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HYPERLEXIA AND DYSLEXIA IN AUTISM: HITTING A MOVING TARGET
Emily L. WILLIAMS,Manuel F. CASANOVA
Journal of Special Education and Rehabilitation , 2012,
Abstract: The diagnostic histories of autism, dyslexia, and hyperlexia are complex. Because these conditions share both convergent and diver-gent properties, it is important to under-stand these relationships, especially in the case of research and how we interpret bodi-es of work which span decades of fluc-tuating criteria. It is also important to syn-the-size what we already know about the morpho-logy of these con-di-tions and pinpoint what we still don’t. Autism and dyslexia, for instance, share antipodal cerebral morpho-logies, such as minicolumnar den-sity, neuropil width, cell size, corpus callo-sal volume, gyral complexity, gyral window size, and cerebral volume, while hyperlexia has not been studied in this fashion, although it sha-res much in common with autism. Mean-while, the fluctuation in criteria of dyslexia over the years, means that older studies, such as some of the most highly cited in post-mortem research, have potentially used more heterogeneous groups of subjects than dys-lexia research typically uses today. Con-sider-ably, these older studies are often the basis of current animal model and genetics research. In conclusion, in consideration of the continued flux in criteria, particularly the proposed change from “Reading Disorder” to the broa-der “Specific Learning Disorder” within the DSM-5, we strongly recommend a separation of the various reading disorders under their own headings to promote specificity of diag-nosis and treatment, and to support better research.
Shielding concepts for low-background proportional counter arrays in surface laboratories
Craig E. Aalseth,Paul H. Humble,Emily K. Mace,John L. Orrell,Allen Seifert,Richard M. Williams
Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1016/j.apradiso.2015.12.033
Abstract: Development of ultra low background gas proportional counters has made the contribution from naturally occurring radioactive isotopes -- primarily $\alpha$ and $\beta$ activity in the uranium and thorium decay chains -- inconsequential to instrumental sensitivity levels when measurements are performed in above ground surface laboratories. Simple lead shielding is enough to mitigate against gamma rays as gas proportional counters are already relatively insensitive to naturally occurring gamma radiation. The dominant background in these surface laboratory measurements using ultra low background gas proportional counters is due to cosmic ray generated muons, neutrons, and protons. Studies of measurements with ultra low background gas proportional counters in surface and underground laboratories as well as radiation transport Monte Carlo simulations suggest a preferred conceptual design to achieve the highest possible sensitivity from an array of low background gas proportional counters when operated in a surface laboratory. The basis for a low background gas proportional counter array and the preferred shielding configuration is reported, especially in relation to measurements of radioactive gases having low energy decays such as $^{37}$Ar.
Helicopter EMS beyond Trauma: Utilization of Air Transport for Non-Trauma Conditions  [PDF]
Stephen H. Thomas, Lori J. Whelan, Emily Williams, Loren Brown
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2013.412090
Abstract:

Helicopter Emergency Medical Services (HEMS) use in civilian medical transport has its roots in the use of rotor-wing trauma transport in the military setting. Much of the literature and evidence based on the use of HEMS is therefore related to scene and interfacility transport of injured patients. Regionalization of care and increased understanding of time-criticality of various non-trauma conditions has contributed to growing utilization of HEMS for non-trauma conditions over recent decades. It is common for HEMS to be utilized for a variety of non-trauma situations ranging from neonatal and obstetrics transports to cardiac and stroke transports. The purpose of this review is to overview the use of HEMS for non-trauma, focusing on situations in which there is evidence addressing possible HEMS utility.

Dengue Reporter Virus Particles for Measuring Neutralizing Antibodies against Each of the Four Dengue Serotypes
Kimberly Mattia, Bridget A. Puffer, Katherine L. Williams, Ritela Gonzalez, Meredith Murray, Emily Sluzas, Dan Pagano, Sandya Ajith, Megan Bower, Eli Berdougo, Eva Harris, Benjamin J. Doranz
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0027252
Abstract: The lack of reliable, high-throughput tools for characterizing anti-dengue virus (DENV) antibodies in large numbers of serum samples has been an obstacle in understanding the impact of neutralizing antibodies on disease progression and vaccine efficacy. A reporter system using pseudoinfectious DENV reporter virus particles (RVPs) was previously developed by others to facilitate the genetic manipulation and biological characterization of DENV virions. In the current study, we demonstrate the diagnostic utility of DENV RVPs for measuring neutralizing antibodies in human serum samples against all four DENV serotypes, with attention to the suitability of DENV RVPs for large-scale, long-term studies. DENV RVPs used against human sera yielded serotype-specific responses and reproducible neutralization titers that were in statistical agreement with Plaque Reduction Neutralization Test (PRNT) results. DENV RVPs were also used to measure neutralization titers against the four DENV serotypes in a panel of human sera from a clinical study of dengue patients. The high-throughput capability, stability, rapidity, and reproducibility of assays using DENV RVPs offer advantages for detecting immune responses that can be applied to large-scale clinical studies of DENV infection and vaccination.
