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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 2745 matches for " Emily Hayes "
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Drinking Water Quality in the Sagarmatha National Park, Nepal  [PDF]
Kirsten Nicholson, Emily Hayes, Klaus Neumann, Carolyn Dowling, Subodh Sharma
Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection (GEP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/gep.2016.44007
Abstract: In 2014 we began the first systematic study of water quality, specifically fecal contamination of drinking water in the Khumbu Valley, Sagarmatha National Park (SNP, Mt. Everest region), Nepal. Our goal was to identify coliform bacteria and E. coli in drinking water and groundwater-fed springs to generate a data set that will function as a base for potable water supplies and further monitoring. Sampling occurred in May (pre-monsoon summer) and early November (post-monsoon early winter) 2014. Sample sites were selected based on proximity to villages and primary use as a drinking water source. Overall, the data presented a predictable correlation between fecal contamination and both elevation and increasing population/tourist traffic. Drinking water within the study area met current World Health Organization drinking water standards for the physical properties of temperature (2.8°C - 13°C), pH (5.27 - 7.24), conductivity (14.5 - 133 mS) and TDS (7.24 - 65.5 ppm). Samples from the more populated, lower altitude areas had higher levels of E. coli. Samples collected and analyzed in May (pre-monsoon summer) had a higher level of E. coli and coliform bacteria than samples collected in November (post-monsoon early winter) suggesting a seasonal dependence overlaid on the population signature. Surface water typically had higher E. coli values than groundwater-fed springs. Temperature, total dissolved solids and conductivity generally decreased with increasing elevation, whereas pH increased with increasing elevation. There appears to be significant presence of fecal contamination of water sources due to a combination of tourism, elevation and seasons.


The Role of Oestrogen and Other Hormones in the Pathophysiology and Treatment of Schizophrenia
Emily Hayes,Emorfia Gavrilidis,Jayashri Kulkarni
Schizophrenia Research and Treatment , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/540273
Abstract: The theory that many serious mental illnesses, in particular psychoses such as schizophrenia, may have a significant hormonal aetiological component is fast gaining popularity and the support of scientific evidence. Oestrogen in particular has been substantially investigated as a potential mediator of brain function in schizophrenia. Epidemiological and life-cycle data point to significant differences in the incidence and course of schizophrenia between men and women suggests a protective role of oestrogen. In vitro and in vivo preclinical research confirms oestradiol’s interactions with central neurotransmitter systems implicated in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia, while results from randomised controlled trials investigating the antipsychotic potential of oestrogen have been positive. Research into other neuroactive hormones with possible effects on mental state is a rapidly evolving field that may hold new promise. Given that schizophrenia and related psychoses are pervasive and debilitating conditions for which currently available treatments are often only partially effective and entail a high risk of serious side-effects, novel therapeutic strategies are needed. The literature reviewed in this paper suggests that hormones such as oestrogen could be a viable option, and it is hoped that with further research and larger trials, the oestrogen hypothesis can be translated into effective clinical practice.
The Role of Oestrogen and Other Hormones in the Pathophysiology and Treatment of Schizophrenia
Emily Hayes,Emorfia Gavrilidis,Jayashri Kulkarni
Schizophrenia Research and Treatment , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/540273
Abstract: The theory that many serious mental illnesses, in particular psychoses such as schizophrenia, may have a significant hormonal aetiological component is fast gaining popularity and the support of scientific evidence. Oestrogen in particular has been substantially investigated as a potential mediator of brain function in schizophrenia. Epidemiological and life-cycle data point to significant differences in the incidence and course of schizophrenia between men and women suggests a protective role of oestrogen. In vitro and in vivo preclinical research confirms oestradiol’s interactions with central neurotransmitter systems implicated in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia, while results from randomised controlled trials investigating the antipsychotic potential of oestrogen have been positive. Research into other neuroactive hormones with possible effects on mental state is a rapidly evolving field that may hold new promise. Given that schizophrenia and related psychoses are pervasive and debilitating conditions for which currently available treatments are often only partially effective and entail a high risk of serious side-effects, novel therapeutic strategies are needed. The literature reviewed in this paper suggests that hormones such as oestrogen could be a viable option, and it is hoped that with further research and larger trials, the oestrogen hypothesis can be translated into effective clinical practice. 1. Introduction Over a century ago, the father of modern psychiatry Emil Kraepelin first implicated an imbalance of sexual hormones in the aetiology of “dementia praecox” [1], and reports of gonadal dysfunction in psychotic patients have also been well documented since this time [2]. However it is only with recent scientific advances that the considerable effects of reproductive hormones on central nervous system functioning and mental health have come to light. Such evidence has led multiple researchers [3–6] to investigate the role of oestrogen in the pathogenesis of psychosis and propose the “oestrogen protection hypothesis” and the “hypothesis of hypoestrogenism” as possible explanations for gender differences in schizophrenia. This paper provides a summary of the current literature with the intention of highlighting the likely role and clinical importance of oestrogen and other reproductive hormones in psychotic illness, in particular in the field of women’s mental health. 2. Case Study Miss R was a 52-year-old woman with a history of schizophrenia which began after the birth of a child she gave up for adoption in her late twenties. She had
Reducing Stigma Barriers to Help-Seeking Behaviors among College Students  [PDF]
Emily Reichert
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2012.310134
Abstract: College students suffer disproportionately from depression, an illness with significant consequences that, untreated, escalates in severity. A review of literature reveals that seeking help for this health issue is often stigmatized, reducing the likelihood of treatment. While the literature identifies the types of stigma, less is known about the communicative processes involved in stigma coping. This paper applies Meisenbach’s (2010) Theory of Stigma Management Communication (SMC) to this issue, suggested strategies researching depression stigma coping as well as new and promising intervention strategies to increase help seeking rates among college students.
