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Changes in Body Mass Index across Age Groups in Iranian Women: Results from the National Health Survey
Enayatollah Bakhshi,Behjat Seifi,Akbar Biglarian,Kazem Mohammad
Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/848403
Abstract: Background. To investigate the associations between some factors with weight gain across age groups in Iranian women. Methods. Proportional odds model was used to estimate the probability of BMI categorized as a function of education, economic index, workforce, smoking, marital status, and place of residence adjusted for age, using data from the “National Health Survey in Iran” database. It included 14176 women aged 20–69 years. Results. For all covariates, age was directly associated with overweight and obesity before 60 years of age. Among women aged 20–40 years, the rates of change in probabilities of overweight and obesity were highest. Among women, being inactive, with high economic index, married, being nonsmoker, in an urban residence, with lower educational attainment, all increased the probabilities of overweight and obesity. Conclusions. Women aged 20–40 years gained weight faster than other groups. They may need additional information and more support on how to reduce their risk for weight gain through positive health behaviors.
Let Continuous Outcome Variables Remain Continuous
Enayatollah Bakhshi,Brian McArdle,Kazem Mohammad,Behjat Seifi,Akbar Biglarian
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/639124
Abstract: The complementary log-log is an alternative to logistic model. In many areas of research, the outcome data are continuous. We aim to provide a procedure that allows the researcher to estimate the coefficients of the complementary log-log model without dichotomizing and without loss of information. We show that the sample size required for a specific power of the proposed approach is substantially smaller than the dichotomizing method. We find that estimators derived from proposed method are consistently more efficient than dichotomizing method. To illustrate the use of proposed method, we employ the data arising from the NHSI.
Factors associated with obesity in Iranian elderly people: results from the national health survey
Enayatollah Bakhshi, Behjat Seifi, Akbar Biglarian, Kazem Mohammad
BMC Research Notes , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1756-0500-4-538
Abstract: The data in this investigation were taken from the National Health Survey in Iran, which included 4380 people aged 60 and older. The logistic regression was applied to model the relationship between the odds of obesity and age, sex, education level, place of residence, smoking and marital status.Obesity odds ratios were 1.96 (95% CI: 1.53--2.52) for women, 2.16 (95% CI: 1.71--2.72) for the subjects living in urban areas and 0.68 (95% CI: 0.47--0.97) for smokers. Regarding the people aged 60-64 years as the reference group, the obesity odds ratios were 0.86 (95% CI: 0.66--1.10) for ages 65-69 years, 0.75 (95% CI: 0.57--0.97) for ages 70-74 years, 0.43 (95% CI: 0.30--0.60) for ages 75-79 years and 0.36 (95% CI: 0.20--0.63) for ages 80+ years. Using the basic education level as the reference group, obesity odds ratios were 1.38 (95% CI: 1.08-1.76) for the moderate level and 0.92 (95% CI: 0.56- 1.52) for the high level group.As the result of findings, we are optimistic that we would be able to contribute to the aged community of the society, which could be achieved by means of better treatments and reductions in the rate of obesity.Obesity has been called the disease of the twenty-first century. Nearly 1.5 billion adults of age 20 and older are considered to be overweight or obese. Of which, nearly 300 million women and more than 200 million men are obese [1]. The prevalence of obesity is also increasing in older populations throughout the world [2]. The prevalence of obesity among elderly people in industrialized countries estimates suggest ranging from 15% to over 30% [3,4].Obesity has been reported to be a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, hypertension, some cancers and also some other diseases [5-19]. In general, obesity is related to morbidity, mortality as well as poor quality of life [20]. Although some studies showed that the impact of obesity on mortality may have decreased over time [21], obese elderly people are more likely to become disabled
A comparison of two methods for estimating odds ratios: Results from the National Health Survey
Enayatollah Bakhshi, Mohammad R Eshraghian, Kazem Mohammad, Behjat Seifi
BMC Medical Research Methodology , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2288-8-78
Abstract: We conducted a comparative study between two methods via an illustrative example, using data from the "National Health Survey in Iran (NHSI)" database. It included 14176 women aged 20–69 years. At first, body mass index(BMI) was treated as a continuous variable, ORs and 95 per cent confidence intervals were calculated using the "without dichotomizing" method. Then subjects were classified into obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) and nonobese (BMI < 30 kg/m2) and logistic regression model was used to estimate ORs and 95 per cent confidence intervals.The odds ratio estimates changed only slightly over the two methods. But the "without dichotomizing" method provided shorter confidence intervals on the odds ratio parameters than dichotomizing method. All relative confidence interval lengths were greater than 1.15.If responses are continuous then the "without dichotomizing" method is certainly more useful than the "dichotomizing" method and leads to more precise estimation of odds ratios.Over the past 20 years, the logistic regression model has become more common. The parameter in logistic regression has the interpretation of log odds ratio, which is easy for people such as physicians to understand. This model uses a categorical (dichotomous or polytomous) outcome variable. In many areas of research, the outcome data are continuous. Many researchers have no hesitation in dichotomizing a continuous variable but this practice does not make use of within-category information. Several investigators have noted the disadvantages of dichotomizing [1-9].Although Goldwasser and Fitzmaurice [10] stated that a 'direct comparison of the logistic and linear regression coefficients is not meaningful since they have different interpretations, Moser and Coombs [11] provided a closed form relationship that allows a direct comparison between the logistic and linear regression coefficients. They also provided a procedure that allows the researcher to analyze the original continuous outcome without dich