Complex Movements, Philopatry and Expanded Depth Range of a Severely Threatened Pelagic Shark, the Oceanic Whitetip (Carcharhinus longimanus) in the Western North Atlantic
Lucy A. Howey-Jordan, Edward J. Brooks, Debra L. Abercrombie, Lance K. B. Jordan, Annabelle Brooks, Sean Williams, Emily Gospodarczyk, Demian D. Chapman
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0056588
Abstract: Oceanic whitetip sharks (Carcharhinus longimanus) have recently been targeted for conservation in the western North Atlantic following severe declines in abundance. Pop-up satellite archival tags were applied to 11 mature oceanic whitetips (10 females, 1 male) near Cat Island in the central Bahamas 1–8 May 2011 to provide information about the horizontal and vertical movements of this species. Another large female was opportunistically tagged in the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ). Data from 1,563 total tracking days and 1,142,598 combined depth and temperature readings were obtained. Sharks tagged at Cat Island stayed within 500 km of the tagging site for ~30 days before dispersing across 16,422 km2 of the western North Atlantic. Maximum individual displacement from the tagging site ranged from 290–1940 km after times at liberty from 30–245 days, with individuals moving to several different destinations (the northern Lesser Antilles, the northern Bahamas, and north of the Windward Passage). Many sharks returned to The Bahamas after ~150 days. Estimated residency times within The Bahamas EEZ, where longlining and commercial trade of sharks is illegal, were generally high (mean = 68.2% of time). Sharks spent 99.7% of their time shallower than 200 m and did not exhibit differences in day and night mean depths. There was a positive correlation between daily sea surface temperature and mean depth occupied, suggesting possible behavioral thermoregulation. All individuals made short duration (mean = 13.06 minutes) dives into the mesopelagic zone (down to 1082 m and 7.75°C), which occurred significantly more often at night. Ascent rates during these dives were significantly slower than descent rates, suggesting that these dives are for foraging. The sharks tracked appear to be most vulnerable to pelagic fishing gear deployed from 0–125 m depths, which they may encounter from June to October after leaving the protected waters of The Bahamas EEZ.
Biomarkers of Antioxidant Status, Inflammation, and Cartilage Metabolism Are Affected by Acute Intense Exercise but Not Superoxide Dismutase Supplementation in Horses
Emily D. Lamprecht,Carey A. Williams
Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/920932
Abstract: Objectives were to evaluate effects of (1) repetitive arthrocentesis on biomarkers of inflammation (prostaglandin E2, PGE2) and aggrecan synthesis (chondroitin sulfate-846; CS) in synovial fluid (SF); (2) exercise and superoxide dismutase (SOD) supplementation on biomarkers of inflammation, antioxidant status, and aggrecan synthesis, in horses. Preliminary trial. Standardbreds underwent four arthrocentesis procedures within 48 h and exhibited elevated CS and no changes in PGE2. Exercise trial. this randomized crossover design used twelve Standardbred mares which received either treatment (3000 IU d−1 oral SOD powder) or placebo (cellulose powder) for 6 wks which culminated with them running a repeated sprint exercise test (RSET). Samples were collected before (PRE), during (PEAK), and following exercise (POST). Exercise resulted in increased (<0.05) antioxidant defenses including erythrocyte SOD, total glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, gene transcripts for interferon-gamma, interleukin-10, and interleukin-1β in blood, and decreased plasma nitric oxide. Exercise increased (<0.05) SF CS and adjusted-PGE2, and higher (<0.05) CS and PGE2 were found in hock versus carpus joints. No treatment effects were detected. Results suggest normal adaptive responses likely due to exercise-induced tissue microdamage and oxidative stress. Additional research is needed to identify benefit(s) of SOD supplementation in horses.
Scalar Relativistic Study of the Structure of Rhodium Acetate
Stephen D. Williams,Emily E. Edwards
International Journal of Molecular Sciences , 2004, DOI: 10.3390/i5020067
Abstract: Rhodium acetate, related rhodium carboxylates, and rhodium amide complexes are powerful catalysts for carbene chemistry. They readily promote the decomposition of diazo compounds and transfer the resulting carbene to a variety of substrates. There have been several quantum chemistry studies of these compounds, particularly of the acetate. These have all used non-relativistic methods, and all have shown optimized Rh-Rh bond lengths significantly longer than the experimental value. In this study we have surveyed several scalar relativistic DFT methods using Gaussian, Slater, and numerical basis functions (in DGAUSS, ADF, and DMOL3). Several combinations of exchange-correlation functionals with relativistic and non-relativistic effective core potentials (ECP) were investigated, as were non-relativistic and all electron scalar relativistic methods. The combination of the PW91 exchange and PW91 correlation functional with the Christiansen-Ermler ECP gave the best results: 2.3918 ? compared to the experimental value of 2.3855±0.0005 ?.
