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Most of water treatments require higher
expenditure. Chemical coagulant requires higher cost and has some drawback
after treatment such as pH changes. Moringa
oleifera cake residue (MOCR) is one of the alternatives to replace chemical
coagulant. A jar test apparatus was used to monitor water treatment. Water
quality of Gebeng River (GR) and waste water (WW) was examined before and after
treatment. Different parameters using (MOCR) was investigated. Preliminary
laboratory results showed the great potential of the (MOCR) to be used in water
treatment. MOCR shows an excellent reduction in turbidity (97 % was removed).
The bacteria were reduced from 1.7 × 105 to 8 × 103 CFU/ml. Dissolved oxygen (DO) was improved that elevated from 1.06 ± 0.04 to
5.09 ± 0.03 mg/L. However, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biological oxygen
demand (BOD) were increased from 520.5 ± 0.71 to 865.0 ± 2.12 mg/L and from
120.5 ± 2.12 to 270.5 ± 2.12 mg/L respectively. Nevertheless, there is no
significant alteration of pH, conductivity, salinity and total dissolved solid
(TDS) after treatment. The iron (Fe) was fully removed while copper (Cu) and
cadmium (Cd) were successfully removed up to 98%. The reduction of lead (Pb)
also achieved 82.17%. Also, (MOCR) can be stored for long time up to 6 months
without affecting the biological properties of MO.
Background and Objectives:
In clinical practice, spirometry plays a key role in the diagnosis of chronic
obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), however, it provides no information about
structural pulmonary abnormality. The aim of this study
was to evaluate whether there is a relation between the clinical criteria and chest
radiography or CT studies in differentiating chronic bronchitis from emphysema
in COPD. Patients and methods: In a prospective study, data analysis on 165 COPD
subjects who were enrolled between September, 2011 and December 2012 was completed.
Data were collected including clinical characteristics of stable COPD, pulmonary
function tests, chest X-ray and multidetector computerized tomography (MDCT) findings.
Results: Emphysema was diagnosed in 90 (55%)
of 165 CT scans. The median emphysema score was 58 (range 48 - 72) and significantly
correlated with lower FEV1 values (r = 0.542, p = 0.003). In chronic bronchitis, bronchial wall thickening
was diagnosed approximately as often in chest radiography (56%) as in CT (64%) as
a major finding. Body mass index (BMI), forced expiratory volume in the first second
(FEV1), and diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide
(DL,CO) were significantly
lower, whereas total lung capacity (TLC) was higher in patients with emphysema.
Cardiovascular diseases and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) were more
common in chronic bronchitis group. Conclusions: Chest radiography is a valuable,
inexpensive means of diagnosing emphysema or bronchial wall thickening in chronic
bronchitis. Emphysematous patients show a worse pulmonary function and a greater
dyspnea. Greater comorbidity in chronic bronchitis may require specific treatment
strategies in this subgroup.