Background: Severe acute uncomplicated
pyelonephritis is an infection of the kidneys that usually have an ascending
route and occur in presumably healthy urinary tract. The most common pathogen
involved is E. coli. The Infectious
Diseases Society of America (IDSA) has issued an updated guideline in 2010
suggesting IV quinolones to be considered in the initial empiric antimicrobial
therapy giving known resistance of less than 10%. However, E. coli resistance to quinolones has been increasing, the recent
data of E. coli, causing
pyelonephritis, resistance is not known in the Midwest. Local hospital
antibiogram for two years showed up to 22% resistance to ciprofloxacin among E. coli isolates. Methods: We conduct a
retrospective non-concurrent cohort study in one teaching hospital in the
Midwest, females who were admitted with severe acute uncomplicated
pyelonephritis in a three years period were included. Patients with urinary
tract obstruction, pregnancy, immuno-suppression, males, and indwelling Foley’s
catheters were excluded. Data collected include causative pathogens and resistance
to antibiotics were collected. Percentages, frequencies, and measures of
central tendency and dispersion were calculated to describe the study sample Results:
73 patients were included in the final analysis. E. coli was the most common isolated pathogen (81%), followed by
other enteric gram negative. E. coli resistance to ciprofloxacin was 13.5%, 37% to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole,
and 5% to ceftriaxone. Conclusion: Ciprofloxacin should be avoided initially in
treating severe acute uncomplicated pyelonephritis until culture results and
sensitivity is available.

Abstract:
Let CΨ(X) be the ideal of functions with pseudocompact support and let kX be the set of all points in υX having compact neighborhoods. We show that CΨ(X) is pure if and only if βX−kX is a round subset of βX, CΨ(X) is a projective C(X)-module if and only if CΨ(X) is pure and kX is paracompact. We also show that if CΨ(X) is pure, then for each f∈CΨ(X) the ideal (f) is a projective (flat) C(X)-module if and only if kX is basically disconnected (F′-space).

Abstract:
Introduction: Following orthognathic surgery, increased tooth mobility is observed clinically and is utilized for postsurgical orthodontic tooth movement. It was suggested that the increase may result from a surgery-associated alteration of parathyroid hormone (PTH) and calcium metabolism. Materials and Methods: 30 young adult patients were divided into a mandibular osteotomy group (Group A, n = 20) and an untreated control group (Group B, n = 10). Tooth mobility was evaluated using the Periotest device. Tooth mobility, serum PTH and calcium levels were determined repeatedly for both groups. Results: The tooth mobility was increased significantly in the Group A patients in the first 10 days post-surgery. All serum PTH and calcium mean levels were within normal ranges. No significant differences were found between the measurements of both groups. The serum calcium levels recorded at the 1st post-surgery day were slightly lower in the operated patients compared to the control group. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the increased facility of orthodontic tooth movement immediately post-surgery was confirmed by Periotest measurements, while no association was found with surgery-related altered levels of PTH and calcium. Since dietary effects can be ruled out, the increase of clinical tooth mobility may rather result from preoperative orthodontic forces and/or the post-surgical elimination of masticatory muscular influences.

Abstract:
Let be a completely regular Hausdorff space and let be the ring of all continuous real valued functions defined on . In this paper, the line graph for the zero-divisor graph of is studied. It is shown that this graph is connected with diameter less than or equal to 3 and girth 3. It is shown that this graph is always triangulated and hypertriangulated. It is characterized when the graph is complemented. It is proved that the radius of this graph is 2 if and only if has isolated points; otherwise, the radius is 3. Bounds for the dominating number and clique number are also found in terms of the density number of . 1. Introduction Let be a completely regular Hausdorff space and the ring of all continuous real valued functions defined on . For each , let , , , and . For all notations and undefined terms concerning the ring , the reader may consult [1]. If , then is a field isomorphic to . So we will assume that . Let be a commutative ring. is the set of zero-divisors of , and . The zero-divisor graph of , , usually written as , is the graph in which each element of is a vertex, and two distinct vertices and are adjacent if and only if . For further details about this graph, see [2] and the survey [3] for a list of references. The line graph of a graph , denoted by , is a graph whose vertices are the edges of and two vertices of are adjacent wherever the corresponding edges of are incident to a common vertex; see [4]. In this case, if are adjacent vertices in , then is a vertex in . For any undefined terms in graph theory, the reader may consult [5]. The zero-divisor graph for was introduced and studied in [6]. A more general study for reduced rings was done in [7]. In this paper we will study the line graph for the zero-divisor graph . An element if and only if . Let . Then is a vertex in if . Since is an undirected graph, then . We will study when is connected and calculate its diameter and girth. We will show that is always triangulated and hypertriangulated and characterize when is complemented. We will find the radius and give bounds for the dominating and clique numbers. 2. Connectedness Let be a graph and let and be two distinct vertices in . The distance？？ between and is the length of the shortest path joining them in ; if no such path exists, we set . The associate number？？ of a vertex of a graph is defined to be . A vertex is center in if for any vertex . The radius of is defined to be and the diameter of is . The graph is connected if any two of its vertices are linked by a path in ; otherwise is disconnected. In this section, we will show that