Biomarkers of Antioxidant Status, Inflammation, and Cartilage Metabolism Are Affected by Acute Intense Exercise but Not Superoxide Dismutase Supplementation in Horses
Emily D. Lamprecht,Carey A. Williams
Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/920932
Abstract: Objectives were to evaluate effects of (1) repetitive arthrocentesis on biomarkers of inflammation (prostaglandin E2, PGE2) and aggrecan synthesis (chondroitin sulfate-846; CS) in synovial fluid (SF); (2) exercise and superoxide dismutase (SOD) supplementation on biomarkers of inflammation, antioxidant status, and aggrecan synthesis, in horses. Preliminary trial. Standardbreds underwent four arthrocentesis procedures within 48?h and exhibited elevated CS and no changes in PGE2. Exercise trial. this randomized crossover design used twelve Standardbred mares which received either treatment (3000 IU d?1 oral SOD powder) or placebo (cellulose powder) for 6?wks which culminated with them running a repeated sprint exercise test (RSET). Samples were collected before (PRE), during (PEAK), and following exercise (POST). Exercise resulted in increased ( ) antioxidant defenses including erythrocyte SOD, total glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, gene transcripts for interferon-gamma, interleukin-10, and interleukin-1β in blood, and decreased plasma nitric oxide. Exercise increased ( ) SF CS and adjusted-PGE2, and higher ( ) CS and PGE2 were found in hock versus carpus joints. No treatment effects were detected. Results suggest normal adaptive responses likely due to exercise-induced tissue microdamage and oxidative stress. Additional research is needed to identify benefit(s) of SOD supplementation in horses. 1. Introduction Equine athletes suffer from challenges of the immune system and inflammation related to exercise [1–4]. Intense physical activity has been shown to induce subclinical tissue damage and a subsequent immune response involving the upregulation of inflammatory mediators termed cytokines. Exercise-induced increases in cytokine transcripts including tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), interferon gamma (IFNγ), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and interleukin-10 (IL-10) are comparable to that of an acute phase immune response and have been demonstrated in horses [5, 6]. Furthermore, inflammatory processes have also been associated with redox imbalances favoring pro-oxidants, resulting in oxidative stress [7]. Exercise-induced increases in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), including, free radicals have also been demonstrated in horses [6, 8–12]. Over exaggerated or sustained responses to intense exhaustive exercise may set the stage for a chronic inflammatory and/or an immunosuppressed state and a predisposition to infection, poor physical performance, and/or onset of chronic diseases [13, 14]. Specifically, degenerative
DECal: A Spectrophotometric Calibration System For DECam
J. L. Marshall,Jean-Philippe Rheault,D. L. DePoy,Travis Prochaska,Richard Allen,Tyler W. Behm,Emily C. Martin,Brannon Veal,Steven Villanueva, Jr.,Patrick Williams,Jason Wise
Physics , 2013,
Abstract: DECal is a new calibration system for the CTIO 4 m Blanco telescope. It is currently being installed as part of the Dark Energy Survey and will provide both broadband flat fields and narrowband (about 1 nm bandwidth) spectrophotometric calibration for the new Dark Energy Camera (DECam). Both of these systems share a new Lambertian flat field screen. The broadband flat field system uses LEDs to illuminate each photometric filter. The spectrophotometric calibration system consists of a monochromator-based tunable light source that is projected onto the flat field screen using a custom line-to-spot fiber bundle and an engineered diffuser. Several calibrated photodiodes positioned along the beam monitor the telescope throughput as a function of wavelength. This system will measure the wavelength-dependent instrumental response function of the total telescope+instrument system in the range 300 < lambda < 1100nm. The spectrophotometric calibration will be performed regularly (roughly once per month) to determine the spectral response of the DECam system and to monitor changes in instrumental throughput during the five year Dark Energy Survey project.
Lactobacillus johnsonii N6.2 Mitigates the Development of Type 1 Diabetes in BB-DP Rats
Ricardo Valladares,Dhyana Sankar,Nan Li,Emily Williams,Kin-Kwan Lai,Asmaa Sayed Abdelgeliel,Claudio F. Gonzalez,Clive H. Wasserfall,Joseph Larkin III,Desmond Schatz,Mark A. Atkinson,Eric W. Triplett,Josef Neu,Graciela L. Lorca
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0010507
Abstract: The intestinal epithelium is a barrier that composes one of the most immunologically active surfaces of the body due to constant exposure to microorganisms as well as an infinite diversity of food antigens. Disruption of intestinal barrier function and aberrant mucosal immune activation have been implicated in a variety of diseases within and outside of the gastrointestinal tract. With this model in mind, recent studies have shown a link between diet, composition of intestinal microbiota, and type 1 diabetes pathogenesis. In the BioBreeding rat model of type 1 diabetes, comparison of the intestinal microbial composition of diabetes prone and diabetes resistant animals found Lactobacillus species were negatively correlated with type 1 diabetes development. Two species, Lactobacillus johnsonii and L. reuteri, were isolated from diabetes resistant rats. In this study diabetes prone rats were administered pure cultures of L. johnsonii or L. reuteri isolated from diabetes resistant rats to determine the effect on type 1 diabetes development.
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