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OALib Journal期刊

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The Relativistic Giant Atom: Evidences and Recommendations  [PDF]
Emad Eldieb
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1103797
Abstract:
In 2017 we published a new theory under the title: physics of the relativistic giant atom [1], where we suggested an alternative solution for the theory of special relativity. Some points were ambigious. Here in this present article we rewrite the same paper with clarification of the ambigios points, and with adding new ideas. If the original relativity says: the relativistic mass m(v) of a particle increases and its relativistic length decreases with a defined γ factor hence, the hidden meaning of this original solution is appearance of the relativistic linear mass density in the form of: . This rearrangement may allow—under defined conditions—an alternative relativistic solution in the form of creation of new particles counting , each with the same original rest mass mo and the same original rest radius ro. This study searches in the conditions required for this alternative solution as follow: if we wrote the famous Einstein’s equation of the rest mass of a particle (let it, a proton) as: then this form describes the particle electromagnetic energy in a rest state, where the proton doesn’t feel—from interior— its charge and consequently this equation cannot describe repulsive electric energy. If we multiplied the left side of this equation by the number one then the result should be the same right side, and the equation still describes the proton in its rest state. Now if we defined a sphere s, with a quantity of protons p, distributed homogeneously among much more number of neutrons n, and if we have a quantity equal the number one as: (where; is the spacing between particles). (where rs is the radius of the sphere while c is the speed of the electromagnetic energy and not real particle speed). This nonrelativistic equation is still carrying the same meaning, and it is—still—describing the rest mass equivalent energy of the same particle with the same rest state defined by the new spacing rc (in addition to its inertial description defined by its rest radius ro). The hidden meaning here is condensation of the particles in this new rest state. This last equation realizes two results: first, it describes the particle in its rest state, so the sphere can absorb physically all the repulsive & exclusive energies, and second, it realizes the initial conditions:&(where the Coulomb’s equation form is now fixed on the Einstein’s form) hence, we may conclude an alternative relativistic solution in the form of: This idea led me to put a base for physics of self-replication as application of the relativistic giant charge which is ultra-cold fermions condensate. This state has the relativistic efficiency to make the particles replicate and withdraw all the kinetic energy. When we followed up physics of the giant atom we found complete coincidence between the estimated parameters of its orbit and the astronomic parameters of the solar system. This means that the solar system—in one of its primordial evolutionary stages—was a giant atom like system, and in the same time gives documents for the correctness of physics of the giant atom.
Advanced Border Intrusion Detection and Surveillance Using Wireless Sensor Network Technology  [PDF]
Emad Felemban
Int'l J. of Communications, Network and System Sciences (IJCNS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ijcns.2013.65028
Abstract:

Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) has been emerging in the last decade as a powerful tool for connecting physical and digital world. WSN has been used in many applications such habitat monitoring, building monitoring, smart grid and pipeline monitoring. In addition, few researchers have been experimenting with WSN in many mission-critical applications such as military applications. This paper surveys the literature for experimenting work done in border surveillance and intrusion detection using the technology of WSN. The potential benefits of using WSN in border surveillance are huge; however, up to our knowledge very few attempts of solving many critical issues about this application could be found in the literature.

Performance Analysis of RFID Framed Slotted Aloha Anti-Collision Protocol  [PDF]
Emad Felemban
Journal of Computer and Communications (JCC) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jcc.2014.21003
Abstract:

In this paper, we develop a novel mathematical model to estimate the probability distribution function of the number of tags discovered after a certain number of interrogation rounds. In addition, the pdfs of the number of rounds needed to discover all the tags are also calculated. The estimation of such pdfs will be helpful in estimating the number of interrogation rounds and the optimal parameter configuration of the RFID system which in turn will be helpful in estimating the time needed to discover all tags. Our results show that the proposed model accurately predicts the tags detection probability. We then use the proposed model to optimally configure the reader parameters (i.e. the frame size and the number of interrogation rounds).

