind stream activity.
Unsupervised Segmentation Method of Multicomponent Images based on Fuzzy Connectivity Analysis in the Multidimensional Histograms  [PDF]
Sié Ouattara, Georges Laussane Loum, Alain Clément
Engineering (ENG) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/eng.2011.33024
Abstract: Image segmentation denotes a process for partitioning an image into distinct regions, it plays an important role in interpretation and decision making. A large variety of segmentation methods has been developed; among them, multidimensional histogram methods have been investigated but their implementation stays difficult due to the big size of histograms. We present an original method for segmenting n-D (where n is the number of components in image) images or multidimensional images in an unsupervised way using a fuzzy neighbourhood model. It is based on the hierarchical analysis of full n-D compact histograms integrating a fuzzy connected components labelling algorithm that we have realized in this work. Each peak of the histo- gram constitutes a class kernel, as soon as it encloses a number of pixels greater than or equal to a secondary arbitrary threshold knowing that a first threshold was set to define the degree of binary fuzzy similarity be- tween pixels. The use of a lossless compact n-D histogram allows a drastic reduction of the memory space necessary for coding it. As a consequence, the segmentation can be achieved without reducing the colors population of images in the classification step. It is shown that using n-D compact histograms, instead of 1-D and 2-D ones, leads to better segmentation results. Various images were segmented; the evaluation of the quality of segmentation in supervised and unsupervised of segmentation method proposed compare to the classification method k-means gives better results. It thus highlights the relevance of our approach, which can be used for solving many problems of segmentation.
Analysis of the Relevance of Evaluation Criteria for Multicomponent Image Segmentation  [PDF]
Sié Ouattara, Georges Laussane Loum, Alain Clément, Bertrant Vigouroux
Journal of Software Engineering and Applications (JSEA) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jsea.2011.46042
Abstract: Image segmentation is an important stage in many applications such as image, video and computer processing. Generally image interpretation depends on it. The materials and methods used to demonstrate are described. The results are presented and analyzed. Several approaches and algorithms for image segmentation have been developed, but it is difficult to evaluate the efficiency and to make an objective comparison of different segmentation methods. This general problem has been addressed for the evaluation of a segmentation result and the results are available in the literature. In this work, we first presented some criteria of evaluation of segmentation commonly used in image processing with reviews of their models. Then multicomponent synthetic images of known composition are applied to these criteria to explore the operation and evaluate its relevance. The results show that choosing an assessment method depends on the purpose, however the criterion of Zeboudj appears powerful for the evaluation of region segmentations for properly separated classes, on the contrary the criteria of Levine-Nazif and Borsotti are adapted to the methods of classification and permit to build homogeneous regions or classes. The values of the Rosenbeger criterion are generally low and similar, so hard to make a comparison of segmentations with this criterion.
Performance of a New Method of Multicomponent Images Segmentation in the Presence of Noise  [PDF]
Sié Ouattara, Olivier Asseu, Alain Clément, Bertrand Vigouroux
Engineering (ENG) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/eng.2011.311134
Abstract: Any undesirable signal limiting to a degree or another the integrity and the intelligibility of a useful signal can be considered as noise. In the general rule, the good performance of a system is assured only if the level of power of the useful signal exceeds by several orders of magnitude that of the noise (signal to noise of a several tens of decibels). However certain elaborate methods of treatment allow working with very low signal to noise ratio in an optimal way any a priori knowledge available on the signal useful to interpret. In this work, we evaluate the robustness of the noise on a new method of multicomponent image segmentation developed recently. Two types of additional noises are considered, which are the Gaussian noise and the uniform noise, with varying correlation between the different components (or planes) of the image. Quantitative results show the influence of the noise level on the segmentation method.
Study of a Kit of GSM Radio Operator Site for Event-Driven Movable Coverage: Application to the Deployment of a Site of the Orange Operator in Ivory Coast  [PDF]
Sié Ouattara, Georges Laussane Loum, Koné Adama, Alain Clément
Int'l J. of Communications, Network and System Sciences (IJCNS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ijcns.2011.411092
Abstract: The mobile communication is nowadays one of the basic needs of humanity. It is essential to the flourishing of human beings. Considering this reality, the need to use its mobile phone is become more important and diversified. The subscribers of the various mobile telephone operators are increasingly demanding. This situation poses the problems of the cover mobile network to the operators and leads them to opt for several solutions and investments. The mobile operators in order to satisfy their customers use a policy of pushing the limits of network coverage in time and space for festive moments in targeted zones. Thus, we have conducted a study on the topic: study of a kit of GSM radio site for event-driven movable coverage. This work is applied to GSM (Global system mobile) network of the operator Orange-Ci, leader of mobile telephony in Ivory Coast. We thus proceeded under investigation initially of the various aspects of the ordinary sites (motionless radio site) which are already deployed with Orange-Ci in order to impregnate us infrastructures and equipment used. This study revealed us that a radio site comprises 4 parts: infrastructures, installations and energy equipments, installations and radio equipments, and installations and equipment of transmission. After the first analysis, we made a study of the movable site. The study of the movable site enabled us to see the various possible solutions to fulfill the basic functions of a movable radio site. After analysis we retained that our radio site will be built on a truck on which a mast of 25 m maximum length for the antennas will be embarked, it will be fed by a generator also embarked on the truck and the solution of transmission selected is the transmission by satellite more precisely technology VSAT. We choose the various equipments (radio, transmission, energy) according to features which we defined to constitute the kit of movable radio site.
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