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Osmolalidad de productos y fórmulas para la terapia nutricional
De Abreu,Jorge; López,Emeris; Dini,Elizabeth;
Investigación Clínica , 2009,
Abstract: the objective was to determine the osmolality of products and formulas for nutritional therapy available in venezuela. the samples were grouped as follows: infant formulas, premature infant, follow up, 1 to 4 years, soy based, lactose free, anti-reflux, hypoallergenic, complete beverages, polymeric formulas, semi-elemental, caloric and protein modules. a vapor pressure digital osmometer was used, analyzing five samples of each product from different lots, prepared by weigth or with scoop. when the variation coefficient of the osmolality measurements was higher than 10%, five additional samples were analyzed. averages, standard deviation, and the variation coefficient of the osmolality measures (95% reliability) were calculated. the osmolality (mmol/kg) of infant and premature infant formulas were between 258 and 309; follow up formulas ranged between 256-390; 1 to 4 years: 343-399; soy based: 155-252; lactose free: 163-248; anti-reflux: 230-292; hypoallergenic: 220-335; complete beverages: 205-454; polymeric formulas: 247-588; semi-elemental: 238-289; caloric module: 89-99 and protein module: 30-60. we found that almost all the formulas prepared with scoop had higher osmolality and variability than the same products prepared by weight. some follow up, polymeric, 1 to 4 years formulas and complete beverages had high osmolalities and therefore should not be administered to infants, and must be administered with caution to children and adolescents when the gastrointestinal tract is compromised.
Osmolalidad de productos y fórmulas para la terapia nutricional Osmolality of products and formulas for nutritional therapy
Jorge De Abreu,Emeris López,Elizabeth Dini
Investigación Clínica , 2009,
Abstract: Se determinó la osmolalidad de fórmulas y productos para la terapia nutricional disponibles en Venezuela. Las muestras se agruparon en fórmulas infantiles de inicio, neonatos de bajo peso, infantiles de continuación, 1 a 4 a os, a base de soya, sin lactosa, antirreflujo, hipoalergénicas, dietas con nutrientes intactos basadas en leche (DNIBL), fórmulas poliméricas, semielementales, módulos calóricos y proteicos. Se utilizó un osmómetro digital de presión de vapor, analizando cinco muestras por producto, preparadas por medida y por peso, de lotes diferentes. Cuando el coeficiente de variación de las medidas de osmolalidad fue mayor a 10%, se analizaron 5 muestras adicionales. Se calcularon promedios, desviación estándar y coeficiente de variación de los valores de osmolalidad (95% confiabilidad). La osmolalidad (mmol/kg) de las fórmulas de inicio y de neonatos de bajo peso estuvieron entre 258 y 309; las de continuación: 256-390; de ni os de 1 a 4 a os: 343-399; a base de soya: 155-252; sin lactosa: 163-248; antirreflujo: 230-292; hipoalergénica: 220-335; DNIBL: 205-454; poliméricas: 247-588; semielementales: 238-289; módulo calórico: 89-99; y proteico: 30-60. Se encontró que generalmente las fórmulas preparadas con medidor tenían mayor osmolalidad y variabilidad que las preparadas según el peso. Algunas fórmulas de continuación, poliméricas, fórmulas para ni os de 1 a 4 a os y con nutrientes intactos basadas en leche tuvieron osmolalidades elevadas por lo que no deben ser administradas a lactantes, y con precaución a ni os y adolescentes cuando el tracto gastrointestinal esté comprometido. The objective was to determine the osmolality of products and formulas for nutritional therapy available in Venezuela. The samples were grouped as follows: infant formulas, premature infant, follow up, 1 to 4 years, soy based, lactose free, anti-reflux, hypoallergenic, complete beverages, polymeric formulas, semi-elemental, caloric and protein modules. A vapor pressure digital osmometer was used, analyzing five samples of each product from different lots, prepared by weigth or with scoop. When the variation coefficient of the osmolality measurements was higher than 10%, five additional samples were analyzed. Averages, standard deviation, and the variation coefficient of the osmolality measures (95% reliability) were calculated. The osmolality (mmol/kg) of infant and premature infant formulas were between 258 and 309; follow up formulas ranged between 256-390; 1 to 4 years: 343-399; soy based: 155-252; lactose free: 163-248; anti-reflux: 230-292; hypoallergenic: 220-33
Osmolalidad de bebidas de consumo frecuente
Dini-G,Elizabeth; De Abreu-C,Jorge; López-M,Emeris;
Investigación Clínica , 2004,
