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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 202983 matches for " Eric D. Swain "
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Utilizing Dimensional Analysis with Observed Data to Determine the Significance of Hydrodynamic Solutions in Coastal Hydrology  [PDF]
Eric D. Swain, Jeremy D. Decker, Joseph D. Hughes
Computational Water, Energy, and Environmental Engineering (CWEEE) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/cweee.2014.32008
Abstract:

In this paper, the authors present an analysis of the magnitude of the temporal and spatial acceleration (inertial) terms in the surface-water flow equations and determine the conditions under which these inertial terms have sufficient magnitude to be required in the computations. Data from two South Florida field sites are examined and the relative magnitudes of temporal acceleration, spatial acceleration, and the gravity and friction terms are compared. Parameters are derived by using dimensionless numbers and applied to quantify the significance of the hydrodynamic effects. The time series of the ratio of the inertial and gravity terms from field sites are presented and compared with both a simplified indicator parameter and a more complex parameter called the Hydrodynamic Significance Number (HSN). Two test-case models were developed by using the SWIFT2D hydrodynamic simulator to examine flow behavior with and without the inertial terms and compute the HSN. The first model represented one of the previously-mentioned field sites during gate operations of a structure-managed coastal canal. The second model was a synthetic test case illustrating the drainage of water down a sloped surface from an initial stage while under constant flow. The analyses indicate that the times of substantial hydrodynamic effects are sporadic but significant. The simplified indicator parameter correlates much better with the hydrodynamic effect magnitude for a constant width channel such as Miami Canal than at the non-uniform North River. Higher HSN values indicate flow situations where the inertial terms are large and need to be taken into account.

A comparison between reported and ideal patient-to-therapist ratios for stroke rehabilitation  [PDF]
Gabrielle McHugh, Ian D. Swain
Health (Health) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/health.2013.56A2016
Abstract:

Objective: Major improvement has been made in the medical management of stroke in the UK between 2008 and 2010 based on the indicators measured in the National Sentinel Audit. However based on the same audit, no corresponding improvement has been effected to patient functional impairment levels on hospital discharge in the corresponding time frame. This study derived patient-to-therapist ratios as a means of exploring the amount of rehabilitation time for stroke patients while in hospital care. Method: A purpose specific survey was developed for completion by stroke teams. From a contact list compiled primarily in collaboration with the 28 National Stroke Improvement Networks, the Nth name technique was used to target stroke teams in each geographical area covered by the 28 networks. Results: A total of 53 surveys were returned representing 20 of the 28 network areas providing 71% national coverage. Analysis conducted on 19 of the 37 inpatient hospital care units that were discrete units, had no missing data for staff numbers, unit bed numbers, number of stroke patients treated per annum, average unit length-of-stay, and unit occupancy rates. Staffing levels for some therapies were below the Department of Health staffing assumptions suggesting that stroke units are challenged to provide the recommended therapy time. Conclusions: Most stroke units surveyed are operating below the DH staffing assumption levels and are therefore challenged in providing the amount of therapy and patient time recommended in the National Institute of Clinical Excellence guidelines to facilitate optimal functional recovery for stroke patients.

