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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 4209 matches for " Emmanuel Nakouné "
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A fatal case of acute hepatitis E among pregnant women, Central African Republic
Charles M Goumba, Emmanuel R Yandoko-Nakouné, Narcisse P Komas
BMC Research Notes , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1756-0500-3-103
Abstract: Twenty one pregnant women attended the Maternity Center of Begoua in the Central African Republic during an outbreak of hepatitis E virus between July and October 2002 with symptoms of acute liver disease. Their mean gestational period was 29.9 (SD 8.3 weeks) and they were aged from 15 to 39 years old. The serology IgM showed that seven women (33%) had acute hepatitis E. Among them, one woman, aged 35 and her newborn died after an apparently normal preterm delivery. The 6 remaining young women, age 18 - 22, had preterm deliveries which included three live babies and three stillborn with one macerated.These results suggest that maternal age, in addition to hormonal, immunological and environmental factors, may be a risk factor for fatal outcome.Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection, a common cause of water-borne epidemics, is endemic and frequently responsible for acute viral hepatitis in developing countries. On the contrary, in the industrialized world, anti-HEV antibodies are detected in the general population [1] with no significant morbidity. Transmission is usually feco-oral, although person-to-person transmission has also been reported. Usually, an acute HEV infection is self-limiting, shows no evidence of chronic HEV infection in humans, and has a case-fatality rate of less than 0.1%. However, this disease is responsible for high maternal mortality during the third trimester of pregnancy in India while reports from Egypt, Europe and the USA have shown that the course and severity of HEV during pregnancy is no different from that observed in non-pregnant women [2]. No clinical case was reported in the Central African Republic until 2001 although hepatitis E (IgG) antibodies have been regularly detected in the healthy population [3]. The first epidemic cases of HEV in the Central African Republic were reported in 2002 [4] and, since then sporadic epidemic outbreaks of hepatitis E were observed. Currently in the Central African Republic, pregnant women are not routi
Temporal Patterns of Abundance of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) and Mitochondrial DNA Analysis of Ae. albopictus in the Central African Republic
Basile Kamgang,Carine Ngoagouni,Alexandre Manirakiza,Emmanuel Nakouné,Christophe Paupy,Mirdad Kazanji
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0002590
Abstract: The invasive Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) was first reported in central Africa in 2000, in Cameroon, with the indigenous mosquito species Ae. aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). Today, this invasive species is present in almost all countries of the region, including the Central African Republic (CAR), where it was first recorded in 2009. As invasive species of mosquitoes can affect the distribution of native species, resulting in new patterns of vectors and concomitant risk for disease, we undertook a comparative study early and late in the wet season in the capital and the main cities of CAR to document infestation and the ecological preferences of the two species. In addition, we determined the probable geographical origin of invasive populations of Ae. albopictus with two mitochondrial DNA genes, COI and ND5. Analysis revealed that Ae. aegypti was more abundant earlier in the wet season and Ae. albopictus in the late wet season. Used tyres were the most heavily colonized productive larval habitats for both species in both seasons. The invasive species Ae. albopictus predominated over the resident species at all sites in which the two species were sympatric. Mitochondrial DNA analysis revealed broad low genetic diversity, confirming recent introduction of Ae. albopictus in CAR. Phylogeographical analysis based on COI polymorphism indicated that the Ae. albopictus haplotype in the CAR population segregated into two lineages, suggesting multiple sources of Ae. albopictus. These data may have important implications for vector control strategies in central Africa.
Epidemiology of chicken anemia virus in Central African Republic and Cameroon
Snoeck Chantal J,Komoyo Giscard F,Mbee Bonya P,Nakouné Emmanuel
Virology Journal , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1743-422x-9-189
Abstract: Background Although chicken anemia virus (CAV) has been detected on all continents, little is known about this virus in sub-Saharan Africa. This study aimed to detect and characterize CAV for the first time in Central African Republic and in Cameroon. Results An overall flock seroprevalence of 36.7% was found in Central African Republic during the 2008–2010 period. Virus prevalences were 34.2% (2008), 14.3% (2009) and 10.4% (2010) in Central African Republic and 39% (2007) and 34.9% (2009) in Cameroon. CAV DNA was found in cloacal swabs of 76.9% of seropositive chickens, suggesting that these animals excreted the virus despite antibodies. On the basis of VP1 sequences, most of the strains in Central African Republic and Cameroon belonged to 9 distinct phylogenetic clusters at the nucleotide level and were not intermixed with strains from other continent. Several cases of mixed infections in flocks and individual chickens were identified. Conclusions Our results suggest multiple introductions of CAV in each country that later spread and diverged locally. Mixed genotype infections together with the observation of CAV DNA in cloacal samples despite antibodies suggest a suboptimal protection by antibodies or virus persistence.
