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Hypocholesterolemic activity of Crataegus aronia L. (Rosaceae) is therapeutically praised. Its potent antiobesity (P < 0.001, n = 6 - 8) as well as marked triacylglycerol-reducing efficacies (P < 0.001, n = 6 - 8) in 10 weeks-high cholesterol diet (HCD) fed rats are demonstrated. Pancreatic triacylglycerol lipase (PL), α-amylase and α-glucosidase are an interesting pharmacological target for the management of dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis, diabetes and obesity. Comparable to acarbose, acute starch induced postprandial hyperglycaemia as well glycemic excursions in normoglycemic overnight fasting rats was highly significantly (P < 0.001) dampened by C. aronia 100, 200 and 400 mg/Kg b.wt aqueous extracts (AE), but not acute glucose evoked postprandial hyperglycaemia increments, unlike diabetes pharmaco-therapeutics metformin and glipizide. C. aronia aerial parts as well as fruits AEs (0.1 - 10 mg/mL) were identified as in vitro dual inhibitors of α-amylase and α-glucosidase with respective IC50 (mg/mL) of 2.1 ± 0.3 and 3.5 ± 0.7. Still, it lacked on in vitro hindrance of glucose movement, dissimilar to guar gum. Equivalent to orlistat (PL IC50 of 0.1 ± 0.0 μg/mL), C. aronia tested AEs and its purified bioactive phytoconstituents; quercetin and rutin, inhibited highly substantially in a dose dependent trend PL in vitro (n = 3), in an ascending order of obtained PL-IC50 (μg/mL): quercetin; 30.1 ± 2.8, rutin; 77.3 ± 11.7, C. aronia aerial parts; 225.2 ± 33.4 and C. aronia fruits; 286.1 ± 37.4. Flavonoid-rich C. aronia, as a functional food and a nutraceutical, modulating gastrointestinal carbohydrate and lipid digestion and absorption, maybe be advocated as an exquisite and potential candidate for combinatorial obesity-diabetes prevention and phytotherapy.
Mining activities often cause dramatic changes in landscapes, particularly in the dump sites and its surrounding environment. Land rehabilitation is the process of renovating damaged land to some extent of its original shape and aims to minimize and mitigate the environmental effects to allow new land uses. The success of different rehabilitation strategy and newly suggested urban and architecture modeling depends on the landscape characterization (topography of the study area and its derivatives such as slope and aspects, geological and geomorphologic nature of the study area). The aim of this study is to demonstrate the utility of different methodologies based on geomatics techniques (Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing, Global Positioning System (GPS) and three dimensional Geographic Information System (GIS)) for highlighting landscape characterization which is needed for rehabilitation of Mahis area. Photogrammetric adjustment procedures were used to create digital elevation model and Orth-Photo model for the study area using aerial images. Remote sensing data were used for land classification to provide vital information for rehabilitation planning. GPS field observations were used to build spatial network for the study area based on ground control point collections. Finally, realistic representation of the study area with three dimensional GIS was prepared for the study area considering ease and flexible updating of the geo-spatial database.