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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 7597 matches for " Enrique; "
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Love Is the Cause of Human Evolution  [PDF]
Enrique Burunat
Advances in Anthropology (AA) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/aa.2014.42013
Abstract:

Ever since the publication of “The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection” by Charles Darwin in 1859, many theories have been put forward regarding the reasons as to why animals and humans are different. Whilst there was an initial tendency to focus on the differences apparent in the main anatomic characteristics of the human body, in more recent time research has concentrated on differences that are evident both in the anatomy and in that of the workings of the human brain. While in the past, the essence of the human being was placed on the pelvic structure, the creation of tools or even the intermaxillary bone, the introduction of new technology and cerebral imaging is enabling us to glean previously unthinkable information regarding the evolution of specific structures and parts of the brain. All these discoveries can be associated with new theories based on a better understanding of the workings of the human mind. Hence, as a result of an enormous joint effort, a comprehensible description of the cause of the origin of mankind is emerging. This allows “love”, once considered as merely a simple emotion, to be at the very core of explaining the evolutionary characteristics of the human being.

Language Genesis  [PDF]
Enrique Burunat
Advances in Anthropology (AA) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/aa.2015.52008
Abstract: Language is a specifically human mental function, although some neurobiological adaptations associated with communication can be found in other primates, in other mammalian orders, and even in other kinds of animals (evolutionary trend). Exposure to language is necessary for its acquisition (culture), there are specific alleles of some genes for human language (gene), and the brain circuits for language are mainly lateralized towards the left hemisphere (brain lateralization). However, some data suggest that the crucial factor for human verbal language, which originates in childhood in both, ontogeny and phylogeny, must be of motivational nature, and have at least the same importance as other genetic, brain or cultural factors. So, this article proposes that language was promoted by the building of love, and that it was maintained by hominid women as proto-language during some hundreds of thousands years through the maternal-filial interaction, until the first permanent settlements of the current human species, between 40,000-10,000 years ago. Also, that it was then when the woman transmitted speech to the man (it is further suggested that this may have been the Original Sin of the biblical Genesis), signalizing this transmission with the beginning of the symbolic thought, thus promoting the first artistic displays, like sculptures, painting or music, which were associated with the expansion of love and speech to the relationship between the sexes, with the consequent diversification of languages, mainly in the last 10,000 to 5,000 years. Love caused and causes human speech in both, phylogeny and ontogeny.
Trk Family Neurotrophin Receptors and p75 Receptor. A Multiple Competing Hypothesis Case in the Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) History  [PDF]
Enrique Wulff Barreiro
Advances in Historical Studies (AHS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ahs.2014.32009
Abstract: In the area of Trk oncogene, this research has revealed the different competing hypotheses made at the time of its discovery. A conflict of interest arose within the group who identified it as the nerve growth factor receptor (NGF). An auxiliary assumption, on the cardinal importance of the low affinity p75 receptor, resulted in that the consistency of the group take patterns of competence. The level of provocation affected the joint effort. An environment reminds the denial that Stehelin was given by Varmus and Bishop, in the race for the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. Nowadays p75 receptor functions are described as “enigmatic”, and accepted that all the neurotrophins interact with two types of receptors: the specific to the ligands of the high-affinity Trk family of receptors and the low affinity p75 receptor (with structural similarities to the tumor necrosis factor and in liaison with the development of eye optical fiber). Against this background, papers concerning this subject and included in the ISI citation database are analysed, categorizing them through a system of descriptors, according to their original publication date. Complete time vectors are approximated by setting the analysis with a growth model based on Gompertz function. After the criteria used by authorities like Rita Levi-Montalcini, Luigi Cavalli-Sforza, Rodolfo Llinás and Victor McKunsick the selected material resulted in a database with 371 records. The data suggest the opportunity for historical sciences of a non-discrimination compliance test performed on multiple hypotheses.
The Fate of Ochoa’s School in the Origins of Oncogenetics in US (I)  [PDF]
Enrique Wulff-Barreiro
Open Journal of Genetics (OJGen) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojgen.2014.45037
Abstract: It was in the early eighties that a genuine school of spanish biochemists around Severo Ochoa participated in the oncogene races. Malignant cell transformation and oncogenes were put in relation during that era. Several prominent scientists coming from Spain have established and maintained a strong tradition of studies in the enzymology of retroviruses and transcriptional events. In this short historical account, we briefly pay tribute to these famous forerunners, by emphasizing both the originality and quality of their work, as well as the many accompanying conceptual and methodological analysis. We start with àngel Pellicer (1948-) who, amongst other contributions, first established the landmark experimental transfection protocol and nucleated the onset of oncogenetics with his discovery that ras oncogenes were activated by mitogenic factors. Whereas Manuel Perucho (1948-) can be considered as one of the pioneers, if not the founder, of the cloning of human oncogene, through his experiments on H-ras, and he became a milestone in diagnostic detection to allow hospital technicians to screen for mutant ras genes. More known Mariano Barbacid (1949-) established that ras oncogene was a kind of common denominator for cancer, and clarified that their functional differences were by a single point mutation. In conclusion, this history demonstrates how eager spanish biochemists trained by Eladio Viñuela were to maintain the tradition of Severo Ochoa’s long-standing scientific reputation in the US.
Boltzmann or Gibbs Entropy?
Thermostatistics of Two Models with Few Particles
 [PDF]