Effect of pivotal response treatment on social skill of 6-11 years old autistic children of Hamedan
Fereshteh Mohammad Zaheri,Seyed Majid Rafiei,Mohammad Rezaei,Enayatollah Bakhshi
Pajouhan Scientific Journal , 2013,
Abstract: Introduction: Autism is a lifetime developmental disability that determines with sever problem in social relations, communication and behavior. Regarding social interaction difficulties of these children and weakness of social skill interventions in creation of motivation. In this study we tried to examine effect pivotal response treatment method on social skill of autistic children.Material & Methods: In this randomized control trial (RCT) study, according to inclusion and exclusion criteria, 30 autistic participants (6 to 11 years old) that matched based on age, gender and mean length utterance, from especial clinics of Hamedan’s autistic persons selected and placed randomly in one of groups of intervention and control. Sessions was administered individually, lasting for 60 minutes and 2 days a week for 3 months. Both groups of children were tested before and after intervention by CCC (children’s communication checklist) to assess social skill. Data analysis was done through descriptive statistics tests and covariance analysis.Results: Findings of study showed (according to covariance analysis between before and after of intervention in two groups) there is significant changes in social skill’s ability in intervention group.Conclusion: The result of these study indicated effect of pivotal response treatment on social skills in autistic children, therefore this method recommended for speech and language pathologist.
Needs assessment of rehabilitation specialists for training in child development (0-8 years old)
Roshanak Vameghi,Firoozeh Sajedi,Masoud Gharib,Enayatollah Bakhshi
Pajouhan Scientific Journal , 2013,
Abstract: Introduction: This study intends to determine the needs assessment of rehabilitation specialists for training in child development (0-8 years old).Material and Methods: This study is a cross -sectional, descriptive- analytic. At the first, a questionnaire was made for the assessment of the knowledge and skills of the specialists that work in the rehabilitation team of the children with developmental disorders (occupational therapy, speech therapy, physiotherapy, technical orthopedics, preschool children education, audiometry, social working and psychology of children with special needs). The content and face validity and reliability of the questionnaire were determined. Then 400 rehabilitation specialists fill in the questionnaires. After data collection and analysis, the needs of these specialists were determined.Results: The Cronbach's Alpha of questionnaire was 0.93, which was good. One hundred and four persons (43.2%) knew the most necessity to skill increasing in normal children development indexes as the first priority. Sixty-four persons (26.1%) knew the most necessity in primary prevention methods from developmental disorders as the second priority and 66 persons (27.2%) knew the methods of early detection and intervention in developmental disorders as the third priority. One hundred and twenty five persons (45.1%) knew the most necessity to knowledge increasing in normal children development indexes as the first priority. Seventy- six persons (27.4%) knew the most necessity to the methods of early detection and intervention in developmental disorders as the second priority and 74 persons (26.2%) knew the primary prevention methods from developmental disorders as the third priority.Conclusion: It is necessary to plan and perform training of the different rehabilitation specialists for increasing the knowledge and skills in children development themes that they have sensed as the most necessities.
Nonlinear Survival Regression Using Artificial Neural Network
Akbar Biglarian,Enayatollah Bakhshi,Ahmad Reza Baghestani,Mahmood Reza Gohari
Journal of Probability and Statistics , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/753930
Abstract:
Changes in Body Mass Index across Age Groups in Iranian Women: Results from the National Health Survey
Enayatollah Bakhshi,Behjat Seifi,Akbar Biglarian,Kazem Mohammad
Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/848403
Abstract: Background. To investigate the associations between some factors with weight gain across age groups in Iranian women. Methods. Proportional odds model was used to estimate the probability of BMI categorized as a function of education, economic index, workforce, smoking, marital status, and place of residence adjusted for age, using data from the “National Health Survey in Iran” database. It included 14176 women aged 20–69 years. Results. For all covariates, age was directly associated with overweight and obesity before 60 years of age. Among women aged 20–40 years, the rates of change in probabilities of overweight and obesity were highest. Among women, being inactive, with high economic index, married, being nonsmoker, in an urban residence, with lower educational attainment, all increased the probabilities of overweight and obesity. Conclusions. Women aged 20–40 years gained weight faster than other groups. They may need additional information and more support on how to reduce their risk for weight gain through positive health behaviors. 