Abstract:
Let be the ring of Eisenstein integers modulo . In this paper we study the zero divisor graph . We find the diameters and girths for such zero divisor graphs and characterize for which the graph is complete, complete bipartite, bipartite, regular, Eulerian, Hamiltonian, or chordal. 1. Introduction Let be a primitive third root of unity. Then the set of complex numbers , where are integers, is called the set of Eisenstein integers and is denoted by . Since is a subring of the field of complex numbers, it is an integral domain. Moreover, the mapping is a Euclidean norm on . Thus is a principal ideal domain. The units of are , , and . The primes of (up to a unit multiple) are the usual prime integers that are congruent to modulo and Eisenstein integers whose norm is a usual prime integer. It is easily seen that, for any positive integer , the factor ring is isomorphic to the ring . Thus is a principal ideal ring. This ring is called the ring of Eisenstein integers modulo . In [1] this ring is studied and its properties are investigated; its units are characterized and counted. Thus, its zero divisors are completely characterized and counted. This characterization uses the fact that is a unit in if and only if is a unit in . Recall that a ring is local if it has a unique maximal ideal. The following are sample results of [1].(1)If is a prime integer, then the ring is local if and only if or .(2)Let denote the number of units in a ring ; then(i);(ii).We deduce the following. Proposition 1. Let , where , , , , and are primes such that , , for each . Then Proof. If , then . Thus, . Since is a finite commutative ring with identity, every element of is a unit or a zero divisor. Let denote the number of nonzero zero divisors of a ring . Then(1); (2) if ;(3) if ;(4)if , then The (undirected) zero divisor graph of a commutative ring with identity that has finitely many zero divisors is the graph in which the vertices are the nonzero zero divisors of . Two vertices are adjacent if they are distinct and their product is . The concept of a zero divisor graph was introduced by Beck in [2] and then studied by Anderson and Naseer in [3] in the context of coloring. The definition of zero divisor graphs in its present form was given by Anderson and Livingston in [4]. Numerous results about zero divisor graphs were obtained by Akbari et al. (see [5–7]). The zero divisor graph is studied to get a better understanding of the algebraic structure of the ring . The interplay of the algebraic properties of , graph theoretic properties of , and its relation with is studied. An

Abstract:
the theory of reasoned action originally introduced in the field of social psychology has been widely used to explain individuals' behaviour. the theory postulates that individuals' behaviour is influenced by their attitude and subjective norm. the purpose of this study was to determine factors that influence an individual's intention to use a technology based on the theory of reasoned action. we used internet banking as the target technology and malaysian subjects as the sampling frame. a principal component analysis was used to validate the constructs and multiple regressions were used to analyze the data. as expected, the results supported the theory's proposition as that an individuals' behavioural intention to use internet banking is influenced by their attitude and subjective norm. based on the findings, theoretical and practical implications were offered.

Abstract:
With the global emergence of e-government and its potential benefits to citizens in all its endeavors, there has been a growing need for research on drivers influencing the adoption of e-government services. This paper focuses on drivers influencing the adoption of e- government services among business organizations; hoping to have a better delivery of government services, the increased transparency and availability of information, and the improved interaction with businesses. Jordan is currently striving to move forward in egovernment. However, figures reported in the Economist Intelligence Unit's (EIU) E- Readiness Ranking Report for the year 2008, Jordan ranked 53 out of 70 among countries with respect to its business environment. Also, Jordan ranked 50 among 192 countries according to the UN Global survey of e- government readiness in 2008. This paper aims to review the relationship between e-business and egovernment in general, as well as e- government and ebusiness readiness indicators particularly in Jordan. In addition, it examines the motivators and barriers for adopting e- government among business organizations. Jordan needs to overcome barriers for adopting egovernment among businesses, and reduce the gap between e-government and e-business with a mutual effort from both parties.

Abstract:
There is an indicator that e-Government projects have gabs in dealing with gender digital divide especially in developing countries and rural areas in industrialized countries. This research aims to review experiences on integration of gender equality issues with e-Government projects all over the world, and introduce justifications for the need of poor women to access e-Government information and services. Jordan embarked on many initiatives that are related to women and rural areas development and support. This research explores all previously mentioned initiatives to suggest how e-Government project in Jordan can empower poor women in rural areas with minimal or no ICT skills, and with no computers or Internet at their homes. This study interviewed fifty women who utilized support from previously mentioned foundations and concluded that e-Government project in Jordan did not reach the required level of service towards helping in bridging the gender divide and help poor women improve their lives. Conclusions and future work are stated at the end.

Abstract:
The experiments were conducted on spinach plants, Spinacea oleracea L. var. balady, atMinistry of Agriculture, Beit-Lahya city, Gaza Strip, Palestine. The experiments aimed to study theeffect of soil lead pollution and iron foliar application on spinach plants. Measurements of the leadeffects on spinach plants revealed: (a) Growth characters such as root length, shoot height, totalleaves area, fresh and dry weights of root, shoot and whole plant were decreased with increasing Pbsoil addition. (b) Plant pigments such as chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and total carotenoids weredecreased with the increasing of Pb concentration in the soil. Iron foliar application on spinach plantsrevealed: (a) Growth characters and plant pigments of plant were increasing with increasedconcentration of alone iron. (b) Toxicity of Pb on growth characters and its effect on elementaltransport and accumulation were reduced when it combined with Fe foliar application.

Abstract:
The theory of reasoned action originally introduced in the field of Social Psychology has been widely used to explain individuals’ behaviour. The theory postulates that individuals’ behaviour is influenced by their attitude and subjective norm. The purpose of this study was to determine factors that influence an individual’s intention to use a technology based on the theory of reasoned action. We used Internet banking as the target technology and Malaysian subjects as the sampling frame. A principal component analysis was used to validate the constructs and multiple regressions were used to analyze the data. As expected, the results supported the theory’s proposition as that an individuals’ behavioural intention to use Internet banking is influenced by their attitude and subjective norm. Based on the findings, theoretical and practical implications were offered