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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 401394 matches for " Emam M. M. Esmayel "
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Mental Health Problems and Sociodemographic Correlates in Elderly Medical Inpatients in a University Hospital in Egypt
Emam M. Esmayel,Mohsen M. Eldarawy,Mohamed M. Hassan,Amira A. Mahmoud,Salem Y. Mohamed
Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/923710
Abstract: Background. Depression and cognitive impairment are two common mental and public health problems especially among elderly. In this study, we determined the prevalence of these problems and their associations with sociodemographic factors among hospitalized elderly in Egypt. To achieve this, 200 elderly medical inpatients were included in this cross-sectional study. Methods. Comprehensive geriatric assessment was done for every participant. Sociodemographic variables were assessed by interviews with patients and their family members. Depressive symptoms were screened for by the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), and the presence of depressive symptoms was defined as a GDS score of ≥6. Cognitive impairment was assessed by the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) Scale, and cognitive impairment was defined as a MMSE score of ≤23 out of a total score of 30. Results. The prevalence of both depressive symptoms and cognitive impairment was 72% and 30%, respectively. Significant associations were noticed between each of depressive symptoms and cognitive impairment, and low income and advancing age ( ), respectively. Other associations were insignificant. Conclusions. The findings of this study may be an alarm for health authorities and staffs involved in elderly care to increase their awareness of social and mental health problems among the elderly. 1. Introduction The aging of the world’s population is a global phenomenon with extensive economic and social consequences [1], and the poor understanding of elderly life under changing economic and social norms has led to a weak care and support of them [2]. The rapid increase in the elderly population has engendered public concern about issues associated, such as successful aging and social factors [3]. Factors that affect social engagement in the elderly are various, including physical function, mental function, and socioeconomic issues [4]. Despite growing concern with the elderly population, little attention has focused on their mental health [5]. Depression and cognitive impairment (CI) are two common mental health problems among elderly [6]. Detecting these two health problems in medical inpatients is important as they are associated with limitations in physical and social functioning [7–9]. Also, the recognition of depression and CI is of importance because they may respond to treatment, thereby reducing some of the clinical complications in management of elderly [10]. However, these two conditions are often underdiagnosed in medical settings or simply dismissed as inevitable consequences of aging
Nutritional and Functional Assessment of Hospitalized Elderly: Impact of Sociodemographic Variables
Emam M. M. Esmayel,Mohsen M. Eldarawy,Mohamed M. M. Hassan,Hassan Mahmoud Hassanin,Walid M. Reda Ashour,Wael Mahmoud
Journal of Aging Research , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/101725
Abstract: Background. This work was constructed in order to assess the nutritional and functional status in hospitalized elderly and to study the associations between them and sociodemographic variables. Methods. 200 elderly patients (>65 years old) admitted to Internal Medicine and Neurology Departments in nonemergency conditions were included. Comprehensive geriatric assessments, including nutritional and functional assessments, were done according to nutritional checklist and Barthel index, respectively. Information was gathered from the patients, from the ward nurse responsible for the patient, and from family members who were reviewed. Results. According to the nutritional checklist, 56% of participants were at high risk, 18% were at moderate risk of malnutrition, and 26% had good nutrition. There was a high nutritional risk in patients with low income and good nutrition in patients with moderate income. Also, there was a high nutritional risk in rural residents (61.9%) in comparison with urban residents (25%). Barthel index score was significantly lower in those at high risk of malnutrition compared to those at moderate risk and those with good nutrition. Conclusions. Hospitalized elderly are exposed to malnutrition, and malnourished hospitalized patients are candidates for functional impairment. Significant associations are noticed between both nutritional and functional status and specific sociodemographic variables. 1. Introduction In recent years, there has been a sharp increase in the number of older persons worldwide [1]. It is estimated that almost half of the adults who are hospitalized are 65 years of age or older, although those older than 65 years represent only 12.5 percent of the population [2]. Aging is associated with various physiological changes and needs, which make elderly people vulnerable to malnutrition [3]. Malnutrition is a major geriatric problem associated with poor health status and high mortality, and the impact of a patient’s nutritional condition on the clinical outcome has been widely recognized [4]. Application of nutritional support based on nutritional screening results significantly reduced the incidence of complications and the length of hospital stay [5]. The prevalence of malnutrition varies considerably depending on the population studied and the criteria used for the diagnosis [3]. The nutritional screening checklist (NCL) is the most frequently used nutritional screening tool for community-dwelling older adults. It is intended to prevent impairment by identifying and treating nutritional problems before they become a
Enhancement of Ride Quality of Quarter Vehicle Model by Using Mixed H2/H with Pole-Placement  [PDF]
A. S. Emam, A. M. Abdel Ghany
Engineering (ENG) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/eng.2012.42016
Abstract: The aim of the present work is to illustrate the application of mixed H2/H∞ control theory with Pole-Placement in de- signing controller for semi-active suspension system. It is well known that the ride comfort is improved by reducing vehicle body acceleration generated by road disturbance. In order to study this phenomenon, Two Degrees of Freedom (DOF) in state space vehicle model was built in. However, the role of H is to minimize the disturbance effect on the output while H2 is used to improve the input of controller. Linear Matrix Inequality (LMI) technique is used to calculate the dynamic controller parameters. The simulation results show that the H2 and H techniques can effectively control the vibration of vehicle system where the reduction of suspension working space, dynamic tire load and body acceleration. Moreover, the simulation results show that the (RMS) of suspension working space was reduced by 44.5%, body acceleration and dynamic tire load are reduced by 18.5% and 20% respectively.