1. Introduction Overweight and obesity are as public health problems, due to both their rapid growth in recent decades and to their related health disorders, such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, some cancers, and other diseases [1–8]. Studies have also showed relationships between obesity and chronic pain [9] and Alzheimer’s disease [10]. In 2002, nearly half a billion of the world population considered to be overweight or obese [11]. Obesity is assuming epidemic proportions in both developed and developing countries [12–15]. In 2003-04, 17.1% of US children and adolescents were overweight and 32.2% of adults were obese [16]. Almost one third of adult Canadians are at increased risk of disability, disease, and premature death due to obesity [17]. Obesity is relatively common in Europe, especially in southern and eastern countries, and studies from repeated surveys suggest that the prevalence of obesity has been increasing last years [18]. Up to 2000, the prevalence of obesity in Western countries was suggested to vary between 15 percent and 20 percent [19]. In recent years, the statistics were appalling. The prevalence of obesity in USA, Canada, Australia, United Kingdom, Iran, and Egypt was 31.8, 24.3, 25.1, 24.9, 21.6, and 34.6, respectively [20]. Overall, more than one out of ten of the world adult population was obese. Nearly 1.5 billion adults, 20 and older, are now considered to be overweight or obese. Of these, nearly 300 million women and more than 200 million men were obese [21]. In 2010, almost 43
Low Back Pain Prevalence and Associated Factors in Iranian Population: Findings from the National Health Survey
Akbar Biglarian,Behjat Seifi,Enayatollah Bakhshi,Kazem Mohammad,Mehdi Rahgozar,Masoud Karimlou,Sara Serahati
Pain Research and Treatment , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/653060
Abstract: Background. There are very few studies that had a sample size sufficient to explore the association between factors related to low back pain in a representative sample of the Iranian population. Objective. To examine the relationship between sociodemographic factors, smoking, obesity, and low back pain in Iranian people. Methods. We used Iranian adults respondents ( ?? = 2 5 3 0 7 ) from the National Health Survey. Adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated by using logistic regression. Results. The prevalence of low back pain was found in 29.3% of the studied sample. High age, female sex, being married, obesity, low-economic index, being smoker, in a rural residence, and low educational attainment, all increased the odds of low back pain. Conclusions. Our findings add to the evidence on the importance of obesity in relation to low back pain. These results can be used as a basis to reinforce health programs to prevent obesity. 1. Introduction Low back pain (LBP) is a common medical problem [1, 2] that has many outcomes including disability [3] and taking time off from work [3, 4]. LBP is a major public health problem in the USA because more than 34 million (17%) adults reported LBP only, and 19 million (9%) reported LBP and neck pain in a 3 months duration [1]. One study in Canada estimated that 84% of adults have had LBP during their lifetime [5]. Average prevalences were 59% in UK [6], 70% in Denmark [7], and 75% in Finland [8]. In the general population, the prevalence of low back pain in a 1-month and annual duration ranges from 30% to 40% and 25% to 60%, respectively [9–11]. Overweight and obesity are also public health problems, due to their rapid growth in recent decades and their related health disorders, such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, some cancers, and other diseases [12]. In recent years, the statistics about obesity were appalling. In 2010, almost 43 million children (35 million in developing countries and 8 million in developed countries) were estimated to be overweight or obese [13]. It has been estimated that by 2020, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease will account for almost 75% of all deaths worldwide [14]. Because of multifactorial nature of LBP, researchers have focused on both medical and nonmedical factors such as sociodemographic factors [15–18]. One potential predictor could be age. The positive association between age and LBP has been found in some studies [19, 20]. Another predictor is sex which has shown that LBP is more common in female than in male [2, 10, 21–24]. Bener et al. found a
The positive association between number of children and obesity in Iranian women and men: Results from the National Health Survey
Enayatollah Bakhshi, Mohammad Eshraghian, Kazem Mohammad, Abbas Foroushani, Hojat Zeraati, Akbar Fotouhi, Fraidon Siassi, Behjat Seifi
BMC Public Health , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-8-213
Abstract: Data from the National Health Survey were considered in this investigation. It included 2728 women and men (1364 couples) aged 20–75 years. Height and weight were actually measured rather than self-reported. A generalized estimating equation model was used to estimate the odds of obesity (body mass index (BMI ≥ 30)) as a function of the number of children adjusted for age, sex, education, economic index, workforce, smoking and place of residence.We infer that each additional child has at least 5% and at most 34% increase in the odds of obesity in men and at least 4% and at most 29% increase in the odds of obesity in women. Our test of interaction by sex showed that the association between the number of children and obesity was not different among men and women. Among women, factors that increased obesity included age, low education, having more children, being inactive workforce and being nonsmoker. Among men, these factors included high economic index, low education, having more children, and being nonsmoker.Our results show an association between the number of children and obesity among men. We would recommend interventions to reduce the number of children to prevent obesity in men.Obesity is considered as the disease of the twenty-first century [1]. In the United States, obesity was not considered as an issue of interest in the mid-1980s, but since then, it has become more common: and in 2003–2004, approximately 32.2 percent of the US adult population were obese [2]. Almost one third of adult Canadians are at increased risk of disability, disease, and premature death due to obesity [3]. Obesity is relatively common in Europe, especially in southern and eastern countries, and studies from repeated surveys suggest that the prevalence of obesity has been increasing recent years [1,4]. Excess body weight has been reported to be a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, some cancers and other diseases [5-12].BMI (Body Mass Index) increases with the increase
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