Bat Distribution Size or Shape as Determinant of Viral Richness in African Bats
Ga?l D. Maganga, Mathieu Bourgarel, Peter Vallo, Thierno D. Dallo, Carine Ngoagouni, Jan Felix Drexler, Christian Drosten, Emmanuel R. Nakouné, Eric M. Leroy, Serge Morand
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0100172
Abstract: The rising incidence of emerging infectious diseases (EID) is mostly linked to biodiversity loss, changes in habitat use and increasing habitat fragmentation. Bats are linked to a growing number of EID but few studies have explored the factors of viral richness in bats. These may have implications for role of bats as potential reservoirs. We investigated the determinants of viral richness in 15 species of African bats (8 Pteropodidae and 7 microchiroptera) in Central and West Africa for which we provide new information on virus infection and bat phylogeny. We performed the first comparative analysis testing the correlation of the fragmented geographical distribution (defined as the perimeter to area ratio) with viral richness in bats. Because of their potential effect, sampling effort, host body weight, ecological and behavioural traits such as roosting behaviour, migration and geographical range, were included into the analysis as variables. The results showed that the geographical distribution size, shape and host body weight have significant effects on viral richness in bats. Viral richness was higher in large-bodied bats which had larger and more fragmented distribution areas. Accumulation of viruses may be related to the historical expansion and contraction of bat species distribution range, with potentially strong effects of distribution edges on virus transmission. Two potential explanations may explain these results. A positive distribution edge effect on the abundance or distribution of some bat species could have facilitated host switches. Alternatively, parasitism could play a direct role in shaping the distribution range of hosts through host local extinction by virulent parasites. This study highlights the importance of considering the fragmentation of bat species geographical distribution in order to understand their role in the circulation of viruses in Africa.
Pierre Mendès France, French Security Politics, and the European Defense Community  [PDF]
Emmanuel Konde
Open Journal of Political Science (OJPS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojps.2013.31004

This paper examines the role of Pierre Mendès France in the decision of the French National Assembly to reject the European Defense Community (EDC) proposed by René Pleven in October 1950 and signed by the [Antoine] Pinay government in 1952. Since the signing of the EDC treaty in 1952, successive governments of the Fourth Republic delayed action on ratification of the treaty until 1954 when Mendès France assumed the office of prime minister and, acting against conventional wisdom, forced the National Assembly to vote on it. The EDC was a collective attempt by western European powers, with the full support of the United States, to counterbalance the overwhelming conventional military ascendancy of the Soviet Union in Europe by forming a supranational European army. This collective security plan had its origins in the French government of René Pleven in 1950. Why the French signed the treaty establishing the EDC two years later in 1952, and then rejected it in 1954 after four years of debate, is of central concern to this paper, which explores the intersection and interplay of various factors that contributed to the negative French vote.

Rethinking Leadership Theories  [PDF]
Emmanuel Mango
Open Journal of Leadership (OJL) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojl.2018.71005
Leadership is governed by over 66 theories which leaves many leaders and leadership scholars searching for an inclusive leadership theory. The existence of too many leadership theories obstructs progressive practice and research of leadership, hence there is need for leadership theory consolidation. This paper is an attempt to integrate leadership theories. The integration efforts are based on representative leadership theories and the review of the wider relevant leader-ship literature. Initially, the integration was to be built around 66 leadership theories but with further study 44 theories were eliminated to avoid either repetition or miniature issues and it was established that the 22 leadership theories are a good representation of the concepts captured in leadership theories. The review of the 22 leadership theories was enriched with insights from the wider leadership literature. The review and synthesis of leadership theories and the wider relevant leadership literature revealed that leadership is built on six (6) foundational domains, namely: character, characteristics, people practices, institutional practices, context and outcomes (CCPICO). The six domains occasioned the development of an integrative leadership model: ethical and effective leadership (EEL). As a consequence of the EEL model, one, the EEL subdomains are highlighted, two, leadership development based on EEL model is proposed, three, leadership definition that is in line with EEL model is suggested.