Modelling and Artificial Intelligence-Based Control of Electrode System for an Electric Arc Furnace  [PDF]
Mahmood Moghadasian, Emad Alenasser
Journal of Electromagnetic Analysis and Applications (JEMAA) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jemaa.2011.32009
Abstract: This paper presents a new application of a genetic-fuzzy control system which controls the input energy to a three phase electric arc furnace. Graphite electrodes are used to convert electrical energy into heat via phase electric arcs. Con-stant arc length is desirable as it implies steady energy transfer from the graphite electrodes to the metallic charge in the furnace bath. With the charge level constantly changing, the electrodes must be able to adjust for the arc length to remain constant. A fuzzy PI controller tuned with genetic algorithms has been developed to be responsible for the ver-tical adjustment of the electrode tip displacement according to specified set-points to ensure that the arc lengths remain as constant as possible. The simulation results show that the system performances are satisfactory using the proposed method.
Microstructural Investigation of PM-355 Nuclear Track Detector Subjected to Low-Dose Gamma Irradiation: A Positron Annihilation Lifetime Study  [PDF]
Emad Hassan Aly
Materials Sciences and Applications (MSA) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/msa.2013.410076
Abstract:

Samples of the PM-355 polymeric solid state nuclear track detector were exposed to low gamma absorbed doses from 1 kGy (0.1 Mrad) up to 9 kGy (0.9 Mrad). Positron annihilation lifetime (PAL) in conjunction with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) were performed on irradiated and pristine samples at room temperature. The observed lifetime spectra were resolved into three components where the ortho-positronium (o-Ps) lifetime component was associated with the pick-off annihilation of positronium trapped by the free volume. PAL studies of irradiated PM-355 samples showed that ortho-positronium (o-Ps) lifetime increases with an increase in dose up to 4 kGy and decreases at higher doses. In contrast, the intensity of the o-Ps component, I3, decreases with the dose up to about 2 kGy, followed by a much smooth decrease up to 7 kGy, and then it levels off. TGA analysis indicated that the PM-355 detector decomposed in one main breakdown stage. These results are discussed on the basis of chemical and physical changes occurring at the microscopic level in the PM-355 due to irradiation. Crosslinking dominates for doses between 1 and 4 kGy, while the degradation mechanism (Chain scission) prevails for doses up to 9 kGy.

Antidermatophytic Activity of Essential Oils against Locally Isolated Microsporum canis—Gaza Strip  [PDF]
Emad Khalil Abou Elkhair
Natural Science (NS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2014.69067
Abstract:

There is a need for new antimicrobial drugs due to the continuous development of resistance. Natural antimicrobials are of utmost importance due to safety issue and availability. The antifungal activity of four essential oils (Mentha piperta, Thymus vulgaris, Cymbopogon citratus, and Oreganum majoranum oils) against locally isolated Microsporum canis was determined by disc diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration was determined using broth dilution method. Mentha piperta oil showed the highest antifungal activity among tested oils in this study. The total inhibition attached when 0.046% was used with M. piperta, the total inhibition obtained with the 0.133% of C. citratus oil, which is accounted as the second essential oils, also T. vulgaris and O. majoranum oils achieved reductions at 0.133%. The present work has revealed that all oils have been used in low concentrations and produced promising results in comparison to the positive control (Clotrimazole).