Physiological and Morphological Responses of Two Barley Cultivars to Salinity Stress in Relation to Grain Yield
M. R. Tadayon,Y. Emam
Journal of Science and Technology of Agriculture and Natural Resources , 2007,
Abstract: In order to study the physiological responses of two barley cultivars to salinity stress, a 4-replicate CRD greenhouse experiment was conducted during at the College of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Iran2003-2004. The treatments consisted of two barley cultivars: Afzal and Reyhan and five salinity levels: 0, 4, 8, 12 and 14 dS/m. Seedling emergence, number of tillers and leaves per plant, leaf area and dry matter decreased with increasing salinity levels. The reductions were lower in Afzal (salt tolerant) than Reyhan (salt sensitive). A lower Na+ and higher K+Na+ in Afzal compared to Reyhan were observed under high level of salinity. The results of the present experiment also showed that the tolerance to salinity was associated with a greater stomatal conductivity, as well as transpiration and photosynthesis rate. Sub-stomatal CO2 concentration in both cultivars decreased with an increase in salinity, with the exception of 12dS/m, where it led to an increase in sub-stomatal CO2 concentration. Leaf temperature increased with an increase in salinity level in both cultivars, whereas a more pronounced decrease for number of fertile tillers, ears per plant, kernels per ear, thousand grain weight and harvest index was observed in Reyhan compared to Afzal .Since a higher tolerance to salinity in Afzal was apparently associated with a lower concentration of Na+ and a higher K+/Na+ ratio of the shoots, this trait could probably be used for yield improvement of barley cultivars under saline conditions.
Effects of thermal radiation and heat transfer over an unsteady stretching surface embedded in a porous medium in the presence of heat source or sink
Elsayed M. A Elbashbeshy,Tarek G Emam
Thermal Science , 2011, DOI: tsci1102477e
Abstract: The effects of thermal radiation and heat transfer over an unsteady stretching surface embedded in a porous medium in the presence of heat source or sink are studied. The governing time dependent boundary layer equations are transformed to ordinary differential equations containing radiation parameter, permeability parameter, heat source or sink parameter, Prandtl number, and unsteadiness parameter. These equations are solved numerically by applying Nachtsheim-Swinger shooting iteration technique together with Rung-Kutta fourth order integration scheme. The velocity profiles, temperature profiles, the skin friction coefficient, and the rate of heat transfer are computed and discussed in details for various values of the different parameters. Comparison of the obtained numerical results is made with previously published results.
Effect of Supplemental Irrigation and Amount of Available Water on Yield, Yield Components and Physiological Characteristics of Two Rainfed Wheat Cultivars
M.R. Tadayon,Y. Emam
Journal of Science and Technology of Agriculture and Natural Resources , 2008,
Abstract: Photosynthesis and wheat grain yield responses to supplemental irrigation with different amount of applied water under dryland conditions were investigated. Therefore, a two-year field experiment was conducted research farm of College of Agriculture, Shiraz University during 2004-2005. Five levels of irrigation including dryland conditions, irrigation at stem elongation, booting, flowering and grain filling were main plots and two wheat cultivars: Agosta and Fin-15 were subplots, and three rates of nitrogen including zero, 40 and 80 kgha-1 were sub sub-plots. The results showed that in both years, photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, substomatal CO2 concentration and transpiration rate, were significantly higher under irrigation at stem elongation stage compared to other supplemental irrigation treatments. In all of the four supplemental irrigation treatments, photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, substomatal CO2 concentration and transpiration rate decreased with decreasing the amount of applied water to each plot. In both years, the highest grain yield was obtained from supplemental irrigation at stem elongation stage, and the lowest yield was harvested at dryland conditions. The highest photosynthetic parameters, yield and yield components were obtained from interaction of supplemental irrigation at stem elongation stage × Fin-15 and 80 kg N ha-1 in both years. The supplemental irrigation in 2004 and 2005 increased the grain yield 200 and 221 percent, respectively, compared to dryland conditions. Thus, supplemental irrigation at sensitive stem elongation stage could affect significantly wheat grain yield of rainfed wheat cultivars and provision of adequate water for a supplemental irrigation at the appropriate growth stage could double the grain yield of rainfed wheat.