Beyond Leadership  [PDF]
Emmanuel Mango
Open Journal of Leadership (OJL) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojl.2018.71007
The crisis of leadership, like other crises in most critical human endeavours, is not occasioned by lack of definitive theories or knowledge, it is elicited by failure to put the existing theories and knowledge into practice. Besides, the assumption advanced by most of the proponents of leadership theories, that by revealing to leaders what leadership is and what leaders should do, then inevitably the leaders will utilize the acquired knowledge and skills to impact their followers and the society, does not stand the test of scrutiny. There is a gap between leadership knowledge and practice, meaning that there are missing elements which translate leadership theories, knowledge and skills into impact. This paper (beyond leadership) seeks to bridge the gap between knowledge and practice. Beyond leadership answers the question, why are some people (leaders) more ethical and effective than other? The paper proposes and discusses 7 elements (purpose, conviction, moral authority, passion, commitment, courage and learning) which distinguish impactful leaders from the rest. Many more elements may be needed on the leadership journey but without the 7 elements of beyond leadership, any other additional element may not matter much.
Capital Flows, Trade and the Role of the Financial System  [PDF]
Emmanuel Amissah
Modern Economy (ME) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/me.2018.99099
Abstract: In this study, we examine the crucial role played by financial development in the relationship between trade and capital flows. We examine this relationship for 130 countries from 1980 to 2005 for different types of capital flows. We show that the relationship depends on the type of capital flows and the level of financial development. We observe a positive interaction between trade liberalisation and financial development for portfolio flows. In the case of FDI (Foreign Direct Investment), we observe an insignificant relationship. The FDI flows bypass the financial system as it flows into such countries because of other factors as side the level of the financial development.
Pricing Services in a Grid of Computers Using Priority Segmentation  [PDF]
Emmanuel Fragniere, Francesco Moresino
Journal of Service Science and Management (JSSM) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jssm.2010.33040
Abstract: In the past decade many grids of computers have been built among non-profit institutions. These grids are built on a voluntary participation and the resources are not charged to the users. When a resource is given free of charge its allocation is in general not optimal. In this paper, we propose an original mechanism that allows an optimal resource allocation without cash exchanges. We develop a pricing scheme where the service is segmented according to the priority level. The optimal prices of the different services are obtained by solving a Markov Decision Process (MDP). Each participant receives a credit that is proportional to its contribution that enables him to have access to services offered by the grid.
Environmental Consequences of Rapid Urbanisation: Bamenda City, Cameroon  [PDF]
Emmanuel M. Nyambod
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2010.11003
Abstract: Human settlement conditions in many parts of the world, particularly the developing countries, are deteriorating. Natu-ral hazards now occur right at our door steps and the frequency of occurrence and magnitude of damages that they cause is seen to be on an increase especially in poor urban communities. The natural environment is deteriorating at a rate faster than the rate at which natural occurring processes and resources available within the environment can re-plenish. If left unabated, landslides, flooding, sporadic fire outbreaks, collapse of major road axis, houses and bridges have the potential of plunging urban centre’s into an abyss of environmental chaos. This paper chooses Bamenda city- Cameroon, a rapidly expanding city in the third world as an example. The paper therefore assesses the overall situation of deteriorating urban quality by randomly selecting some of the quarters within Bamenda city that are generally con-sidered as hazard prone. It was noticed that deteriorating urban quality stems from the phenomenon of rural exodus. The situation is further exacerbated by inappropriate systems of land administration, poverty and an overall anarchy and ignorance in the handling of environmental issues. This paper therefore calls for a multidisciplinary and holistic range of approaches to solving present day environmental hazards of Bamenda. It calls for the adoption of modern technology and the systematization of the processes of land acquisition and registration especially at state and local government levels.
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