Do You Know where Your Money Is? Product Disclosure Statements for Discretionary Investment Services  [PDF]
Emily Lou
Beijing Law Review (BLR) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/blr.2013.41006
Abstract:

New Zealand capital markets currently do not serve retail investors well, creating investor skepticism regarding participation. A recent Reader’s Digest survey rated financial advisers among the least trustworthy of professions. This article maps the legal implications of the new measures introduced by the Financial Markets Conduct Bill 2011 to guard investor interests in relation to financial products and services. The paper provides a useful critique of the proposed reforms, in particular, whether the “Product Disclosure Statement” (PDS) and the new licensing of fund managers will give retail investors confidence in investing through financial intermediaries. The paper concluded with recommendation for New Zealand regulator to obtain inspiration from overseas model.

Stroke and Constipation
—Coincidence or Interrelated?
 [PDF]

Jayaprada Kasaraneni, Margaret Hayes
Health (Health) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/health.2014.619313
Abstract: Emile Gautier once said, “Freedom of the bowels is the most precious, perhaps even the most essential, of all freedoms—one without which little can be accomplished.” This paper will explore the neuronal physiology, pathophysiology, theories regarding the correlation between stroke and constipation along with a few treatment options. Patients often recovering from stroke complain of constipation and it is most likely attributed to changes in diet, ambulation, or fluid balance. However, there are not many studies to reflect the correlation between other less significant symptoms and stroke presentation.
Adverse Fetal and Neonatal Outcomes Associated with a Life-Long High Fat Diet: Role of Altered Development of the Placental Vasculature
Emily K. Hayes, Anna Lechowicz, Jim J. Petrik, Yaryna Storozhuk, Sabrina Paez-Parent, Qin Dai, Imtiaz A. Samjoo, Margaret Mansell, Andree Gruslin, Alison C. Holloway, Sandeep Raha
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0033370
Abstract: Maternal obesity results in a number of obstetrical and fetal complications with both immediate and long-term consequences. The increased prevalence of obesity has resulted in increasing numbers of women of reproductive age in this high-risk group. Since many of these obese women have been subjected to hypercaloric diets from early childhood we have developed a rodent model of life-long maternal obesity to more clearly understand the mechanisms that contribute to adverse pregnancy outcomes in obese women. Female Sprague Dawley rats were fed a control diet (CON - 16% of calories from fat) or high fat diet (HF - 45% of calories from fat) from 3 to 19 weeks of age. Prior to pregnancy HF-fed dams exhibited significant increases in body fat, serum leptin and triglycerides. A subset of dams was sacrificed at gestational day 15 to evaluate fetal and placental development. The remaining animals were allowed to deliver normally. HF-fed dams exhibited a more than 3-fold increase in fetal death and decreased neonatal survival. These outcomes were associated with altered vascular development in the placenta, as well as increased hypoxia in the labyrinth. We propose that the altered placental vasculature may result in reduced oxygenation of the fetal tissues contributing to premature demise and poor neonatal survival.