The Effect of Drought Stress and Cycocel on Barley Yield (Cv. Valfajr)
S. Sharif,M. Saffari,Y. Emam
Journal of Science and Technology of Agriculture and Natural Resources , 2007,
Abstract: Many experiments have been carried out to alleviate the negative effect of drought stress and to obtain suitable growth under water deficient condition. Application of plant growth regulators (especially growth retardants) is one of the proposed methods. In a greenhouse experiment using a completely randomized block design with 4 replications at Kerman University Agricultural Department, the effect of 4 drought levels 25, 45, 65, 85 percent of field capacity and 3 different concentrations of chlormequat chloride 0, 1500, and 3000 mg/liter on some factors of winter barley cultivar Valfajr was investigated. Results indicated that increasing the cycocel concentration from 0 to 3000 milligram per liter leads to significant decrease in plant height. Relative water content affected by growth retardants was increased. Numbers of tillers and root and shoot dry weight, were also decreased because of applying cycocel in dry condition. The result also indicated that the root/shoot dry weight ratio, grain number per ear and ear number in dry condition without stress would increase using cycocel treatment.
Nitrogen and Boron Interactional Effect on Growth and Shoot Nitrogen and Boron Content in Rice
H. Koohkan,M. Maftoun,Y. Emam
Journal of Science and Technology of Agriculture and Natural Resources , 2008,
Abstract: Nitrogen (N) is usually low in the majority of agricultural and non agricultural soils in Iran, mainly due to the lack of adequate soil organic matter (OM). On the other hand, boron (B) toxicity is becoming more widespread in arid and semi arid regions of this country, where soils or irrigation waters contain relatively high B content. Results of the research indicate that addition of certain plant nutrients such as N may reduce the harmful effect of high B levels. Therefore, the present experiment was undertaken to evaluate the interactive effect of N and B on the growth and chemical composition of rice in a calcareous soil. Treatments consisted of six B rates ( 0, 2.5, 5, 10, 20 and 40 mg kg-1 as boric acid) and four levels of N ( 0, 75, 150 and 300 mg kg-1 as urea) arranged in a factorial manner in a completely randomized design with three replicates. Application of B decreased shoot dry matter. At low B levels, N application alleviated the toxic effect of B. Moreover, the addition of B increased B and N concentrations in the rice shoot. The N concentration increased and B accumulation decreased with increasing N rates. There was a general trend of increase in shoot N and chlorophyll concentrations with increasing chlorophyll meter reading. Chlorophyll concentration decreased with increasing B levels. N fertilization increased chlorophyll content and somewhat reduced the adverse effects of high B rates on this plant parameter. The results reported herein show that in soils with high B levels, N application may alleviate the suppressing effects of B toxicity and increase rice growth possibly due to a decrease in B absorption by the plant
Intercropping Empower Reduces Insect Pests and Increases Biodiversity in Agro-Ecosystem  [PDF]
Sadia Afrin, A. Latif, N. M. A. Banu, M. M. M. Kabir, S. S. Haque, M. M. Emam Ahmed, N. N. Tonu, M. P. Ali
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/as.2017.810082
Abstract:
Currently insect pest management solely depends on chemical pesticide that continuously affects on environment, biodiversity, animal as well as human health. Outbreak of secondary insect pest is also the cost of pesticide use in field leading crop more vulnerable to more pests. These negative impacts of pesticides have provoked growing interest in the adoption of multi-function agricultural biodiversity that promote pest management, creating interesting challenge for traditional approaches to regulatory compliance. To address multi-function agricultural practice, we tested several intercropping systems with mustard and their effect on pest management. Our results revealed that intercropping systems mustard with onion, garlic, radhuni and coriander significantly reduced pest population over sole crop. However, intercropping mustard with wheat and gram increased pest population in mustard field. This result indicated that all crops are not suitable for intercropping system. Among the tested intercropping systems, mustard with onion and coriander significantly reduced branch and flower infestation and increased pod formation per plant. These four intercropping systems did not significantly affect on honeybee pollinator which are crucial for mustard crop yield. A significant linear relationship was also found between honeybee population and pod formation. Our results indicate that suitable intercropping system can be a potential multi-functional agricultural practice for pest management in mustard crop.
Response of lettuce to Cd-enriched water and irrigation frequencies
A Azizian, S Amin, M Maftoun, Y Emam, M Noshadi
African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology , 2011,
Abstract: This pot experiment was an attempt to investigate a broad response of lettuce to different cadmium (Cd) levels of irrigation water (0, 5, 10 and 20 mg l-1) under different irrigation intervals (1, 2 and 4 days). The results showed that increased level of soil Cd through irrigation eventually decreased the yield of lettuce in all cases; however, in some cases yield was increased with lower doses of Cd application. No injury symptoms were observed other than plant height and yield reduction. Shoot dry weight proved to be the most sensitive parameters to the cadmium, especially under water stress conditions. The results also showed that the concentrations of nutrient elements in lettuce shoot were suppressed by water stress. The presence of cadmium in irrigation water did not significantly affect the absorption of nutrient elements by plants except for Fe. Shoot Cd concentration and its uptake decreased with increasing irrigation frequencies and the reverse trend occurred with increasing Cd levels of irrigation water. However, the values were higher than recommended guideline in all conditions. Also, shoot Cd content showed a significant positive correlation with the final accumulated Cd concentration of soil and was expressed by a plateau model under the dry irrigation regime and linear models at other irrigation intervals. Overall, shoot Cd concentration was predicted by using a simple linear regression model regardless of evapotranspiration and transpiration rate of plant.
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