Abstract: the objective of this work was to determine the osmolality of beverages frequently consumed by children and adolescents due to the scarce information available in our country. the samples were grouped as follows: milks; refreshments; beverages based on fruits, vegetables, cereals, and tubers; sport drinks; energizing drinks; oral rehydrating solutions; reconstituted drinks and infusions. a vapor pressure digital osmometer was used, five samples of each beverage from different lots were analyzed. four osmolality determinations were made on each sample and the average of such values was calculated. when the variation coefficient of the osmolality measurements of the five samples was higher than 10%, five additional samples were analyzed. as many samples as possible were used with breast milk in the time period of the study. osmolality averages, standard deviation, and the osmolality confidence intervals (95% reliability) were calculated. the osmolality (mmol/kg) of breast milk and that of cow milk were between 273 and 389; refreshments, white, black and flavored colas, and malts ranged between 479-811; and soda and light drinks: 44-62; fresh fruit and commercial drinks (coconut, peach, apple, orange, pear, pineapple, grape, plum, tamarind): 257-1152 and light juices: 274; sports beverages: 367; energizing drinks: 740; drinks based on vegetables and cereals: 213-516; oral rehydrating solutions: 236-397; reconstituted drinks: 145; infusions: 25. beverages with adequate osmolality levels for children were: milks, light refreshments, soda, fresh and light juices, oral rehydrating, soy, and reconstituted drinks and infusions.
Osmolalidad de bebidas de consumo frecuente Osmolality of frequently consumed beverages
Elizabeth Dini-G,Jorge De Abreu-C,Emeris López-M
Investigación Clínica , 2004,
Abstract: Se determinó la osmolalidad de bebidas de consumo frecuente por los ni os y adolescentes debido a la escasa información existente en nuestro país. Las muestras se agruparon en leches, bebidas refrescantes, con base en frutas, hortalizas, cereales y tubérculos; deportivas, energéticas, soluciones de rehidratación oral, reconstituidas e infusiones. Se utilizó un osmómetro digital de presión de vapor, analizando cinco muestras de cada bebida, lotes diferentes. A cada muestra se le hicieron cuatro determinaciones de osmolalidad calculando el promedio de dichos valores. Cuando el coeficiente de variación de las medidas de osmolalidad de las cinco muestras fue superior a 10%, se analizaron 5 muestras adicionales. Con la leche materna se utilizaron las muestras que fueron posibles recolectar durante el estudio. Se calcularon promedios de osmolalidad, desviación estándar e intervalo de confianza de los valores de osmolalidad (95% confiabilidad). La osmolalidad (mmol/kg) de la leche materna y de vaca estuvieron entre 273 y 389; las bebidas refrescantes, colas blancas, negras, sabores y maltas oscilaron entre 479-811 y la soda y bebidas light: 44-62; bebidas de frutas naturales y comerciales (coco, durazno, manzana, naranja, pera, pi a, uva, ciruela, tamarindo): 257-1152 y los jugos light: 274; bebidas deportivas: 367; bebidas energéticas: 740; bebidas basadas en hortalizas y cereales: 213-516; soluciones de rehidratación oral: 236-397; bebidas reconstituidas: 145; infusiones: 25. Las bebidas con osmolalidad en rango adecuado para los ni os fueron: leches, refrescos light, soda, jugos naturales y light, bebidas de rehidratación oral, de soya, reconstituidas e infusiones. The objective of this work was to determine the osmolality of beverages frequently consumed by children and adolescents due to the scarce information available in our country. The samples were grouped as follows: milks; refreshments; beverages based on fruits, vegetables, cereals, and tubers; sport drinks; energizing drinks; oral rehydrating solutions; reconstituted drinks and infusions. A vapor pressure digital osmometer was used, five samples of each beverage from different lots were analyzed. Four osmolality determinations were made on each sample and the average of such values was calculated. When the variation coefficient of the osmolality measurements of the five samples was higher than 10%, five additional samples were analyzed. As many samples as possible were used with breast milk in the time period of the study. Osmolality averages, standard deviation, and the osmolality confidence inte
Conjugated Molecules for the Smart Filtering of Intense Radiations
Danilo Dini
International Journal of Molecular Sciences , 2003, DOI: 10.3390/i4050291
Abstract: The practical realization of smart optical filters, i.e. devices which change their optical transmission in a suitable way to keep a working state for a general light sensitive element , can involve the use of conjugated molecules whose light absorption properties are light- intensity dependent (nonlinear optical effect). The verification of optical limiting displayed by some particular conjugated molecules, e.g. phthalocyanines, is quite noteworthy and can be successfully exploited for the realization of such smart optical devices. In the present contribution the analysis of the relevant molecular feature of a phthalocyanine are analyzed with the aim of determining useful correlations between optical limiting performance and phthalocyanine chemical structure. In particular , the electronic nature of the substituent is considered as a key factor for the explanation of some observed optical limiting trends.
