Abstract:
There is a one-to-one correspondence between natural numbers and rooted trees; the number is called the Matula number of the rooted tree. We show how a large number of properties of trees can be obtained directly from the corresponding Matula number.

Abstract:
A permutation is simsun if for all k, the subword of the one-line notation consisting of the k smallest entries does not have three consecutive decreasing elements. Simsun permutations were introduced by Simion and Sundaram, who showed that they are counted by the Euler numbers. In this paper we enumerate simsun permutations avoiding a pattern or a set of patterns of length 3. The results involve Motkzin, Fibonacci, and secondary structure numbers. The techniques in the proofs include generating functions, bijections into lattice paths and generating trees.

Abstract:
The Hosoya polynomial of a graph encompasses many of its metric properties, for instance the Wiener index (alias average distance) and the hyper-Wiener index. An expression is obtained that reduces the computation of the Hosoya polynomials of a graph with cut vertices to the Hosoya polynomial of the so-called primary subgraphs. The main theorem is applied to specific constructions including bouquets of graphs, circuits of graphs and link of graphs. This is in turn applied to obtain the Hosoya polynomial of several chemically relevant families of graphs. In this way numerous known results are generalized and an approach to obtain them is simplified. Along the way several misprints from the literature are corrected.

Abstract:
In this paper we introduce a new bijection from the set of Dyck paths to itself. This bijection has the property that it maps statistics that appeared recently in the study of pattern-avoiding permutations into classical statistics on Dyck paths, whose distribution is easy to obtain. We also present a generalization of the bijection, as well as several applications of it to enumeration problems of statistics in restricted permutations.

Abstract:
We give a new interpretation of the derangement numbers d_n as the sum of the values of the largest fixed points of all non-derangements of length n-1. We also show that the analogous sum for the smallest fixed points equals the number of permutations of length n with at least two fixed points. We provide analytic and bijective proofs of both results, as well as a new recurrence for the derangement numbers.

Abstract:
A permutation is defined to be cycle-up-down if it is a product of cycles that, when written starting with their smallest element, have an up-down pattern. We prove bijectively and analytically that these permutations are enumerated by the Euler numbers, and we study the distribution of some statistics on them, as well as on up-down permutations, on all permutations, and on a generalization of cycle-up-down permutations. The statistics include the number of cycles of even and odd length, the number of left-to-right minima, and the number of extreme elements.

Abstract:
Let $G$ be a simple graph of order n. The domination polynomial of G is the polynomial D(G,x) =\sum d(G, i)x^i, where d(G,i) is the number of dominating sets of G of size i. Every root of D(G,x) is called the domination root of G. It is clear that (0,\infty) is zero free interval for domination polynomial of a graph. It is interesting to investigate graphs which have complex domination roots with positive real parts. In this paper, we first investigate complexity of the domination polynomial at specific points. Then we present and investigate some families of graphs whose complex domination roots have positive real part.

Abstract:
We consider the transform from sequences to triangular arrays defined in terms of generating functions by f(x) -> (1-x)/(1-xy) f(x(1-x)/(1-xy)). We establish a criterion for the transform of a nonnegative sequence to be nonnegative, and we show that the transform counts certain classes of lattice paths by number of "pyramid ascents", as well as certain classes of ordered partitions by number of blocks that consist of increasing consecutive integers.

Abstract:
We prove various congruences for Catalan and Motzkin numbers as well as related sequences. The common thread is that all these sequences can be expressed in terms of binomial coefficients. Our techniques are combinatorial and algebraic: group actions, induction, and Lucas' congruence for binomial coefficients come into play. A number of our results settle conjectures of Benoit Cloitre and Reinhard Zumkeller. The Thue-Morse sequence appears in several contexts.

Abstract:
Let $G$ be a graph and let $m_{ij}(G)$, $i,j\ge 1$, be the number of edges $uv$ of $G$ such that $\{d_v(G), d_u(G)\} = \{i,j\}$. The {\em $M$-polynomial} of $G$ is introduced with $\displaystyle{M(G;x,y) = \sum_{i\le j} m_{ij}(G)x^iy^j}$. It is shown that degree-based topological indices can be routinely computed from the polynomial, thus reducing the problem of their determination in each particular case to the single problem of determining the $M$-polynomial. The new approach is also illustrated with examples.