Abstract:
The classic recommended antifungal agents for the treatment of invasive Candida infections were amphotericin B, a lipid formulation of amphotericin B and fluconazole in both neutropenic or nonneutropenic patients as either primary or alternative therapies. Voriconazole has been recommended when additional coverage for filamentous fungi is needed (e.g. neutropenic patients). More recently and based on well designed comparative clinical trials, the three echinocandins, caspofungin, anidulafungin and micafungin have been added as primary or alternative therapies especially for critically ill or neutropenic patients. In general, the echinocandins are most useful when patients have previously been exposed to an azole or are unstable.

Abstract:
It is found that the coupled piNNN-NNN system breaks into fragments in a nontrivial way. Assuming the particles as distinguishable, there are indeed four modes of fragmentation into two clusters, while in the standard three-body problem there are three possible two-cluster partitions and conversely the four-body problem has seven different possibilities. It is shown how to formulate the pion-three-nucleon collision problem through the integral-equation approach by taking into account the proper fragmentation of the system. The final result does not depend on the assumption of separability of the two-body t-matrices. Then, the quasiparticle method a' la Grassberger-Sandhas is applied and effective two-cluster connected-kernel equations are obtained. The corresponding bound-state problem is also formulated, and the resulting homogeneous equation provides a new approach which generalizes the commonly used techniques to describe the three-nucleon bound-state problem, where the meson degrees of freedom are usually suppressed.

Abstract:
Let $k$ be a field of characteristic $p > 0$ such that $[k:k^p] < \infty$ and let $f \in R = k[x_0, ..., x_n]$ be homogeneous of degree $d$. We obtain a sharp bound on the degrees in which the Frobenius action on $H^n_\mathfrak{m}(R/fR)$ can be injective when $R/fR$ has an isolated non-F-pure point at $\mathfrak{m}$. As a corollary, we show that if $(R/fR)_\mathfrak{m}$ is not F-pure then $R/fR$ has an isolated non-F-pure point at $\mathfrak{m}$ if and only if the Frobenius action is injective in degrees $\le -n(d-1)$.

Abstract:
We first relate an approximate $n^{th}$-order left derivative of $s(R, f^t)$ at the F-pure threshold $c$ to the F-splitting ratio $r_F(R, f^c)$. Next, we apply the methods developed by Monsky and Teixeira in their investigation of syzygy gaps and $p$-fractals to obtain uniform convergence of the F-signature when $f$ is a product of distinct linear polynomials in two variables. Finally, we explicitly compute the F-signature function for several examples using Macaulay2 code outlined in the last section of this paper.

Abstract:
I address the problem of the intentionality of “feeling”, considering the study-case of “background feelings” (malaise, tension, etc.) in Damasio (2003, 2010). Background feelings, in fact, are “border case” feelings: These feelings seem lacking intentionality, at least by the meaning that their intentional content is not any object in the world they refer to. Differently from other feelings connected to intentional states (such as emotions, for ex., feelings are mainly considered arising from), background feelings reveal a bodily nature of feeling at its core, while intentionality of feelings, when any, rather depends on the intentionality of the states feelings concern. Background feelings reveal an intimate, immediate relation to our own body we can’t catch considering feelings always and only connected to emotions. The intimate relation to the body, coming in “foreground” in these feelings only, should shed more light on another key feature of feelings, namely their phenomenality, more than their “supposed” intentionality.

Abstract:
In Italy 67% of forestlands belong to private, usually small-scale, owners. Understanding landowners’ motivations is a crucial element to promote better and more active forest stewardship. This paper describes private forest owners’ managerial motivations. After a literature review on the issue, motivations are analyzed through a case study in the municipality of Recoaro Terme, located in the outer Alps range, Veneto Region, north-east Italy. Stated reasons for forest management are empirically identified by means of structured interviews to a statistically representative sample of local forest owners. Results show that forests are much more important for their intangible values and firewood self-consumption than for timber selling or other financial benefits. Different classifications of family forest owners are presented. The more helpful one is based on a cluster analysis and leads to the identification of three owners types with different motivations: a group of owners characterized by “Intangible Values”, a cluster of the “Multiobjective” owners and a group of “Un-interested” owners. These types show different socio-demographic features, various management, aims and information-seeking behaviour. Communication strategies, and management and assistance programs that might appeal to each type are discussed.

Abstract:
We derive the dynamical equations which consistently couple the four--body ($\pi$NNN) system to the underlying three--nucleon system. Our treatment can be considered the proper generalization of the Afnan--Blankleider equations for the coupled NN--$\pi$NN system. The resulting connected--kernel equation resembles in structure the Yakubovskii--Grassberger--Sandhas equation for the standard four--body problem, but involves 24 chain--labelled components (rather than the usual 18 ones) and allows for a consistent evaluation of reaction amplitudes involving $\pi$ absorption/production.

Abstract:
In order to approach the pion--multinucleon problem, we have found it convenient to reformulate the general N--body theory starting from the fully unclusterized (i.e., N <- N) amplitude. If we rewrite such an amplitude in terms of new unknowns which can be later identified as the amplitudes for all the (N-1) <- (N-1) cluster processes, and repeat recursively the procedure up to the treatment of the 2 <- 2 cluster processes, we obtain very naturally the hierarchy of equations which ranges from the N--body fully--disconnected Lippmann--Schwinger equation to the N--body connected--kernel Yakubovskii--Grassberger--Sandhas one. This revisitation turns out to be very useful when considering the modifications required in case one of the bodies is a pion and the remaining are nucleons, with the pion being allowed to disappear and reappear through the action of a pion--nucleon vertex. In fact, we obtain a new set of coupled pion-- multinucleon equations which allow a consistent and simultaneous treatment of pion scattering and absorption. For the piNNN system, the kernel of these coupled equations is shown to be connected after three iterations.

Abstract:
We consider a new three-nucleon force generated by the exchange of one pion in the presence of a 2N correlation. The underlying irreducible diagram has been recently suggested by the authors as a possible candidate to explain the puzzle of the vector analyzing powers $A_y$ and $iT_{11}$ for nucleon-deuteron scattering. Herein, we have calculated the elastic neutron-deuteron differential cross section, $A_y$, $iT_{11}$, $T_{20}$, $T_{21}$, and $T_{22}$ below break-up threshold by accurately solving the Alt-Grassberger-Sandhas equations with realistic interactions. We have also studied how $A_y$ evolves below 30 MeV. The results indicate that this new 3NF diagram provides one possible additional contribution, with the correct spin-isospin structure, for the explanation of the origin of this puzzle.