Enrique N. Miranda
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2015.68109
Abstract: We study the statistical mechanics of small clusters (N ~ 10 - 100) for two-level systems and harmonic oscillators. Both Boltzmann’s and Gibbs’s definitions of entropy are used. The properties of the studied systems are evaluated numerically but exactly; this means that Stirling’s approximation was not used in the calculation and that the discrete nature of energy was taken into account. Results show that, for the two-level system, using Gibbs entropy prevents temperatures from assuming negative values; however, they reach very high values that are not plausible in physical terms. In the case of harmonic oscillators, there are no significant differences when using either definition of entropy. Both systems show that for N = 100 the exact results evaluated with statistical mechanics coincide with those found in the thermodynamic limit. This suggests that thermodynamics can be applied to systems as small as these.
?Cuál es el rol del sistema neurohormonal en la insuficiencia cardíaca con fracción de eyección preservada?
Alonso,Enrique; Alonso,Enrique;
Insuficiencia card?-aca , 2010,
Abstract: the role of neurohormonal system (nhs) in the pathophysiology of systolic heart failure (shf) is transcendental. however, their participation in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (hfpef) is not fully clear, since the data is provided from observational studies in patients with shf. small studies have shown that the degree of activation of snh in the hfpef is lower than in the shf. experimental models of hypertensive heart disease showed the active involvement of nhs in the progression of cardiac hypertrophy to shf. increased blood levels of pro-bnp and bnp reflect structural and hemodynamic alterations in patients with hfpef that facilitate early identification of subclinical abnormalities. the probe-hf study showed that type ii diabetic or hypertensive patients with blood dosages of pro-bnp > 125pg/ ml identify a particular group of patients which leads us to request routine tests to acquire functional and structural information about ventricular dysfunction, in order to indicate prematurely the appropriate therapeutic measures.
Bottom-Up Analysis of Energy Consumption and Carbon Emissions, with Particular Emphasis on Human Capital Investment  [PDF]
Paula Castesana, Salvador Enrique Puliafito
Low Carbon Economy (LCE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/lce.2013.44A001
Abstract:

Short-term and mid-term projections of energy consumption and carbon emissions raise significant concern about the availability of the necessary energy resources to meet the growing demand and about the impact of emissions on global change. Different macroeconomic models address this issue through global variables, such as gross domestic product, production of goods and services, total population and natural resources extraction. However, the relations among these variables are neither linear nor simple. In an attempt to base said relations on a “bottom-up” perspective, the individual behavior of representative agents of economy, in terms of energy consumption and related carbon emissions, was studied, with particular emphasis on their investment in human capital. It was found that a higher investment in human capital (e.g., education, research) was translated into a better distribution of consumption, with a higher level of energy efficiency and a slight improvement in carbon emissions intensity.

Robust Differentiable Functionals for the Additive Hazards Model  [PDF]
Enrique E. álvarez, Julieta Ferrario
Open Journal of Statistics (OJS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojs.2015.56064
Abstract:

In this article, we present a new family of estimators for the regression parameter β in the Additive Hazards Model which represents a gain in robustness not only against outliers but also against unspecific contamination schemes. They are consistent and asymptotically normal and furthermore, and they have a nonzero breakdown point. In Survival Analysis, the Additive Hazards Model proposes a hazard function of the form \"\", where \"\"?is a common nonparametric baseline hazard function and z is a vector of independent variables. For this model, the seminal work of Lin and Ying (1994) develops an estimator for the regression parameter β which is asymptotically normal and highly efficient. However, a potential drawback of that classical estimator is that it is very sensitive to outliers. In an attempt to gain robustness, álvarez and Ferrarrio (2013) introduced a family of estimators for β which were still highly efficient and asymptotically normal, but they also had bounded influence functions. Those estimators, which are developed using classical Counting Processes methodology, still retain the drawback of having a zero breakdown point.

El siglo XXI: nueva edad en la historia de la filosofía en tanto diálogo mundial entre tradiciones filosóficas
Dussel, Enrique;
Signos filosóficos , 2010,
Abstract: this paper argues the following points: 1) it is necessary to affirm that all of humanity has always sought to address certain core universal problems that are present in all cultures. 2) the rational responses to these core problems first acquire the shape of mythical narratives. 3) the formulation of categorical philosophical discourses is a subsequent development in human rationality, which does not however negate all mythical narratives. these discourses arose in all the great urban neolithic cultures (only in initial form). 4) modern european philosophy confused its economic, political and cultural domination, and the resulting crises in other philosophical traditions, with an eurocentric universality claim, which must be questioned. 5) there are formal universal aspects in which all regional philosophies can coincide, and which respond to the core problems at an abstract level. 6) all of this impels entry into a new age of inter-philosophical dialogue, respectful of differences and open to learning from the useful discoveries of other traditions. 7) a new philosophical project must be developed that is capable of going beyond eurocentric philosophical modernity, by shaping a global trans-modern pluriverse, drawing upon the discarded -by the modernity- own resources of peripheral, subalternand postcolonial philosophies.
Characterization of the Water Quality Status on a Stretch of River Lérez around a Small Hydroelectric Power Station
Enrique Valero
Water , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/w4040815
Abstract: The renewable energy emerged as a solution to the environmental problems caused by the conventional sources of energy. Small hydropower (SHP) is claimed to cause negligible effects on the ecosystem, although some environmental values are threatened and maintenance of an adequate water quality should be ensured. This work provides a characterization of the water quality status in a river stretch around a SHP plant on river Lérez, northwest Spain, for four years after its construction. The ecological and chemical status of the water as well as the ecological quality of the riparian habitat, were used as measures of quality. Data were compared with the water quality requirements. The variations in the quality parameters were analyzed over time and over the river sections with respect to the SHP plant elements. Two years after construction, the temperature and dissolved oxygen values achieved conditions for salmonid water and close to the reference condition, while pH values were low. The Iberian Biological Monitoring Working Party (IBMWP) index showed a positive trend from two years after the construction and stabilized at “unpolluted or not considerably altered water”. Quality parameters did not present significant differences between sampling points. The SHP plant construction momentarily altered the quality characteristics of the water.
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