Dustfall Associated with Dust Storms in the Al-Ahsa Oasis of Saudi Arabia  [PDF]
Emad A. Almuhanna
Open Journal of Air Pollution (OJAP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojap.2015.42007
Abstract: Dustfall is a major threat to agricultural and industrial infrastructures, as well as to other aspects of livelihood. Dustfall associated to a severe dust storm that hit the Al-Ahsa Oasis of Saudi Arabia during 12-13 March 2014 is discussed in this paper. The storm caused widespread and heavy dust deposition. A dramatic decrease in the visibility coincided with the storm, and the average dust concentrations recorded during a peak 10-hour period were 6772, 5862.4 and 451.1 μg/m3 for total suspended particles (TSP), particulate matter smaller than or equal to 10 μm (PM10) and those smaller than or equal to 2.5 μm (PM2.5), respectively. The lowest visibility was 200 m, and the wind speed increased to 17.5 m/s from the north. The average daily dust deposited in the study area during the event was 12.84 (SD = 1.2) g/(m2?d). The dust samples comprised insoluble dust (48.5%) and soluble dust (51.5%). Based on the Munsell color system, the final color description of the falling dust was 10 YR/6/3. A microphotograph of the dustfall (settleable particulate matter) captured by a stereo dissection microscope shows that the dust particles had various colors and sizes, and they contained fibers and vegetative debris).
Exact Traveling Wave Solutions of Nano-Ionic Solitons and Nano-Ionic Current of MTs Using the exp(-φ (ξ ))-Expansion Method  [PDF]
Emad H. M. Zahran
Advances in Nanoparticles (ANP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/anp.2015.42004
Abstract: In this work, the exp(-φ (ξ )) -expansion method is used for the first time to investigate the exact traveling wave solutions involving parameters of nonlinear evolution equations. When these parameters are taken to be special values, the solitary wave solutions are derived from the exact traveling wave solutions. The validity and reliability of the method are tested by its applications to Nano-ionic solitons wave’s propagation along microtubules in living cells and Nano-ionic currents of MTs which play an important role in biology.
Exact Traveling Wave Solutions for Nano-Solitons of Ionic Waves Propagation along Microtubules in Living Cells and Nano-Ionic Currents of MTs  [PDF]
Emad H. M. Zahran
World Journal of Nano Science and Engineering (WJNSE) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/wjnse.2015.53010
Abstract: In this work, the extended Jacobian elliptic function expansion method is used as the first time to evaluate the exact traveling wave solutions of nonlinear evolution equations. The validity and reliability of the method are tested by its applications to nano-solitons of ionic waves propagation along microtubules in living cells and nano-ionic currents of MTs which play an important role in biology.
CD4/CD8 ratio and cytokine levels of the BAL fluid in patients with bronchiectasis caused by sulfur mustard gas inhalation
Ali Emad, Yasaman Emad
Journal of Inflammation , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1476-9255-4-2
Abstract: 29 victims with mustard gas-induced bronchiectasis and 25 normal veterans as control group.PFTs,, high-resolution CT scans of the chest, analyses of BAL fluids for five cytokines (IL-8, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, IL-12) and analyses of BAL fluids for cellular and flow-cytometric analysis of the phenotype of bronchoalveolar cells were performed in all cases.CD4 lymphocytes expressed as percentage or absolute number were significantly higher in patients with bronchiectasis than in controls (32.17 ± 16.00 vs 23.40 ± 6.97%, respectively; p = 0.01; and 3.31 ± 2.03 vs 1.88 ± 0.83 × 103 cells/ml, respectively; p = 0.001). The CD4/CD8 ratio was significantly higher in patients with bronchiectasis than in controls (3.08 ± 2.05 vs 1.68 ± 0.78; p = 0.002).There were significant differences in cytokine (IL-8, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, IL-12) levels of BAL fluid between patients with bronchiectasis and healthy controls.A significant correlation was observed between the HRCT scores and both the percentage and the absolute number of CD4 lymphocytes in BAL fluid in patients with bronchiectasis (r = -0.49, p = 0.009; r = -0.50, p = 0.008; respectively). HRCT scores showed a significant correlation with CD4/CD8 ratios (r = 0.54, p = 0.004) too.Of measured BAL cytokines, only IL-8 (r = -0.52, p = 0.005) and TNF-aα (r = 0.44, p = 0.01) showed significant correlations with the HRCT scores.The increased levels of cytokines CD4 lymphocytes in the BAL fluid suggest the possible causative mechanism in the lung in sulfur mustard gas-induced bronchiectasis by the recruitment of neutrophils into the lung.The toxicity of the chemical warfare blistering agent sulfur mustard (2,2'-dichlorodiethyl sulfide; SM) has been investigated for nearly a century [1,2]. This toxic gas can damage the eyes and respiratory tract when present in high doses [3].Bronchiectasis, a chronic supportive lung disease characterized by irreversible dilatation of the bronchi and persistent suppurative sputum production, is a well-known
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