Male circumcision as strategy for HIV prevention and sexually transmitted diseases: the potential role of traditional birth attendants in neonatal male circumcision
Dini,Catia;
Annali dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanità , 2010, DOI: 10.4415/ANN_10_04_02
Abstract: in developing countries, it would be advisable to give priority to human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) prevention strategies, because of the high mortality caused by the rapid spread of the pandemic. furthermore, hiv prevention could contribute to the mitigation of tuberculosis (tb) propagation, which is tightly correlated to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (aids). as demonstrated, male circumcision (mc) confers protection against hiv and sexually transmitted diseases (std). the suggested strategy considers the neonatal mc advantageous, since it is safer, feasible, culturally more acceptable and less costly than adult mc. this approach is based on the assumption that, if newborn males are circumcised, within the next 15-20 years the sexually active population will be almost entirely circumcised and, consequently, the hiv transmission will be reduced. the employment of retrained traditional birth attendants is considered in order to implement the mc after the child birth and to facilitate its acceptance in those contexts where it is not traditionally performed.
Meaning and contents of the programme for a revitalization of Africa
Dini? Jordan
Medjunarodni Problemi , 2004, DOI: 10.2298/medjp0401079d
Abstract: The programme for a revitalization of Africa through the New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD) project is determined by the need of the African continent to overcome its historic heritage and a rather unfavourable current situation, and to become part of the globalisation processes that had spread throughout the world in the late 20th and early 21st centuries. After a brief clarification of the terminology included in the very title of the above project, the author identifies and analyses the important characteristics of the current situation in the continent, which has been and still is conditioned by the marginalisation and isolation of the continent from the main streams and processes that had been expanding throughout the world over the past decades. Assessing that the underdevelopment and poverty are the essence of the problem, the subliming factor of all other negative trends and the main cause of the continent’s marginalisation in the world’s economic, political and civilizational developments, the main point of the analysis is actually focused on finding the causes of this situation. In that context, the legitimacy of colonialism, the consequences of the globalisation process in the African continent, the link between domestic and external factors in the cause-and-effect connection with the negative development of the continent are being analysed. The analysis of the important factors of the present and the future of the continent includes and identifies the historic and current advantages of the continent, which are also the realistic foundation on which the revitalization project rests on, such as natural and human resources and the richness of Africa’s culture, which has largely contributed to the diversity of the global cultures. In the section on the contents and objectives of the programme for a revitalization of Africa, the author points out several essential characteristics, underlining that the programme is a part of the African leaders themselves, that it is the authentic product of their awareness that without their own responsibility for the fate of Africa’s peoples the problems that those countries are faced with will not be overcome. Since the purpose of the programme for a revitalization is to include the continent in the globalisation processes its implementation depends directly on the support and assistance of the international community and the international agencies and organizations particularly of the African Development Bank, the World Bank and the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa. Namely, the global
La valutazione del danno ambientale: riflessioni in tono minore
M. Dini
Aestimum , 1989,
Abstract:
Atti della Tavola rotonda su Le conseguenze della pedonalizzazione nei centri urbani: aspetti economico-estimativi, tecnici, urbanistici e sociali : Problematiche emergenti dalle conseguenze dei provvedimenti amministrativi che vietano o limitano o modificano i flussi di traffico nei centri urbani
Mario Dini
Aestimum , 1990,
Abstract:
Un possibile approccio al problema dell'utilizzazione di acqua irrigua in condizioni di scarsità
M. Dini
Aestimum , 1990,
Abstract:
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