Applying Downscaled Global Climate Model Data to a Groundwater Model of the Suwannee River Basin, Florida, USA  [PDF]
Eric Swain, J. Hal Davis
American Journal of Climate Change (AJCC) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ajcc.2016.54037
Abstract: The application of Global Climate Model (GCM) output to a hydrologic model allows for comparisons between simulated recent and future conditions and provides insight into the dynamics of hydrology as it may be affected by climate change. A previously developed numerical model of the Suwannee River Basin, Florida, USA, was modified and calibrated to represent transient conditions. A simulation of recent conditions was developed for the 372-month period 1970-2000 and was compared with a simulation of future conditions for a similar-length period 2039-2069, which uses downscaled GCM data. The MODFLOW groundwater-simulation code was used in both of these simulations, and two different MODFLOW boundary condition “packages” (River and Streamflow-Routing Packages) were used to represent interactions between surface-water and groundwater features. The hydrologic fluxes between the atmosphere and landscape for the simulation of future conditions were developed from dynamically downscaled precipitation and evapotranspiration (ET) data generated by the Community Climate System Model (CCSM). The downscaled precipitation data were interpolated for the Suwannee River model grid, and the downscaled ET data were used to develop potential ET and were interpolated to the grid. The future period has higher simulated rainfall (10.8 percent) and ET (4.5 percent) than the recent period. The higher future rainfall causes simulated groundwater levels to rise in areas where they are deep and have little ET in either the recent or future case. However, in areas where groundwater levels were originally near the surface, the greater future ET causes groundwater levels to become lower despite the higher projected rainfall. The general implication is that unsaturated zone depth could be more spatially uniform in the future and vegetation that requires a range of conditions (substantially wetter or drier than average) could be detrimentally affected. This vegetation would include wetland species, especially in areas inland from the coast.
Toward New Therapeutics for Skin and Soft Tissue Infections: Propargyl-Linked Antifolates Are Potent Inhibitors of MRSA and Streptococcus pyogenes
Kishore Viswanathan, Kathleen M. Frey, Eric W. Scocchera, Brooke D. Martin, P. Whitney Swain III, Jeremy B. Alverson, Nigel D. Priestley, Amy C. Anderson, Dennis L. Wright
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0029434
Abstract: Hospital- and community-acquired, complicated skin and soft tissue infections, often attributed to Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes, present a significant health burden that is associated with increased health care costs and mortality. As these two species are difficult to discern on diagnosis and are associated with differential profiles of drug resistance, the development of an efficacious antibacterial agent that targets both organisms is a high priority. Herein we describe a structure-based drug development effort that has produced highly potent inhibitors of dihydrofolate reductase from both species. Optimized propargyl-linked antifolates containing a key pyridyl substituent display antibacterial activity against both methicillin-resistant S. aureus and S. pyogenes at MIC values below 0.1 μg/mL and minimal cytotoxicity against mammalian cells. Further evaluation against a panel of clinical isolates shows good efficacy against a range of important phenotypes such as hospital- and community-acquired strains as well as strains resistant to vancomycin.
Multiplicity Distributions in $b\rightarrow s\ gluon$ Decays
J. D. Swain
Physics , 1995, DOI: 10.1007/BF02907003
Abstract: The final states for the process $b \rightarrow s\ \gamma$ have been extensively discussed in the literature. Similarly-detailed analyses for the case $b \rightarrow s\ gluon$ have not been performed. Generally this process is searched for in 2-body decays such as ${\rm B}^0 \rightarrow {\rm K}^+ \pi^-$. We present simple arguments to suggest that most of the time the quark-level process will give rise to final states with rather high multiplicities. Comments are made about the applicability of these results to $b \rightarrow d\ gluon$ and hadronic $b\rightarrow u$ decays.
Applying Downscaled Global Climate Model Data to a Hydrodynamic Surface-Water and Groundwater Model  [PDF]
Eric Swain, Lydia Stefanova, Thomas Smith
American Journal of Climate Change (AJCC) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ajcc.2014.31004
Abstract: Precipitation data from Global Climate Models have been downscaled to smaller regions. Adapting this downscaled precipitation data to a coupled hydrodynamic surface-water/groundwater model of southern Florida allows an examination of future conditions and their effect on groundwater levels, inundation patterns, surface-water stage and flows, and salinity. The downscaled rainfall data include the 1996-2001 time series from the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasting ERA-40 simulation and both the 1996-1999 and 2038-2057 time series from two global climate models: the Community Climate System Model (CCSM) and the Geophysical Fluid Dynamic Laboratory (GFDL). Synthesized surface-water inflow datasets were developed for the 2038-2057 simulations. The resulting hydrologic simulations, with and without a 30-cm sea-level rise, were compared with each other and field data to analyze a range of projected conditions. Simulations predicted generally higher future stage and groundwater levels and surface-water flows, with sea-level rise inducing higher coastal salinities. A coincident rise in sea level, precipitation and surface-water flows resulted in a narrower inland saline/fresh transition zone. The inland areas were affected more by the rainfall difference than the sea-level rise, and the rainfall differences make little difference in coastal inundation, but a larger difference in coastal salinities.