Uptake, Accuracy, Safety, and Linkage into Care over Two Years of Promoting Annual Self-Testing for HIV in Blantyre, Malawi: A Community-Based Prospective Study
Augustine T. Choko?,Peter MacPherson?,Emily L. Webb?,Barbara A. Willey?,Helena Feasy?,Rodrick Sambakunsi?,Aaron Mdolo?,Simon D. Makombe?,Nicola Desmond?,Richard Hayes
PLOS Medicine , 2015, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1001873
Abstract: Background Home-based HIV testing and counselling (HTC) achieves high uptake, but is difficult and expensive to implement and sustain. We investigated a novel alternative based on HIV self-testing (HIVST). The aim was to evaluate the uptake of testing, accuracy, linkage into care, and health outcomes when highly convenient and flexible but supported access to HIVST kits was provided to a well-defined and closely monitored population. Methods and Findings Following enumeration of 14 neighbourhoods in urban Blantyre, Malawi, trained resident volunteer-counsellors offered oral HIVST kits (OraQuick ADVANCE Rapid HIV-1/2 Antibody Test) to adult (≥16 y old) residents (n = 16,660) and reported community events, with all deaths investigated by verbal autopsy. Written and demonstrated instructions, pre- and post-test counselling, and facilitated HIV care assessment were provided, with a request to return kits and a self-completed questionnaire. Accuracy, residency, and a study-imposed requirement to limit HIVST to one test per year were monitored by home visits in a systematic quality assurance (QA) sample. Overall, 14,004 (crude uptake 83.8%, revised to 76.5% to account for population turnover) residents self-tested during months 1–12, with adolescents (16–19 y) most likely to test. 10,614/14,004 (75.8%) participants shared results with volunteer-counsellors. Of 1,257 (11.8%) HIV-positive participants, 26.0% were already on antiretroviral therapy, and 524 (linkage 56.3%) newly accessed care with a median CD4 count of 250 cells/μl (interquartile range 159–426). HIVST uptake in months 13–24 was more rapid (70.9% uptake by 6 mo), with fewer (7.3%, 95% CI 6.8%–7.8%) positive participants. Being “forced to test”, usually by a main partner, was reported by 2.9% (95% CI 2.6%–3.2%) of 10,017 questionnaire respondents in months 1–12, but satisfaction with HIVST (94.4%) remained high. No HIVST-related partner violence or suicides were reported. HIVST and repeat HTC results agreed in 1,639/1,649 systematically selected (1 in 20) QA participants (99.4%), giving a sensitivity of 93.6% (95% CI 88.2%–97.0%) and a specificity of 99.9% (95% CI 99.6%–100%). Key limitations included use of aggregate data to report uptake of HIVST and being unable to adjust for population turnover. Conclusions Community-based HIVST achieved high coverage in two successive years and was safe, accurate, and acceptable. Proactive HIVST strategies, supported and monitored by communities, could substantially complement existing approaches to providing early HIV diagnosis and periodic repeat testing to
A review of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome and therapeutic strategies
Don Hayes
Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1749-8090-6-92
Abstract: Lung transplantation is a treatment option for patients with advanced lung disease or irreversible pulmonary failure. Despite advancements in surgical techniques, lung preservation, immunosuppression, and management of ischemia/reperfusion injury and infections, acute and chronic allograft rejection continues to be a major problem. The incidence and severity of acute rejection in lung transplantation exceeds all other solid organ transplants [1,2]. Chronic rejection, more commonly called bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS), is the leading cause of death beyond the first year post lung transplantation [3,4]. The key clinical feature of BOS is the development of airway obstruction with a reduction of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) that does not respond to bronchodilators (Table 1) [5,6]. The hallmark histological findings of chronic rejection is obliterative bronchiolitis (OB), which is an inflammatory process affecting small noncartilagenous airways [7,8]. Figure 1 is representative of the typical findings of OB histopathologically. The development of BOS is rare within the first year after lung transplant, but the cumulative incidence ranges from 43 to 80% within the first five years of transplantation [4,9-11].The diagnosis of BOS is typically made by clinical, physiological, and radiographic parameters. Due to the sporadic or patchy involvement of OB, pathologic diagnosis can be missed by transbronchial biopsies (TBB) [5], which are often performed to exclude other diagnoses including acute rejection or infection. Histologically, early lesions of BOS demonstrate submucosal lymphocytic inflammation and disruption of the epithelium of small airways, followed by an ingrowth of fibromyxoid granulation tissue into the airway lumen, resulting in partial or complete obstruction. Subsequently, granulation tissue organizes in a cicatricial pattern with resultant fibrosis and thus obliterates the airway lumen [12]. In some instances, the only residual histo
Reforma social y reforma jurídica: Proyectos para la Argentina moderna de un intelectual hispanoamericano, el Dr. Serafín álvarez
Hayes,Graciela;
Cuyo , 2008,
Abstract: with ?the 80's generation? as the stage, there arise topics and controversies that show the ideological mobility of the time. in the crossing between the old schemes and the new proposals there appear rupturing attempts that open up roads that are not always well-known. serafin alvarez's thought and works on social and judicial reform and fiscal mediation constitute a universe of innovative and visionary ideas that deserve to be included in the realm of the history of ideas in argentina.
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