Development of SPAD Values of Medium- and Long-duration Rice Variety for Site-specific Nitrogen Management
D.K. Swain,S. Jagtap Sandip
Journal of Agronomy , 2010,
Abstract: Nitrogen fertilizer application in rice either in excess or deficit dose, causing environmental pollution and yield loss can be avoided through Site-Specific Management using a chlorophyll meter (SPAD 502). A field experiment was conducted with two rice varieties of varying duration at varying N application levels (0, 50, 100 and 150 kg N ha-1) during wets season (June-November) of the year 2006 to 2008 at the Research farm of Agricultural and Food Engineering Department, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur to determine the crop growth stage specific optimum SPAD value for higher grain yield. The rice varieties were Lalat of medium duration (120 days) type and Swarna of long duration (150 days) type. Correlation between N application levels and grain yield determined the optimum grain yield of the variety Lalat and Swrana as 5024 and 6427 kg ha-1, respectively, under the corresponding N application levels of 105 and 155 kg N ha-1. A significant and positive correlation was observed between flag leaf N content and SPAD value (R2≈0.80) and SPAD value at different growth stages and grain yield for both the varieties. The average SPAD value for optimum grain yield production was 35.4 and 40.1 for Lalat and Swarna, respectively. The desired SPAD values at critical growth stages were determined for optimum grain yield production of both the varieties.
Quantum Measurement and the Aharonov-Bohm Effect with Superposed Magnetic Fluxes
Ka?a Bradonji?,John D. Swain
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1007/s11128-013-0652-3
Abstract: We consider the magnetic flux in a quantum mechanical superposition of two values and find that the Aharonov-Bohm effect interference pattern contains information about the nature of the superposition, allowing information about the state of the flux to be extracted without disturbance. The information is obtained without transfer of energy or momentum and by accumulated nonlocal interactions of the vector potential $\vec{A}$ with many charged particles forming the interference pattern, rather than with a single particle. We suggest an experimental test using already experimentally realized superposed currents in a superconducting ring and discuss broader implications.
YeaNay: An Open Source Tool to Rate the Votes of Members of the United States House of Representatives and Senate  [PDF]
Eric Venlet, D. Robert Adams
Open Journal of Political Science (OJPS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojps.2015.54029
Abstract: Government transparency is typically regarded as the most viable way to strengthen its accountability to the public (Shkabatur, 2012). Even on the international stage, the right to access government information is regarded as fundamental to democracy (Bertot, Jaeger, & Grimes, 2011). In order to improve transparency, the US government made data, like bills and votes, available online (Brito, 2008b). One popular way to organize the data available to the public is through the creation of voter guides. The method an organization used for developing a voter guide was analyzed for this project. In response to the method, a web application (YeaNay) was developed to take the largely manual process and make a highly automated solution. YeaNay utilizes HTML, CSS, and JavaScript to build the user interface and ColdFusion and PL/SQL to query the data necessary for the development of a voter guide. The data are queried either from the database or from Congress API v3 (provided by the Sunlight Foundation). One user, with minimal training, is able to use YeaNay to find and score legislation within minutes for use in a voter guide. YeaNay focuses the firehose of congressional information that is now available and presents it in a manageable and usable environment.
Unsteady Hydro-Magnetic Heat and Mass Transfer Flow of a Non-Newtonian Power-Law Fluid past a Flat Plate in the Presence of Homogeneous Chemical Reaction  [PDF]
Itishree Swain, Hadibandhu Pattanayak
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/am.2015.66082
Abstract: This paper investigates the flow, heat andmass transfer of a power law fluid from a vertical plate in presence of a magnetic field. The resulting non-linear partial differential equations governing the flow together with the boundary conditions are reduced to non-dimensional form. The governing equations are discretized using implicit finite difference scheme and solved numerically. The velocity, temperature and concentration profile are presented graphically while the skin friction, local Nusselt number and the Sherwood number are presented in tabular form for different values of parameters of the problem.
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